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ff^s/r^s?.^ 




SacbarlT ^oUrse i,ibrars 

FROM TUB 

J. HUNTINGTON WOLCOTT FUND 



by RooiK WoLCOTT (H. U. iS}0j, ia ' 
of bis fithcr, for "the pnnAue of book* of 
E, the pnfeiCDcc to be girai id 
works dT HUtory, PoJlticaJ Econoaj, and 
SodolotY," ud ibcreAtod io i^dt bj 
■ beqost [n hit will. 



k. 



/ 



I 



SKETCHES 



OP 



TURKEY 



IN 1831 AND 1 832. 

•r 



BY AN AMERICAN. 



NEW-YORK : 

PRINTED AND PUBUSHED BY J. & J. HARPER, 

KO. 82 CLIFF-STREET, 

AND SOLD BT THE BOOKSELLERS GENEBALLT TBBOUGHO0T THE 

UNITED STATES. 

18 33. 



^^^j/s-rsj.-t 




IiNTRODUCTION. 



" As soon as ever you perceive in the streets of Constan- 
tinople any persons making towards you in a waistcoat and 
drawers, barelegged, with only pumps on and a poniard in 
their hands, you must unsheath your sword. Some indeed 
take the precaution to carry it naked under their coat" 
Thus writes one of the most intelligent travellers in the 
East, — and similar remarks have been so frequently re- 
peated as to produce the common impression that Turkey is 
far beyond the pale of civilization. Such in fact were my 
own views until a residence of nearly a year in that coun- 
try enabled me to estimate at their proper value the repre- 
sentations of ignorant or prejudiced travellers. 

In the following pages I have attempted to preserve a 
record of my own impressions, without reference to the 
descriptions of many preceding tourists, who seem to have 
taken a marvellous pleasure in exaggerating the vices and 
suppressing the good points of the Turkish character. It 
will be found that in my estimate of the Turks I coincide 
with a reverend traveller, who asserts that "There is no 
people without the pale of Christianity who are better dis- 
posed towards its most essential precepts." 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



Departure from New- York — Flores and Corvo — Tntenriew with an Engliih 
Officer — Straita of Qibraltar — Current — Dangers of the Straits — Tarifit 
—Gibraltar Page 1 

CHAPTER IL 

Head-winds — Character of our Crew — Eastern Sailors best — Port Mahon— 
Wiiiter-quarters — The Reputation of St. Luke as a Seaman vindicated — 
Sirocco — Sea-weed — M olluscous Animals — Grampus — Petrels — Volcanic 
Island ............ 

CHAPTER HI. 

Ionian Sea — Candia, or Crete — Mount Ida — Epiminedes — Rip Van Winkle 
— American Frigate — Contest of Speed — Milo — Cyclades — Pilot«— Their 
Accomplishments 28 

CHAPTER IV. 

Poros — Greek Frigate Hellas — E)j[ina — Cape Colonno — Zea — Winds — Port 
Raphti — Marathon — Andros — Roman and Greek Catholics — D*Oro Pas* 
aage—Negropont— Etymology— Imaginary Dangers— Scio— Massacre 33 

CHAPTER V. 

Mytilene — Aristotle — Ijcmnos — Byron — Tenedos, and Coast of Troj^ 
Visit to the Agha of Tenedos — English Consul • . . • 4S 

CHAPTER VL 

Troad — ^Poems attributed to Homer — Obscurity of the Subject— Visit on 
Shore — ^Disappointment^IiDwer Dardanelles .... 50 



CHAPTER VIL 

Vint fiom the PmIu— Hia >nned Atteiulmta — Anecdote — Danluiellei — 
Difliciiltiei of tbe PMuge— -Scenery — Seitos and Abjdo* — Lord Djim 
— An Americui Si*imnier — Foit* of the DBrdanellei — Fonging Vint to 
Miilo— Hade of uking Fiih in the Helteipont — Lampuki — Gillipoli — 
Sea of Mumon SS 



CHAPTER Vm. 

Tiew of Conitantinople— S«T«i Tuwna— Walli of the City— Seraglio 
Pwnt— Golden GUe— GaUta— Doge— Monk<— Locuida Triedina— 
Caiquee — Qoldni Horn — Baian — Turiuih Ektiog-houM — Kebobc 74 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Fire at Pera — Turkish Fire-engine — Firemen — Engtiah Palace — 
Tbe Miniitera' penonal Loaees — Anecdolei ofthe SufTeren — DeilmctiTS 
Hree not peculiar lo Turkey — Cbuks, wooden Buildings — CirelenoMa 
•boot Fire — Humanity of tbe Sultan — Aicend the Boephoru* — Il> Nam* 
— Birdi — Bnyukdery — A Palace — lie yahoue Occupanti — A Ciicanian 
I-dy 89 

CHAPTER X. 

FoondocAuw— A Ruaaan Attu:h<— A Turkish Concert— The ee)ebraled 
Flufr-trec — Crusader*— FJiibiiiK on the B«phoTua— Sword-fiib anl 
Tnnnj — Making KafS — Agiaama, or Holy Fountain — Turka adopt manj 
Greek SuperaUtioni — Thcrapeia — Vpsilanti — Sir Henry Willock . 9fi 

CHAPTER XL 

Belgrade — Tbncian Horae* — Aqueduct* of Batchibeni — Great Consump- 
tion of Water by the Turks — Threshing in the Ancient Hanner — Fonat 
of Belgrade— Cholera— Lady Montagu— Wolfes— Bulgarians- Their 
primitiTa Occopationi — Their Virtues 103 

CHAPTER XII. 

Supply of Water under Greek Emperon — Soo Naiiri, ot Chief of lbs 
Water Department — His Powera — Number of Fountains in Tuikajr — 
Bendts— Plan of one— Aqueducu of Mustapha, Conatanline, Ji 
Fnanmed Quantity of Water furnished Ip the C 

ty of Constantino^ over NMf-Torit . 



CONTENTS. VU 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Viiit towards an English Man-of-war — Hooncair Iscalasse — ^Imperial Tan 
nery — Valonia — Style of building— Foreigners in the Turkish service-^ 
Paper Manufactory — Woollen Cloth Manufactory — Valley— Turkish 
Women — ^Yaoort — Rabat Locoom .118 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Turkish Manner of House-cleaning — Greek Funeral — Turkish Interment! 
— Rumours of Plague — Fire at the Arsenal — ^Another at the Seven Towen 
— Executions — A Persian Traveller — Cholera — Patrols — Counterfeit 
Money 127 

CHAPTER XV. 

Turkish College — Origin — Ees Hawk Effcndi— Libraries — Discipline— 
Turkish Language and Literature — Grammars — ^Anecdote — Proposition 
to use Roman Letters — Armeno-Turkish ..... 138 



CHAPTER XVL 

Heights above Buyukdery — Chaoush Grapes — Geological Speculationi^- 
Tract on Cholera — ^Aquatic Excursions of the Sultan — ^His Habits 149 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Bolmabatchi — Probable Spot where Mohammed II. disembarked — ^Breed of i 

Mastiffs — Barracks — Reservoir — Turkish Cemetery— Turban — Armenian / 

Cemetery — Greek — Plagucjiospital — Construction of Houses — ^Mechanic - 
Arts — ^House-rent — Arsenal — Fanar 156 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Fanar — ^Population — Character of the Greeks— Language — Population of 
Constantinople — Walls of the City — Plague— Its horrid Character 166 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Excursion to the Giant*8 Grave — Dervises — Classical Superstition— Tek- 
kay, or Chapel — Geology — Genoese Castle — Guebres — Masonry — Km- 
▼awki—Raki—Aquariant— Boston Particular— ToAish Doctor . 176 



• •■ 



▼lU CORTEim. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Panic of Plagae — ^Domestic Quanmtmea — CoDtagion — ^American Cottona — 
Commerce 189 



CHAPTER XXL 

TaDo KiodE— Zerpanay — Coins — Debt — Crown ReTenue — Resoarcea— 
ReToIt of Satalia— Extortions of Pacha— Haratch, or Capitation-tax — 
Retrenchment 201 

CHAPTER XXn. 

Khans — Cashmere Shawls — Baysesteen — Burnt Column — Egyptian Obe- 
lisk — ^Brazen Tripod — Column of Porphyrogenitus — Mosque of Achmet 
^Toorbay of Abdulhamid — ^Anecdote — ^Humanity to the Brute Crea- 
tion 211 

CHAPTER XXni. 

Lea Eanx Donees — Engineer Barracks — Eyoub — ^Ancient Galleys — Bricks 
— Mounting Guard — Description of a Turkish Soldier — Power of the Sul- 
tan — Divan — The Officers composing it — Excursion to the Black Sea — 
Cyanea or Symplegades 822 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Sultan Mahmoud — ^Deposition of his Predecessor — ^Narrow Esci^ of Mah- 
moud — ^His Personal Appearance — Final extinction of the Janizaries — 
Waltzing Dervises — Bonneval — ^His eventful History . . . 232 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Koom Boomoo — Ancient Roads — Ak Baba Keui — ^Fountains — Persimmoo 
— Cavern — Former Level of the Euxine — ^Anadol-phaneraki — Soldieiy — 
Yankee Doodle — Forts on the Bosphorus — Anecdote of a Tuik — ^Italian 
Sermon •••••«••••• 244 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Caiks on the Bosphorus — State Barge — ^Festival at Ibrahim Aga*s— Schools 
of Constantinople — Seclusion of the Princes of the Blood Royal — Suc- 
cession to the Throne — Kitty Gerry — Education of the Prince Abdool — 

. Pavilion of the Sultan — Sultana — ^Amusements .... S56 



CONTENTS. IZ 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Considerations upon the Condition of Females in Turkey — Their Souls- 
Yashmaks — Harem and Salanilik— Causes of this separation — Amuse- 
ments of the Women — Personal Appearance — Particulars in which they 
differ from the Europeans 263 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Russian Corvette — Comparison between Russian and Greek Sailors — Man* 
agrment of Turkish Na^y — Yara Vatan Serai — Been Beer Direk — Foun- 
tains — Inscriptions on them — Slave-market — Romances on this Subject — 
Decree of Freedom — Condition of Slaves in Turkey . . . 272 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Drogoman of the Porte — Salaries of Officers — Drogomen of Foreign Powen 
— ^Bickerings between them and the Frank Residents — Greek School — 
Malta Press — Anecdote of the Seraiskicr — Hail-storm — Presents to the 
Turkish Government 281 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Ratification of the American Treaty — History of the various Attempts made i 
to obtain a Treaty — Circumstances attending the exchange of Ratifies- i 
tions — ^Intrigues — Final Success 291 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

Armenian Party — Their Dress — Character and History of the Armenians — 
Their Occupations — Religious Distinctions among them — Exile of the 
Catholic Armenians — Circumstance which led to their recall — Part taken 
by them during the Russian Campaign — Their literary turn . . 301 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Arsenal — Galley-slaves — Dry-docks — The largest Ship in the World — 
Condition of the Navy — Discipline — Rations — The Capudan Pacha — His 
Histoxy — Foreigners in their Scr\'ico 310 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Dinner with Turkitsh Grandees — Coffee— Nunilwr of Dishes — Toasts — Con- 
▼ersation — Proverbs — Children of our Host — Music — ^Dancing-boyi 823 



i 

( 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Cholen — lu Appeiirance st Conitaotinople — Symptom* and mode of Cars 
— It it a new DUeue ? — Not eonta^oiu- — Quaruitiiiei, uid ciamplci of 
llMil aluunlitT 331 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Ainunilkem — Oyaten — Opium Eaten— St. SopbU — Other Moaqaei and 
tbe TBrious Eitablishmenti connected with them — The Revenue* — 
Mohunmed — Hii Kiie and Suceeat — Konn — Not imphcitly received by 
•very Turk 343 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Emir*— Detcetidaiiti of (he Pinphel — Religious Belief of Ihe Mohammed- 
ant — Prayer — Aim* — I^grimage to Meccs — Ablution* — Abstinence from 
Wine — Kindness to AnImRls — GBming — Tolenlion — llnfaimet* eisi- 
daed lowuds ihs Tutka 369 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Hadhoow— Condilioi) of the Insane — Great Improvement — Hospital* — * 
Aqueduct of Vsleni — Still conducts Water, but in n diSerent minnsr— 
Separate trading Districts — Pipes — Bayseateent — Khcnnah — Soormay — 
ToAiah lodian Summer — Climate — HealthliilDeasof Conatantinople 3B5 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Proposition toeitabliah aTurkish Nenspaper— Speculations — Death of the 
Selictar Agha — Coronation of Sultaii — Decapitation of ■ Malefactor — 
nacan] declaring hi* Crime — Eipertness of Turkish Eiecutionen — 
Turkish Bulletin— Revolt and capture of Davoud Pacha— Hi* Pardon- 
Revolt in Albania — Affair of Van ST3 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Scutari superiorto Constantinople in ccveral reapects — Population — Moaqna 
of Selim III.— Silk-nearer*— Process of raiaing Silk— Prinlinf of coarse 
Cotton* — Printing-press — Caravans of Pilgrims — Cemeteiy — Turkish 
Horsemanship — Visit to a Greek Family — Greek Song — Supariocity over 
thsii Fellow-counltymen of the Klorea 380 

CHAPTER XL. 

Vint to the Seraiikier I 



CONTENTS. XI 

dote — Pilgrim Ship— Greek Churcb — Its Tenets — Anecdote — Patriarch 
of Jerusalem — His Appearance — Curiosity — Clerical Attendants — ^His 
Portrait, Autograph, and Oificial Seal 387 

CHAPTER XLI. 

Airind of a Russian Steamboat — Mismanagement — Therapeia — ^Ypsilanti 
— ^Ancient Altar — School at Therapeia — No attempts made among the 
Turks — Education of Turkish Women — Turkish Newspapers — Blasphe- 
mous Titles among the Greeks — M. Blacque the French Editor — Hii 
Sufferings in the cause of Truth — Reflections on the influence of News- 
papers — Extended circulation of the Turkish Newspapers . . 396 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Walls of Constantinople — Their utter Uselessness — Turkish Fleet outside 
— ^Dying and Printing Establishment — Greek Church of the Repose of 
the Virgin Mary — Separation of the Sexes — Anecdote — Palace of Jus- 
tinian — Ballata — Jews — Preference for their Turkish Masters — Hatred 
between them and the Greeks — Shisherhannay, or Glassworks — Greek 
School at the Fanar 407 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

Origin of Turks — ^Ulemah — Course of Studies — Ranks — Privileges — Priest- 
hood — Rank and Pay — Five Orders of Magistracy — Courts of Jostic^^ 
Tenure of Property — Vakoof 413 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

Ka/e — ^Arrabah — Forest of Belgrade — Turkish Soldier — Military Rank — 
Conjecture as to the Number of Turkish Troops — Turkish Marriage — 
Bridal Portion — ^Appearance of the Bride — Mchemet All of Egypt — 
Toikish Diplomacy 4S3 

4 
I 

CHAPTER XLV. ^ 

Leave Buyukdery — Reflections upon the Diplomatic Corps — Their sovereign 
Authority — Spies — Etiquette — Bells — Daring Innovation of the American 

Minister — Ride over the Thracian Hills — The Baroness of Ottenfels 

Tribute of Thanks — Gossip of an old Turk — Troops of Selim burnt 
alive — Ocmeidan, or Place of Arrows ...... 432 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

Turkish Bath— Its Antiquity— Turkish Naval Officei^Battle of Navarino— 
Turkish Caricature— Sketch of the Battle 438 






CHAPTER XLVIL 

Clialcedon or Kadikeoi—The Seat of the Fourlb General Council— SL 
Chiyfoitom — Si. Euphemi> anil in Curioiitiri — A coloured Virgin — 
FinBrBalchpc — Earthqaalw*— Ditiocationiif StnOa — G«viu,the Burial- 
place of Hannibal— Kevoll ot Vicerojr of Egypt — Murder oC Selim Pach* 
— Enkiram of <Jon«l«nlinople — Stale of Cultivation — Tatavols — Simple 
•tjig of Living of Turkuh DignilanM— Turkish Beggaia— Attention to 
their Wanli ISO 

CHAPTER XLVni. 

Leaie Canitanlinoplr—Pa*!<iH»ta—HFianiila— Parallel Road* — Engliah 
Schoonera — Danlanellet — Camel* of the Parha — Inlerioi of the Caatte — 
Large Gun* — Hoapital—IntrifductioD to the Pacha . 458 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Departure from the Dardanctlea— Tennloa— Cnpe Caba— Mjlilene — Turk- 
iih lete-a-t^le — Leibian Wine — Old Phocca — Etcape Shipwreck — Arrival 
mt Smyrna 467 

CHAPTER L. 

CaniiiBl — Concert — Modem Greek Language — Caiiino Balti — Walliing — 
Piiiale Theatrical*— Mr. Arundel's Callpclioii— Mr. Dorel ibe Aniiqua- 
lian— Counterfeit Cuina— Ride to the KbaRimans— Pubbc Slaughter- 
bonie— Hoi Spring*— Eiplanati on of certain Phenomena connecled with 
llieae Springs — Turkiah Politeneaa — Kegion about iha Springa . 477 

CHAPTER LI. 

Newa from Syria — Kevoll of Mehemet Ali — Hi* Hiilory — Civilization — 
Cauaea of his Revolt — Hi* Son*, Touesoum, lamael, and Ibrahim — Death 
of lamael — Notice of Mr. Engliah — Character of the principal Officer* of 
Ibrahim 485 

CHAPTER Ur. 

BauT — Fruit-market — Figa — Ancient Phrygian Tnpeati; — Wine — Madder 
— Pelwui Berrica 493 

CHAPTER LIII. 

School* — Armenian — Greek — English Schools — Tuikiah Schoolmaster — 
Missiunary eicrtions — Marco Boziaris — Greek Newspaper — Reading 
room — Casaino — Regulation* — Siilmagundi — Market . . 498 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY 



IM 1831 AHO '32. 



CHAPTER I. 

Departare from New-Tork — Flores and Conro — Interview with an English 
Officer — Straits of Gibraltar — Current — Dangers of the Straits— Tarifii 
—Gibraltar. 

Thk American traveller, who leaves his native shores and 
finds himself for the first time launched upon the oceao» 
very naturally deems it a matter of high interest to preserve 
a record of his marvellous nautical adventures, and of hii 
hair-breadth escapes from the perils of the sea. If he has 
predetermined to write a book, the ship's log is faithfully 
copied; and this, with a minute register of occurrences 
during his passage across the Atlantic, often forms no incon- 
siderable portion of a work which purports to contain a 
description of France, England, or Italy. 

Our first impressions of the ocean are doubtless very 
striking ; yet the novelty soon wears off, and ennui quickly 
takes Uie place of excitement and marvel. When we have 
witnessed the rising and setting sun, and experienced a gale 
and a calm« — ^when we have seen a whale and a water«spouC» 




B flyJDjf-fiah, a Portijgiicic noan-of^war, and a few oAer 

delicnt'; iftoniitoni of the ()<?cp,— our ignorant wonder is bood 
e:diaiut<id, and the raw laodnnan and veteran tar regard 
tbcm with ttie latnc indifibrenee. They both agree in pour- 
ing frfrtli nmledirtionR upon an adverse wind, — both " damn 
witli Tuint praise" a li^^ht breeze, evea if favourable ; and 
botli cordially unite in execrating a calm. In fact, notwith- 
■tandJiig ull that lias hct-.n said or sung in favour of the sea, 
tlio most jilcasiiralilo moment is when we discover land. 
Hut even this plousuru is not unalloyed. It is requisite that 
it ^lall be Tbe VL-ry land wo expect and wish to see ; that 
we sluill Ix! nblu to recognise it ; and that our approach to 
it ihiill not be accompanied by such a very favourable gale 
ai ti) hurry us precipitately on shore without the customary 
nautical formalities. 

Our readers will then doubtless be well pleased to skip 
with us across the Atlantic : indeed, the passage offered no- 
thing remarkable except that, on the tenth day after leaving 
New- York, the islands of Flores and Corvo were discovered 
directly uhcail. Notwithstanding the shortness of the pas- 
•ogv, tl)o wcntlier has been uniformly good ; and we have 
carried, during nearly the whole time, our loftiest sails. It 
is truu tliat wo met many vessels coming from an opposite 
direction, and of course witli a contrary wind, bending and 
■daggering under reefed topsails, and exhibiting every 
«|>|>cnmnco of suirt'ring under a violent gale. But driving 
morrilyi as wo were, before a favouring breeze, there was 
scarcely lime to cast an cyo of commiseration upon these 
luckkiss wights, when we were wafted smoothly many miles 
boyond them, and a brief hour sunk them in the western 
horizon. 

In Uto course of iwir Toyage, it was often afterward our 
hU to be routcnding against a head wind, while the veriest 
Dutch lloating tubs would pass us before the wind with the 
•iwed of a racc-borse. On such occasiooa we sufiered am- 
ply for those feelings of txultatioa and vain-glorious triumph 



ISKBTCHEf GW TURKBT. 8 

we had previously displayed towards less favoured 
Tesseb. 

Corvo and Flores are the most northern of that extraor- 
dinary group which springs i^) in the midst of the Atlantic 
ocean, and known as the Azores, or Hawk Islands. They 
are of volcanic origin, and their appearance fully confirms 
this idea ; for the crater of a large extinct volcano could be 
plainly distinguished on the north end of Flores. This 
island is about thirty miles in length, and its greatest eleva- 
tion is 2000 feet It contains 1500 Portuguese and negro 
inhabitants, who are represented as being nearly on a par 
in their intellectual capacities and acquirements. 

Corvo, which is separated from Flores by a channel eight 
miles wide, is about five miles in extent and 1500 feet high. 
As we rounded its northern extremity at the distance of six 
milesy two craters were distinctly visible. The edge of 
one had been broken down over the side near the sea, 
while the other had preserved its form entire. Corvo ap- 
pears to be a sterile rock, full of crags and rocky pinnacles^ 
with sea-birds for its only inhabitants ; but it contains many 
fertile valleys, and its population of 700 not only subsist 
comfortably, but are able to export grain and other com* 
modities to the adjacent islands.* 

The sight of these islands, connected as they are geograph- 
ically with the old world, gave us the first realizing impres- 
sion that we were actually severed from America ; and 
when they sunk far behind us in the west, as evening drew 
on, wc for the first time felt that for months to come our 
thoughts and feelings must be connected with the eastern 
hemisphere. 

Our progress for several days succeeding was much im- 
peded by annoying calms ; but a slight succession of those 
faint breathings of the wind technically termed cats-paws, 
consoled us with the idea that we were advancing on our 

• Webtt«r. 



4 SKBTCHSS 09 TUBKBT* 

▼oyage. During one of these calms we fell in with 
English brig, apparently from the Mediterranean, and as 
die aspect of European affairs, when we left New- York, 
was rather cloudy, we were desirous of procuring further 
intelligence. She proved ta^ be the Phebe, Captain Hill, 
from Corfu, bound to England. As I approached the brig, 
an unusual bustle was observed on board ; and, as I stepped 
over her side, I was accosted by the captain, in a hurried 
manner, with ** Is it peace or war, sir 7" As the purport of 
my visit was to obtain the same information, I replied by 
repeating his own question ; and it was not until I had ex- 
plained who we were, and the pacific character of our 
vessel, that he appeared relieved from his anxiety. 

From some of our men it was afterward ascertained, that 
as we pulled towards the brig, her crew was much alarmed 
from an idea that war had been declared, and that to im- 
press some of them was the object of our visit. 

From an English army officer, a passenger with his 
fiunily on board this vessel, we learned that two regiments 
of soldiers are always stationed among the Ionian Islands, 
and are annually changed from one island to another. He 
represented all the islands as very unhealthy ; and he had 
been invalided home in consequence of a severe intermittent, 
which had entirely shattered his constitution. In the course 
of conversation, I happened incidentally to mention that I 
had been in England. ** Oh I I understand now,** exclaimed 
my military acquaintance, with the air of a man who fan- 
cies he has made a brilliant discovery, ^ why you speak 
English so well.** I humoured his national vanity by 
gravely intimating that I had been specially selected by the 
captain, on account of my great proficiency in the noblest 
of all languages. 

The nineteenth day after leaving New- York found us 
near the Straits of Gibraltar. The weather was so hazy 
that it was judged prudent to stand off until the next morn- 
ing, but we were already within the influence of the current 



SKETCHES or TURKMT« ft 

or indraught which sets continually from the Atlantic into 
the Mediterranean.* From the lightness of the wind we 
were compelled, although the night was setting in with 
many ill-omened appearances, to push boldly on through 
the straits. The wind blew irregularly from every point 
of the compass, with frequent intervals of stark calm. At 
one in the morning we found ourselves close in with a high 
rugged coast, and so near that every roll of the breakers 
grated harshly distinct upon the ear. The darkness was so 
great that we could not see from one end of the ship to the 
other ; and as she drifted about entirely beyond the control 
of the hehn, we expected every moment to find ourselves 
wrecked upon a barbarian shore. The only visible object 
was the huge and dusky outline of Cape Spartel, looming 
high in the air ; so indistinct, however, as to prevent us firom 
forming any opinion as to its distance. In this torturing 
state of breathless anxiety between shipwreck and slavery^ 
we waited impatiently for the first gleam of day .f As day 
broke we found ourselves dangerously near a wild and 
savage shore ; but a light and favourable breeze soon 
springing up, we were shortly afterward running rapidly 
through the straits. 

The current sets with such rapidity as to form numerous 
tide-rips, eddies, and boiling whirlpools, which recalled our 
own Hellgate forcibly to mind. On our right was the 
rugged broken coast of Africa, along which not a vestige 
of human habitation, nor even a single tree, was visible. 
The Spanish coast resembled the African in its bold and 
picturesque outline ; but numerous martello towers, dis* 

* S«e Appendix A. 

t That we may not be suspected of exaggerating the dangers •^^^ndtnt 
opon shipwreck on this coast, we would state a fact which occurred not more 
than a year since, and is related in the United Serrice Journal. A partj 
of English officers, from the garrison at Gibraltar, who were hunting in thb 
neighbourhood, were attacked by the natives, and compelled to makis a pn^ 
dpitate letrcat, leaving one of their companions dead on the spot. 



9 iKBTGHXfl 09 TITSnT. 

tributed at regular intervals along the shore, affi>rded 
evidence of civilization. At eight in the morning we were 
abreast of Tarift, an old Moorish town, lying near the 
shore. It is at present only remarkable for having originated 
that unhappy word Tarifi^ which occasions so much angry 
and fierce contention among our countrjrmen. It was at 
Tarifii that the first list of articles subject to duty wais drawn 
up, and hence the word Tariff became applied to all sub- 
sequent lists of a similar nature. 

The straits vary firom nine to sixteen miles in breadth, 
and are usually estimated to be thirty miles in length, ter- 
minating in the Mediterranean at Gibraltar on the European, 
and at Ceuta on the Afirican shore. At Gibraltar, the dis- 
tance across appears to be about as far as firom the Battery 
at New- York to Staten Island. The exact distance firom 
Gibraltar to Cape Leona, the nearest point on the Afiican 
shore, is eleven and a half miles, but the height of Gibraltar 
(1439 ft), and of Ape's Hill, which is still higher, causes 
the passage between ttem to appear much narrower than 
it actually is. These two remarkable eminences were the 
Mons Calpe and Mons Abila of the ancients, and were for- 
merly designated as the Pillars of Hercules. They were 
said to have been once united, until Hercules undertook to 
separate them, and thus made a communication between 
the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. This, like all the other 
improbable fictions invented by the most lettered nation of 
antiquity, to torture and disguise historical fects, was most 
probably founded on some tradition of a sudden disruption 
of the straits. It is moreover in accordance with the specu- 
lations of many geologists, who suppose the Mediterra- 
nean to have been at some former period an inland sea. 
These pillars of Hercules are attempted to be portrayed 
on that interesting specimen of silver coin, so universally 
known and respected, the Spanish dollar. Poor Spain is, 
however, deprived ot one of these pillars, but still parades 
them ostentatiously on her arms, and keeps possession of 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 7 

Ceuta with a tenacity which is truly absurd, when we take 
into view her limited resources and the utter worthlessness 
of the property. 

The breeze increased as we advanced up the strait, and 
by 12 o'clock we stood far into the Bay of Gibraltar. This 
was done in order to furnish us with a leisurely view of the 
bay, the shipping, the town, the water-batteries, and the 
numerous tiers of guns which rise above each other to the 
summit of the steril rock. Having gratified our curiosity^ 
we altered our course and stood out of the bay under a 
cloud of canvass. An American frigate was noticed at 
anchor near Algesiras, on the opposite side of the bay. Our 
vessels of war usually lie at this place, in preference to 
being close in with Gibraltar, and of course under English 
jurisdiction. Every one recollects the general challenge 
which passed a few years ago between the officers of the 
garrison and those of our squadron, and hence the pro- 
priety of their coming in conract as seldom as possible. 
The old grudge is yet scarcely obliterated, although we have 
reason to believe that no hostile feelings exist at present 
between the naval officers of the respective nations. 

Gibraltar has been so frequently described by various 
tourists, that what I could say would be a mere transcript 
from the writings of others. It is sufficient to observe that 
it is a huge prison, dignified by the name of a military post* 
It contains about 15,000 prisoners, of which 5000 wear a 
particular scarlet uniform, and the remainder are made up 
of traders and speculators, who are attracted hither by the 
prospect of earning a Uvelihood. It is held bv the English 
for the avowed purpose of preventing it from being occu- 
pied by the French, and also to command the commerce of 
the Mediterranean. It is not without its value as a naval 
station, but the idea of its being the key of the Mediter- 
ranean is highly absurd. During the continental war, armed 
vessels passed freely up the straits, out of the reach of gun- 
shot from Gibraltar ; and gunboats would sally forth from 



Algesiras, attack English vessels, and bring them into port 
in BBfety, unharmed by the guns of the garrison. How far 
Gibraltar may serve as a convenient depot for Bmu^ling 
into Spain the manufactures of England, is a question I 
leave for others to determine ; but some more powerful 
reason than that openly assigned must operate to induce the 
English govemirient to retain, at an enoimous expens^ a 
military fortress in the bosom of a friendly power. The 
garrison usually consists erf' about 5000 men, and the ex- 
penses annually incurred for this post are nid to exceed 
rix millions of dollars. 

An English traveller* declares, that " the incalculable 
advantages which the possession of it (Ceuta) would confer 
Dpon us are so evident, that Ceuta, while held by the Span- 
iards, must ever be an eyesore to an Englishman." 

Another English traveller, of some literary note,'!' who 
8e«ns to entertain the rational idea that all peninsulas, 
islands, and the high sens, are, or should be, the property 
of England, not content with the display at Gibraltar of 
" the Herculean energies of the British nation," gravely 
proposes to take possession of Ceuta, and lay a tax upon all 
vessels entering or leaving the Mediterranean. The idea 
of a tax seems to form part of the very existence of an 
Englishman, and this proposition is highly eharacteristic 
Not contented with taxing themselves, they wish to extend 
it over other nations. Travelling some years ago in Ger- 
many, with an American friend, the postillion was directed 
to notify us when we were about to approach the boundary- 
line of Han(\ver. After travelling a few miles, my friend 
exclaimed, " we are near the frontier -," and in fact, a large 
board over a house by the way-side, with the inscription, 
" Hier man muss Zoll be^ahlen," or " Here toll must be 
paid," was the warning notice that we were about to enter 
the dnninions of his Britannic majesty. 



■KBTCHSS OF TURKBT. 9 



CHAPTER IL 

Bead-Winds — Character of our Crew — Eastern Sailors best — Port Mahon— 
''Winter-quarters — The Reputation of St. Luke as tf Seaman vindicated— 
Sirocco — Sea^weed — Moliuscous Animals — Grampus — Petrels — ^Volemnie 
Island. 

After leaving the stndts, our course was along the tih 
mantic coast of Spain, in full view of the mountains of 
Malaga, with the cold, gray rock of Gibraltar in the west 
The one reminded us of the valiant Spaniards who ex- 
pelled, after many a bloody conflict, the chivalrous and 
lettered Moor, while the other, witli the English flag floating 
over it, spoke volumes of the degenerate sons of the ancient 
Castilian. A believer in the mythology of the ancient! 
would, in our situation, be tempted to imagine that the whole 
wrath of the king of the winds was directed upon our de- 
voted heads. It is now about a week since we spoke aa 
English ship off Cape de Gatt, twenty days from London. 
We were the same number of days from New- York, and 
every thing seemed to promise us the shortest passage ever 
made, when suddenly the wind changed to the east, and 
we have been ever since struggling against a strong gale. 
The Mediterranean in this place is not more than seventy 
miles wide, and although it is rather annoying to find, after 
a hard day's struggle through the waves, that we have 
made little or no progress, yet even this is preferable to the 
horrors of a dead calm. We derive, in fact, a rueful sort 
of satisfaction, as either coast appears in view, from the 
idea that we are alternately visiting the continents of Eu« 
rope and Africa. Thus we are breakfasting in Spain, will 
dine in Africa, and shall return again to Spain to take cur 

supper. With all the various headlands between Cape de 

c 



10 8KBTCHB8 OV TirSKBT. 

Gtttt and Palos, and on the opposite coast, we are as &- 
miliar as with the banks of the Hudson, and have toiled back- 
wards and forwards sufficiently often for all the purposes 
of a hydrographical survey. We have in fact already 
crossed and recrossed the Mediterranean more than twenty 
times. Our greatest amusement is in sailing faster than 
any thing we fall in with, and on the ocean, where a few 
ideas are sufficient to excite us, the pleasure we derive 
firom this source is probably as great as that of the Ameri- 
can lad whose horse passes every thing on the road. 

. F^eqoent opportunities have been afforded on this voyage 
to Teriiy the cosmopolite character of an American crew. 
High wages and substantial fare naturally attract foreigners 
firom every service, and the demand for sailors in our 
country induces commanders of vessels to take any thing 
in the shape of a man, without inquiring very minutely 
into their capabilities as seamen. Thus, in our own ship, 
we have not more than a dozen good sailors, while the 
^ remainder biscuit^ are arrant vagabonds, who have either 
never been to sea before, or else, firom innate stupidity, can 
never learn to distinguish one rope firom another. Our 
Babel-like crew can furnish representatives firom almost 
every quarter of the globe. Thus we have Scotch colliers, 
Dutch fishermen, Spanish wreckers from the Florida shore, 
and English labourers, who have been kindly landed among 
us at the expense of their parish, and will in all probability 
be restored to their native land, via Constantinople. We 
can also muster Irishmen, Africans, Italians, Swedes, and 
Frenchmen, but among them all I am pleased to state that 
the Yankee interest prevails by an overwhelming majority.* 

* On my return home I took passage in an Au^erican vessel, which formed 
a strong contrast with the above. The entire crew were Americans, and I 
nerer saw more thorough sailors nor better behaved men. Not an angrj 
wofd, nor an unnecessary oath, was heard during the whole passage. It is 
bal jiMtioe to state, that the crew IumI been shipped in Boston, and the men 
were all from New-England. Four of them were from the same place, 
Bristol, in Rhode Island. 



SKETCHES OF TURKST. 11 

The previous occupations of the lubberly part of the crew 
are quite as agreeably diversiiSed as the nations they repre* 
sent, and we accordingly have hodmen, tavem-keeperSy 
doctors, schoolmasters, opera-singers, tailors, law-students, 
stocking-weavers, painters, pedlars, and even a scene-shifter 
from the Bowery Theatre. The histories of these poor 
wretches, however varied in their course, invariably ter- 
minate in the same way. According to their own declar 
rations, none of them had ever ^ been the worse for liquor," 
yet nearly all of them had been brought on board in a 
beastly state of intoxication. 

To while away the tedious hours, I have frequently 
amused myself with drawing from the old seamen the his- 
tory of their checkered Uves. I happened to ask one of 
these regular tars (a New-Yorker by-the-way), to what 
fortunate cause he was indebted for an enormous scar whioh 
disfigured his face and head. *^ I got it in the Burmese ex* 
pedition against Rangoon, sir," was the prompt reply. It 
appeared that the poor fellow, happening to be adrift in 
India, became a sort of Spanish volunteer in the English 
service, and received a broken head for his share in that 
iniquitous expedition. If these poor wretches were capa- 
ble of improving the many opportunities which are thrown 
in their way, they would be abundantly entertaining and 
even instructive ; but in general they are as ignorapt as 
asses upon every subject not immediately connected with 
their ship. I recollect asking an old seaman, who had 
made several voyages to Rio de Janeiro, to describe the 
place. '^ It is an elegant port, sir, to enter with any wind,** 
replied the tar, ^ and has the best holding-ground in the 
world." — ** But the city," I inquired, " how is it built, what 
is its appearance, and what the character and manners of 
the inhabitants ?" — ^ O, sir, it lies in the bight of a bay ; we 
get our water from a capital tank close to the quay, and 
the people are all the same as the bloody Portuguese." 
This was the whole amount of the information I could ex- 



tnct from him, and indeed comprised all his knowledge 
mpecting one of the loveliest spots dd the face of the 
giobe. 

The character, and I may add, the condition of the regular 
aeamen has, however, much improved of late yean. This 
happy change is owing to the fact, that capbint and mates 
are becoming a better edticatcd and more enlightened class. 
It is not more tbao fifty yean since the commander of a 
merchantman was but too ofleo an illiterate brute, who 
exercised his brief authority with savage barbarity, and 
even gloried in his ignorance. K avigation was then a great 
mystery, confined to but few, and the fortunate possessor 
iroagioed that an acquaintance with navigation was enough 
to enable him to under\'alue and despise evcr>' other ac- 
quirement Luckily, however, the race of " blow-hard^* 
is now nearly extinct, and a superior class of well-educated 
sod gentlemanly officers have taken their place. It is no 
longer considered a mark of seamanship to fiog the men 
without cause, or to utter blasphemies upon every trivial 
occasion ; and it is now understood, that a man may be a 
thorough seaman without being necessarily a blackguard. 
Such a revolution in the character of the officers has, of 
course, had a favourable iaflueace upon that of the common 
tailor ; and, although it would be absurd to expect that 
happy millennium, when the captain will issue his orders 
through the medium of a rose-scented billet, and the sailors 
perform tbeir duties in white kid gloves, yet, in every thing 
that will add to their ctMnfort, their happiness, and their 
moral worth, their condition will be much ameliorated. 

Our perseverance against a head wind has at length 
brought us in sight of Cabrera, a most dreary and desolate- 
looking island. Our course during this day carried us 
within the vicinity of Majorca and Minorca, which latter 
place haa become hmiliar to us in America as winter- 
quarters for the Mediterranean squadron. Fort Mahon is 
vdl fluted for this purpose, being ea^ of access, possessing 



8KSTCHB8 OF TURKEY* 13 

a healthy climate, aboundmg in good and cheap provisionf^ 
and having excellent water ; but why our vessels should 
look for winter-quarters at all is a subject which puzzles our 
merchant-sailors. The cost of our squadron in this sea 
amounts to nearly one-half of the whole expense of the 
navy ; and it scarcely admits of a doubt, that the same 
money might be much more profitably expended. Two 
or three sloops of war, or, what would be far more efficienty 
half a dozen schooners, would afford more protection to 
our commerce here than the whole of our navy. A line of 
battle-ship, and even frigates, have been known to remain 
at anchor six months at Port Mahon ; and this is called 
winter-quarters in a sea which is navigated at all seasons 
in miserably constructed boats with the greatest security. 
Squalls, it is true, occasionally arise, and are sometimes 
very severe, although of short duration ; but I should regret 
to beUeve that our seamen were so far upon a level with 
Spanish and Portuguese sailors as to require shelter from 
every extra puff of wind. I have navigated the Mediter- 
ranean at all seasons, and have made voyages of two and 
three hundred miles, in an open boat, in the heart of winter, 
without experiencing rougher weather than what would be 
laughed at by the crew of a Stonington smack or a Salem 
chebacco-boat on the coast of America. It is not known 
to which of our naval commanders we are indebted for the 
brilliant idea of winter-quarters ; but most probably to one 
who considered St. Luke* not only as apostolical, but also as 
nautical authority. But whatever may have been the state 
of navigation 1800 years ago, the concurrent testimony of 
every American voyager in these seasf goes to prove, that 
these winter stations are subversive of discipline, and often 
ruinous to the younger officers. 

Representations have been made frequently, but hitherto 
without effect, to the proper department, by our public 

* AcU zxrii. 12. f Nayal Sketches. 



I 



I 



14 BxarcHBs of tebzet. 

fiinctionaries in these seas, of the injurious effects, not only 
of these winter stations, but likewise of the whole system 
by which & vessel is kept three mortal years in one place. 

A plan has been suggested by our able and intelligent coa- 
■nl at Smyrna, which, if carried into effect, would, no doubt, 
much increase the efficiency of our navy. His proposition 
is in substance, that when a vessel is put in commission, she 
flbould spend but a single year at one station, and proceed 
immediately to the second ; after being on this station a 
year, she should proceed to a third, where she would remain 
until relieved. It will readily be imagined, that, by this 
arrangement, the officers would be made more thoroughly 
acquainted with their various duties, and our vessels would 
be constantly in active service. 

Shortly afler divine service, the highlands of Sardinia 
appeared in the distant horizon, and, although we have had 
to contend against an obstinate east wind, it is consolatory 
to feel that we are making some little progress. The men- 
tion of divine service leads me to notice that it has been 
regularly performed everySunday since we left New- York ; 
the episcopal form was that usually employed, and some 
one of the passengers read a sermon from Blair. 

Few situations can be imagined more impressive than 
the performance of religious worship at sea; the busy 
hum and stir of the deck ceases, the men in their cleanest 
apparel are arranged in silence round the quarter-deck, and 
even the commands of the officers are delivered in a subdued 
tone. The total absence of all external objects to divert 
or distract the mind Irom the religious duties in which we 
are engaged, and the solitary voice of the speaker, rather 
accompanied than disturbed by the gurgling of the water 
against the ship, unite to give an air of deep solemnity to 
the scene. It is to be regretted, that no one sufficiently 
ft miliar with the habits and peculiar tastes of seamen 
bas been. induced to write a volume of sermons for their 
apedal benefit; the very few wbich I have had u oppcff- 



/ 



8KBTGRS8 OF TURKEY. 15^ 

tunity of examining are either (sit venia verbo) trite com- 
monplaces about the uncertainty of life, or totally above 
the comprehension of the simple-minded seamen. 

At eleven last evening I received a message from the 
officer of the deck, requesting me to come up immediately. 
I sprang from my cot, and made my way to the deck with- 
out perceiving that I had totally forgotten the necessary 
teguments of the outward man. I had scarcely put my 
head above the hatches, when I was saluted with such 
a blast of hot vapour, that I involuntarily started back, 
with feelings in which it would be difficult to say whether 
fright or surprise most predominated ; it nearly deprived 
me of breath, and the sensation was as if one stood before 
the mouth of a glowing oven. I looked at the thermometer, 
which had stood all day at 76°, and found that it had risen 
15°. This was the famous sirocco, which, passing over 
the blasted deserts of Africa, is charged with intense heat, 
producing distressing, and even fatal effects upon the human 
frame. The pulse was considerably accelerated, and many 
of the crew complained of an oppressive stricture about 
the head, accompanied with acute pain in the eyes. The 
first is, no doubt, owing to the great and sudden rise of 
temperature, while the pain in the eyes may be imputed to 
the minute portions of sand, which are carried hundreds of 
miles by the wind.* The direction of this wind was from 
the south-east, and it lasted until two o'clock in the morn- 
ing, when it gradually changed to the westward, accom* 
panied by a corresponding fall in the thermometer until four 
o'clock, when the mercury stood at its original situation. 

For some days pieces of sea-weed {Sargassum vulgare^) 
loaded with their various tiny inhabitants have floated past 

* I nw afterwanl, at Coiutantinople, a vessel whose docks kad been 
eovwed with a fine red sand during a sirocco which she had experienced 
in this latitude. So penetrating was this sand, that a large ball of spun 
jam, opened loine months afterward, was found to be filled with it to its Tery 



16 SKETCHES OP TUBKBY. 

US. I had hitherto supposed it to be confined to the North 
Atlantic ; but there couM be no doubt of the species, for it 
was subjected to a minute examination. 

The thousand ever-varying forms assumed by the mol- 
luscous inhabitants of the Mediterranean also furnished us 
with subjects for inquiry and reflection, and contributed 
very agreeably to relieve the tedium of a sea voyage. It 
was chiefly during calms that these delicate beings showed 
Uiemselves near the surface. Two species, which were 
captured to-day, excited much interest from the symmetri- 
cal elegance of their forms and the beautiful disposition of 
their colours. One of them was about the size of an 
American dime, and resembled the brilliant eye of some 
animal. The centre was somewhat raised, and of a 
brownish colour ; the margin was light blue, with numerous 
dark and blue points ; the disk was slightly, but elegantly 
festooned, and from it proceeded sixty or seventy fibrillas 
of unequal lengths ; the longest tbree-<iuarters of an inch. 
The movements of this delicate creature were produced 
by alternate contractions and dilatations of its body, like 
those of the Medus® on our coast Bosc asserts, that the 
animals of this genus float always on the surface, and are, 
in fact, unable to submerge their bodies. This scarcely 
seems accurate ; for they not only kept below the surface 
in the open sea, but when transferred to a vessel of water 
they were observed to descend towards the bottom. The 
species is Porpita glandifercu 

Another little aquatic animal excited much curiosity by 
its singular and bizarre appearance. It resembled the pre- 
ceding in size, but was rather elliptical than circular. It 
was of a brilliant blue, and its most striking peculiarity 
coiisisted in a thin transparent membrane, elevated trans- 
Tersely on the back of the animal, apparently serving the pur- 
pose of a sail for which it may possibly be intended. This 
curioiui appendage is analogous to a similar structure in the 
Fbyaalis^ or Portuguese man-of-war, and reminds one of 



8KBTCHXS OF TVIIKXT. 17 

those picturesque little lateen-rigged vessels which are seen 
skimming in all directicHis along the Mediterranean. This 
species is the Veklla limbosa of authors. 

The tedium of a calm was also relieved by the appear- 
ance of several grampuses alongside of the ship of a white or 
rather yellowish-white colour. Of the existence of such re- 
markable varieties I was not previously aware, and suppose 
they must be of rare occurrence. The busy little stormy 
petrels (Procellaria pelagica)^ which hitherto accompanied 
us from the shores of America, have left us within the last 
two days. The sailors have many rare notions respecting 
this little oceanic wanderer; they entertain the rational 
belief that it lives perpetually on the waves, and hatches its 
eggs most conveniently under its wings. It is scarcely 
necessary to state, that it breeds, like other water-birds, 
on rocks in the vicinity of the sea, and the northern rocky 
coast of America furnishes its countless millions. Its popu- 
lar name of petrel, the bird of St. Peter, is derived from the 
circumstance, that, when the water is smooth, by a slight 
and almost imperceptible motion of its wings, aided by 
its partially-webbed feet, it can walk over the surface of 
the water with great apparent ease. These bustling little 
birds have, by thair presence, often enlivened the monotony 
of our lonely journey through the watery waste, and their 
departure seems like rending the last link of the chain 
which connected us with our native shores. 

On tlie morning of the 16th of July the first officer 
reported, that during the whole of the preceding night he 
had observed at intervals a singular illumination of the 
heavens. We were then south of the island of Maretimo, 
and our course was south-easterly along the southern coast 
of Sicily, and the light proceeded from the eastern quarter 
of the horizon. At daybreak a large volume of smoke was 
seen which was at first supposed to proceed from the Malta 
steam-packet known to ply in these seas. This conjecture 
received new strength when one of the men aloft sung out 

D 



• r» 



18 SKBTCIIS8 OF TCBKKT. 

that be saw the chimney; as we approached, it became 
evident that the volume of smoke was too considerable to 
proceed from any or all the steam-vessels in the world 
mited tc^ther, and, moreover, its vertical position was 
entirely diilerent frvm that long horizontal stream of smoke 
which Accompanies a steamboat in motion. Etna was then 
snmmoned to om- aid, but a reference to the chart and to 
our position indicated that it could not proceed frcan that 
source. At meridian we were in latitude 86° 55', and the 
column of smoke bore frxim us due north ; we were then 
naturally led to the opinion that this smoke must proceed frntn 
- some new volcanic source on the southern coast of Sicily, 
or, what was more probable from its apparent distance, 
that a subaqueous volcano was in operation between us 
and the land. The appearances presented during this day 
were of the most sublime nature ; an immense column of 
dense white smoke appeared to issue from the ocean, and, 
although continually changing in form and volume, con- 
stantly preserved an elevation of one thousand feet At 
times it would appear like a lofly pyramid, again it would 
curl out into immense wreaths, apparently coveting miles 
c^ surface, like an enormous umbrella, and then it would 
shoot up and branch out in various directions, assuming 
Bomewluit the appearance of a grove of gigantic trees. 
These changes in the form of the column of smoke were 
no doubt owing to successive eruptions which observed no 
regular periods of intermiasion, but varied in intervals of 
from three to ten minutes. The base of the column near the 
wf^ resembled a cone about twenty feet above the hori- 
zon, and this was the only part which remained unchanged. 
At intervals, which we judged to occupy the space of one 
hour, the eruptions, as manifested by the increased volume 
of smoke, became much more violent, and at such times, 
with a glass, I could distinctly perceive the ascent of a 
■hower of stones, jrhich was marked by numerous perpen- 
dicular black streaks appearing through the white smoke ; 



SKBTCBES OF TVBKBT. IV 

ttiia appearance would last several minutes. During the 
afternoon the sky became overcast with a thick reddish 
haze, owing, no doubt, to the immense quantities of volcanic 
ashes and dust disperse^ through the air. We afterwaid 
fell in with a brig whose decks had been hterally covered 
with these ashes. During the night this white pillar of 
smoke continued to be distinctly visible, and sharp flashes, 
resembling lightning, were observed to issue from its bosom. 
As we proceeded on our course, the next morning it became 
gradually less distinct, and at three in the aAemoon was do 
kuger visible. 

We have thus for more than thirty-six hours been spec* 
tators of one of the most grand and terrific operations of 
nature, a spectacle which rarely occurs, except after the 
lapse of centuries. I have already mentioned, that when 
the smoke bore from us due north, our latitude was 36° 55*, 
and, consequently, it could not be very far from the island 
<rf Sicily. The fact of our seeing the shower of stones so 
distinctly would seem to prove that we could not have been 
more than ten or twelve miles distant fivm the volcanic 
focus. 

Our .conjecture respecting this subaqueous volcano was 
aAerward verified at Constantinople ; and from a painting, 
which was made on the spot two days after we passed, we 
an enabled to present our readers with' the annexed sketch. 




20 SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 

With regard to its exact situation, we could, of course, only 
make an approximation according to the most recent ac- 
counts ; it Ues in latitude 37' 7' 30" north, longitude 12'' 44' 
east of Greenwich. 

Upon referring to the published accounts it appears, that 
the first indication of smoke issuing from the water at this 
spot was on tlie 8th of July. Eight days after this we saw 
the large column of smoke, and its base, which appeared to 
undergo no change, was in all probability the island which 
on that day rose above the surface. That this was nearly 
the date of its emerging from the sea is confirmed by the 
captain of an Italian vessel, who speaks of having seen a 
large tract of volcanic land on that day at some height 
above the level of the sea. Eighteen days after this (Au- 
gust 3), a party of English officers from Malta succeeded 
in effecting a landing, and found the island to be a mile and 
a half in extent and one hundred and eighty feet high. The 
ceremony of christening the island, hoisting a Hag, and 
taking possession was performed with all the formalities 
required on so important an occasion. In reading this 
account one is forcibly reminded of the conduct of the 
renowned Vasco Nunez de Balboa,"^ the first European 
who saw the Pacific (3cean. This remarkable hero, clad 
in complete armour, and with a drawn sword in his hand» 
marched gravely info the sea up to his chin ; then flourish- 
ing his sword over Iiis head, ho bade Iiis followers bear tes- 
timony that he took possession of that sea and all its coasts, 
in the name of his sovereign lord and master Ferdinand, 
King of Spain and Leon. It would seem that the King of 
the two Sicilies, disregarding the previous classical and 
appropriate names of Hotham and Graham, has laid claim 
to the island; and, doubtless, in compliment to himself, 
has expressed his august pleasure that it shall henceforth 
be known and d e signated as the island of Ferdinandina. 

* Goman, IitoiU de lu India*. 



8KXTCBE8 OF TURXET. 21 

The Domenclators have amused themselves prodigiously 
with christening this little island. In some papers,! observe, it 
is called Corrao^ in others ChistavOf the name of the Sicilian 
brig from which the smoke was first seen. We have no- 
ticed above the names of Hotham^ Graham^ and Ferdinan^ 
dina ; to these we must add Nerita^ as it figures in the 
German journals ; and, lastly, Prevost has named it JuliOf 
for the very substantial reason, that it is '^ an harmonious and 
ItaUan name." Seven names for a Uttle island which has 
hardly been in existence as many months, and which may 
disappear within a shorter period ! 

Some discrepancies exist in the various accounts which 
have been published respecting the nature and compositicm 
of the materials composing the island, which may be fairly 
attributed to the various phases which it has undergone 
since it appeared above water. Capt Senhouse states 
that it bore the appearance of two iongitudinal hills, united 
by intermediate low lands, and sending up clouds of smoke 
and vapour. The specimens which he brought away were 
compact and heavy, consisting of volcanic rocks, and also 
of limestone ; the whole surface of the island is described 
by him as dense and perfectly hard under the feet Mr* 
Osborne, an English navy surgeon, visited the island seven- 
teen days afterward, when it had attained a more consider- 
able elevation. From his florid and verbose description 
we gather, that the island is even now washing away, and 
in time will gradually disappear. ** From the nature of 
this island," he observes, *' there being no bond of union in 
its heterogeneous particles, and from the precipitous falling 
down of its sides by the action of the sea, I am inclined to 
think that it has not the stability of permanence in its com- 
position ; the insatiable ocean will encroach upon its base, 
the winds of heaven will scatter the dusty surface to the 
four cardinal points of the compass, the rains will dissolve 
the saline bond of union, and the crumbling ruin will grad- 



22 ^ SKXTCHES OP TURKST. 

ually sink, and extend its base to a bank barely above (he 
level of the sea, 

'* Its loss will not be deplored, for the screaming sea-bird 
instinctively wfieels and directs its flight to a distant part 
of the ocean to avoid the dark and desolate spot, and evea 
the inhabitants of the deep seem to avoid its unhallowed 
shores." 

Mr. Osborne does not seem to be sailor enough to know 
that if the island crumbles down to the waters' edge, dan- 
gerous reefs and breakers will be formed, increasing the 
perils of these seas. 

C. Prevost, who was sent to explore it by the French 
government, landed there on the 29th of September. It 
was then two thousand two hundred and seventy-three feet 
in circumference, and two hundred and thirty feet high, 
composed of pulverulent materials, which, however, ap- 
peared in layers. He considers it as a conical heap, arranged 
around a cavity which is conical^ but in a different direction. 
The stratification near the opening is parallel with the sides 
of the crater, but externally it is reversed. Arouad the 
island there is a beach just above water, resulting from the 
falling down of the sides ; it varies from fifteen to twenty 
feet in width, the highest part of the crater is two hundred 
and thirty feet, but on the southern side it is but forty. The 
temperature of the water in the crater was about 208^ of 
Fahrenheit. Prevost gives no opinion as to the probable 
duration of this island, although he has established that it is 
not on the site of the old shoal laid down in some charts 
under the name of Nerita.* 

* See Append B. 



SKSTCHES OF TCItXBT. 23 



CHAPTER ni. 

Ionian Sea — Candia, or Crete— Mount Ida — Epiminedes — Rip Van Winkle 
— ^American Frigate — Contest of Speed — Milo — Cyclades — ^POota — Their 
Accomplishments. 

We have been drifted by a succession of light ain^ 
diversified by various annoying calms, across that part of 
the Mediterranean which is termed the Ionian Sea. This 
sea is about 400 miles in extent, and comprises the space 
included between Malta and Greece. Our passage has 
occupied ten days, and we have not had even the relief of 
seeing or speaking with a single vessel during all that pe- 
riod. It was therefore with unspeakable pleasure that we 
yesterday descried the peaks which denote the entrance 
into the Grecian Archipelago. Directly before us lie the 
islands of Candia and Ccrigotto. The latter is a small 
barren rock, while Candia, or ancient Crete, is one of the 
largest islands in the Mediterranean, being 180 miles long, 
with an average breadth of 30 miles. It presents a rugged 
iron-bound coast, while in the interior, Psilority* (the Ida 
of the ancients) arises proudly pre-eminent among its neigh- 
bouring peaks. Its lofty summit, which is 7500 feet high, 
was covered with clouds. Mount Ida figures in the heathen 
mythology as the birthplace of Jupiter, and must not be 
confounded with another Mount Ida on the coast of Asia, 
near to the supposed site of Troy. The ancient name of 

^ Fran Hypsilorine, high point, in the same way that Psilibonronn ia 
conopCed from Hjpsilohoonu, high mountain. Old Toumefort, who, in 
SToi^g the affectation of classicality, perhaps runs into the opposite ex- 
treme, can find no other comparison for the really beautiful peak of Psiloritj 
dm ** a great ugly ass's back.** ^ 




this island, Crete, may recall to mind one of the ccenea of 
the misaionary labours of Su Paul. 

It lias another claim to our attention, which the classical 
■cholar will recognise, in having. been the residence and, I 
believe, the birthplace, of Epiminedes, one of the celebrated 
■even wise men. This epic poet is recorded td have taken 
a abort nap of a quarter of a century, and is doubtless the 
great pratotype of the sleeper of the Hartz and of our iUu»- 
trioos countrynuin Rip Van Winkle. 

The island of Candia was taken by the RiMnans sixty 
years befi>rQ Christ, and was subsequently^ptured &cxn ^ 
VeoctiaAB by the Turks, aAer a bloody contest which lasted 
twenty-four years. It is represented as being very fertile, 
and exports great quantities of a hard white soap, which, 
after being purified and disguised with various scents, 
figures on most of the toilets of our &ir countrywomen. 
The island contfuns a mixed populati<»i of Greeks and 
Tui^ who are stated to be, in a physical point of view, 
the finest race of men in the world. It is at present 
governed by a Turkish dignitary, who is said^to hold his 
appointment under the Pacha of Egypt. 

We spent the whole day and night in tacking between 
Candia and Cerigotto, contending against a strong head- 
wind. On Cape Spada, the extreme north-west poml of 
Candia, a laige tumulns attracted our attention. It stood 
very conspicuously on a high point of land, and may have 
bedn erected to the memory of some ancient demigod or 
hero whose name or &me has not descended to us in 
history or son^ 

It was not until ten o'clock the next morning that we 
were enabled to weather Cerigotto, a miserable rock with 
a few houses ; and wc were just abreast of Cerigo, one of 
the Ionian islands, when a large frigate was discovered to 
windward of us, showing Amcncan colours. Upon dis- 
playing'Our flag in return, she hoisted her private signals, 
and they were not answered ; she altered her course, and 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 26 

bore down upon us with her men at quarters. We were 
soon boarded by her ; and she proved to be the Constella- 
tion» last from Smyrna. Our size and warlike appearance 
had led the officers to suppose that our vessel belonged to 
their squadron ; but as we did not answer their private sig- 
nal, they were strongly inclined to suspect us of being some 
new purate in these seas ; and hence their hostile demon- 
strations as they approached us. The boarding officer 
gave us the unpleasant information that plague and cholera 
were raging at Smyrna and Constantinople. In the former 
jdaoe hundreds were dying daily. 

Our new acquaintances spdie highly of the sailing prop- 
erties of their vessel — a subject upon which every thorough 
seaman loves to descant From their statement we learned 
that the frigate had outsailed every thing in the Mediter- 
ranean* and her appearance seemed to warrant tbeir asser- 
tjoDs* Her commander was polite enough to accede to 
our wish of testing her speed with our vessel, and upon a 
INgnal we both made sail. The wind blew very fresh, and 
4 heavy sea g^ve some advantage to our rival ; in addition 
to which, our main-topsail-yard was badly sprung, which 
DMide it a matter of some difficulty to carry even a reefed 
sail. Under these disadvantages we commenced our trial 
of speed, under the same sail, and close hauled upon a wind* 
A short half-hour proved our superiority. At the com- 
mencement we were lying abreast of her, and to leeward, 
but had already got her into our wake, and the distance 
between us was fast increasing. 

This is not the only occasion upon which I have seen our 
national vessels beaten by our own merchantmen, and con- 
firms the general impression, that in military naval archi- 
tecture our progress has been slow, if not retrograde, since 
the year 1798. It is, we believe, conceded, that with re- 
gard to speed, none of our modem war vessels equal those 
built at that period, and are confessedly behind those now 
built in our merchant dock-yards. This will, in all proba- 

E 



S6 8ESTCHX8 OF TUBXSY. 

bility, continue to be the case as long as the naval con^ 
spructors are directed and overruled by those who must 
necessarily be unacquainted with the first principles of naval 
architecture, and their duties confined within the narrow 
limits assigned to the foreman of a yard. Let us hope that 
time* and experience will correct this error, so fatal to our 
future maritime power. 

Wednesday. At daylight this morning we were sum- 
moned from our beds to look at a cluster of black naked 
rocks, called the Ananas, which are the bare peaks of some 
submarine mountain. But objects of more engrossing 
interest soon attracted our attention. These were the Ibfly 
blands of Milo and Antimilo (pronounced Meelo) ; the first 
of that extensive group designated by the ancients as the 
Cyclades. 

This name** signifies a circle, as these islands lie in 
somewhat of a circular form around Delos ; which, although 
a very inconsiderable island itself, has been considered 
firom the remotest antiquity as a sacred spot. It was, 
doubtless, elevated by volcanic agency, and therefore in* 
vested by superstitious ignorance with a sacred character. 
Its name, from JlvA*^, alluding to its sudden appearance, 
strengthens this idea. It was formerly celebrated as the 
birthplace of Apollo and Diana, and contained an altar of 
Apollo, once ranked among the seven wonders of the world. 
— But I am wandering out of my way to encroach upon 
the peculiar domain of Sabatier and Lempriere. 

Owing to the strong head- winds, it was two in the after- 
noon before we could reach sufficiently near Milo to pro- 
cure a pilot. We ran under Antimilo, a brown barren 
mountain 1500 feet high, upon which, at the distance of a 
mile, we could detect no vestige of vegetation ; although 
we were afterward told that it abounds with wild goats, 



* Cira Deltim in orbem site (onde et nomen tnzftre) Cycladei- — Plin. 
Nat Htft. Ub. hr. 



# 



BKBTCHSS OF TUBKET. 



n 



mrhose flesh is higbly prized for its exquisite flavour. The 
channel between this island and Mi)o is about six milei wide. 
At three o'clock, a part of the town and harbour of Milo 
came into view. The chief town was formerly situated near 
the water, but its unheal thiness caused it to be abandoned, 
and the inhabitants clambered up to the top of a hill in the 
vicinity. The new town, which is composed entirely of 
white houses, has a very singular appearance when seen 
from the ship. The houses are clustered round the sides 
and cover the summit of a peak a thousand feet high, and 
resemble more in appearance a rookery or pigeon-house 
than the residence of human beinj^s. 




Vlgw omilo uK AMUdUo. 



The island of Milo, however much it may have been 
celebrated in ancient times, is now a desolate, unhealthy 
spot, affording a scanty support to its wretched inhabitants. 
According to Pliny, it formerly furnished the best sulphur 
in the world, and millstones of so excellent a quality as to 
have given the name to the island which it still bears. The 
sulphur has long since been exhausted by the demand fixim 
the north, but millstones are an article of export to the 
present day. It is now principally celebrated for its pilots, 
which are esteemed the best in the Archipelago. Shortly 
after firing a gun and hoisting a flag, a small sail-boat was 
seen making its way out of the harbour towards us. While 
lying. tfi for this boat, we had an opportunity of witnessing 
its manoeuvres ; and as we bad rather elevated ideas of the 



cleverness of tbe Greek islanders in tliis particular, it wai 
widi surprise that we found them to be unseamanlike aiid 
lubbeiiy. There were three persona in the boat, and when, 
after much scolding, and pushing, and rowing, they were 
fiuriy alongiide, two of<thero jumped on board, and in toler- 
able Englirii ofiered their services as pilots ; each produced 
lai^ tin boxes filled with certificates from tbe various ildpt 
in which they had exercised their craft, and it appeared 
from these documenta that they had at different times been 
on board tbe ships of every naval power in the w(»ld. 
Tbe eldest was a sallow-faced, beetle-browed man, of few 
words and quiet deportment His companion was a hale, 
handsome, black-eyed fellow of about thirty, decorated with 
a pair of jetty mustachioa, which he twirled about with 
infinite complacency, while answering tbe interrogatories 
of the captain. He was, according to his own story, a man 
of various accomplishments, speaking no less than six lan- 
guages, that is to say, English, French, Italiu, Turkish, 
Ulyric, and Greek. " I speks sis lankiWieB, and all so good 
as iDgleesh," was the phrase in which ha aoaveyed this 
informaticHk 

Desirous of airing my college Greek upon this descendant 
of Leonidas, I gravely addressed him in a set speech, of 
the accuracy of which I could have no doubt, as I had 
selected it from a Rcnnaic vocabulary. The man stared, 
and upoa repeating my phrase, he asked me what language 
I was speaking. Like the Englishman who puzzled ScaU> 
ger by talking Latin with a cockney accent, I felt rather 
annoyed by the question ; and taking the vocabulary from 
my pocket, asked him if he knew that language. He 
assured me that it was good Greek, but ^t (btg^ng my 
pardon) I had spoken it as if it bad been English. I was 
periectly aware that there were many important di&renoei 
in grammatical structure between the ancient and modem 
Greek, but I was now for the first time Jo learn, that tbe 
pnmunciatioD taught in all our coikgu ms M decidedly 



OF TURKHT, 20 

bmrlesqae and mOri^ as to excite latighter whenever it was 
heard in Greece. 

The next morning we found ourselves near Hydra (pron. 
Heedra), with the islands of Siphanto and Serpho on our 
right Hydra is a long, elevated, and rocky isle, twelve 
miles long by three in breadth, separated by a passage three 
or four miles broad from the mainland. It was called by 
the ancients Aristera (the best), most probably in derision, 
hiau a mm lucendo^ for there is not a single blade of grain 
produced upon the island. The modem name, Hydra, ap- 
pears to have been given upon the same principle, for there 
is not one spring upon the island ; and they depend upon 
rain and supplies fit)m the mainland for all the water 
required for their consumption. The ancient Greeks seem 
to have been much addicted to that sort of wit which con- 
sists in giving a name to any particular place as opposite 
as possible to its real character. Besides the example cited 
above, we might adduce the gloomy Euxine, lashed by per- 
petual storms, and its shores peopled with cruel savages, 
which they called Euxinos, or the very hospitable* A vil- 
lage near Constantinople, which was in the olden time ex- 
ceedingly insalubrious, retains the name of Therapeia, or 
lieahhy place, to this day. In Ae same spirit the epithet of 
Eumenides, or the benevolent goddesses, was given to the 
&bled Furies of heU.** 

In the course of the day we weathered the northern point 
of the island, and its pretty white town was seen about 
midway dovm the sound* This island, previous to the 
Greek revolution, wna one of the most flourishing in the 
Archipelago. Its inhabitants were all ship-owners or 
sailors, and the whole carrying trade among the islands 
was in their hands. On account of their activity and gene- 
ral mtelligenoe they were much favoured by the Turks, 

* For the benefit of that ingenioui bat Ul-ated class of wits known as 
punsters, we annex a specimen of the earliest pun on record. Xr«/ ^ai 
X«»Mf IpipK* ||« Al^if A&i^ asi P4f0» A^ ! 




90 

and enjoyed peculiar privilege!. Their annual taxes to the 
Ottoman Forte were collected by themselveB ; they ap- 
pointed their own goTentor and other officen ; and no 
Turk was suffered to reside on the island. In an evil hour 
for tbeir ptosperity they listened to the insidious councils of 
Russia, threw oS* their allegiance to the Turkish govern- 
ment, and by their daring deeds excited the emulatioD of 
tbeir couDtrymen. 

We are not disposed to believe with many that robbery 
and piracy, or what is softened into the name of commer- 
4»a] cupidity, was the chief exciting cause of the Greek 
revolution. We can readily credit the assertions of writers 
that a feeling of d^radation and orbitrvry acts of oppre»- 
sion on the part of their masters, which were exaggerated 
by their dissolute priesthood, and carefiilly turned to the 
production and increase of discontent by the myrmidons 
of a great northern power, led them to shake ofT the Turk- 
ish yoke. Our sympathy for a nation struggling for free- 
dom should not blind us to their gross moral defects, nor 
lead us to do injustice to their opponents. With the single 
exception of the attachment of the Greeks to letters, the 
united voice of antiquity gives a very un&vourable idea, 
not only of their moral character, but of their principles of 
government In the dark ages, according to Emerson, they 
abandoned a name which they felt they had dishonoured, 
«ad called themselves Romans ; hence the name Romania, 
and of Roum and Roumelie, applied by the Turks to the 
Greeks and tbeir country. But even this name it would 
seem that they contrived to render equally despicable, for 
the ambassador of a German prince had the boldness to tell 
the Emperor Nicephoras Phocas " that the most expressive 
t»m of contempt which the nations of western Europe 
could inflict upon tbeir enemies was to call them Bomaju f 
a name expressive of all that was mean, base, cowardly, 
avaricious, lying, and contemptible." 

Notwithstanding all that has been said or sung about the 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 81 

glorious Greeks, and their glorious revolution, it is very 
doubtful whether they have been gainers by their bloody 
struggle. Divided among themselves, as such an immoral 
and unprincipled people* always must be, they have only 
changed their masters, and instead of being ruled by the 
Turks alone, they are now governed by the triple-headed 
Cerberus of the Holy Alliance. Their fburishing ports 
have been ruined ; their towns destroyed, not so much by 
the common enemy as by their own unprincipled factions ; 
their starving population has been driven to adopt the con- 
genial pursuits of piracy ; and the pecuniary impositions of 
their new government far exceed those of their former 
masters. The whole amount of taxes previous to the revo- 
lution imposed upon the islands oiit the Archipelago 
amounted, according to Turner's statement, to $30,000, 
which was divided among a population of 120,000. The 
island of Tino under the Turkish rule paid an annual poll- 
tax of $2000, collected by a vaivode and two secretaries. 
They were then subjected to the payment of no duties 
whatever ; now, officers personally obnoxious to them are 
appointed by Capo IPIstrias to collect the same poll-tax, 
and they are besides loaded with duties amounting annually 
to $5000. Our pilots assure tis that their island of Milo 
was never so prosperous and happy as when it was ruled 
by the Turks ; and they actually appear to sigh for the 
former golden days of its commercial prosperity. 

* Their sappoied unfitnesi for self-^vemment renders it necessary to 
prcnride them with foreign rulers and a new king ; for Greece forms a regular 
item in the price currents of the royal maikets of Europe. 



nancBMM of tubxxt. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Totm—Qnek Frifite HdU»— Egimi— Cape fntnma Zm Winrii. Vatt 
Ri4phti--Miriftlioo---Aiidio»--RoiiMn wd Oseek Ctthnlici ■ P*OiolV». 
sage — ^N^gropont— Etymology — Imaginaij Dmngei*— Scio—Mi 



Wx stood into the Bay of Egina, passixig the island of 
PoroSy whichy like Hydra, is situated at a diort distance 
firom the mainland. It was at Poros that Demosthenes took 
poison and died. In its harbour we saw a brig of war 
at anchor, and a I9fty frii^bley which we had no difficulty in 
recognising as the Hellas. While admiring the beauty of 
her form, and the symmetrical elegance of her masts, which 
seemed to pierce the clouds above her, we could not antici- 
pate that a few brief days would terminate her career. 
Still less could we suppose that this last strong bul¥rark 
against the foreign foe would be destroyed by Grecian 
hands.** 

We next passed the island of Egina, and all eyes and 
glasses were directed towards the spot where Athens 



* TUt ** QDtowaid treat'* — the modem polite ptiiphneis §at muder end 
fmpine— occuned on the lath of Angoet, and originated in a eeheme to con- 
voke a National Assembly, in opposition to Capo D*Istrias. This man, 
finding that his opponents kept him in check by retaining poeses s ion of the 
fleet, called in the aid of his protector, the Russian Admiral Ricord. An 
attack was made upon two 0»ek oorrettes by the |)pssians. One blew 
np, and the other surrendered. If oC satisfied with this atrocious act, which 
Ricord coolly terms " the preservation of order and tranquillity," he made 
arrangements to seize the frigate Hellas and the corrette Hydra. These 
were commanded by that brsYe old man Mianlis, who signified to the Rus- 
sian, that upon the first attempt to wrest that Yessel from his command, as 
he could not successfully oppose the whole fleet, be should blow them into 
the air. Ricord persisted, and both Teasels were destroyed. Ricord may 
possibly be considered as an honourable man, but impartial history will decide 
the amount of hooour due to him lor his share in this transaction. 



8KETCIISS OF TURKEY. 38 

faintly appeared, on the opposite side of the bay. We 
could discern the Acropolis, Salamis, the Pireus, and the 
range of Mount Hymettus, when the shades of evening 
put an end to our anxious observations. As the wind 
freshened during the night, we stood out of the bay, and 
werfe aroused at daylight the next morning to see the cele- 
brated promontory of Sunium, now Cape Colonna, upon 
which are still visible the remains of a once glorious tem- 
ple of Minerva. To pass this cape in former days was a 
feat equivalent to " doubling the Horn" in modern times ; 
and this splendid temple and its rich offerings attested the 
fears of the ancient navigators. It is now, according to 
Byron, chiefly die resort of painters ^nd pirates. As the 
rays of the rising sun glittered upon the few majestic 
columns which are still standing in a solitary waste, we 
were led to a train of reflection which carried us back to 
the poetic days of Greece. The current of our ideas was 
suddenly diverted into another channel, and all our clas- 
sical musings vanished, upon inquiring the name of an 
adjacent isle, which formed a more conspicuous feature in 
the landscape than the temple-crowned promontory. Its 
very classical and euphonous epithet was Gaithronissi, or 
Jackasft Island. 

The whole of this day was consumed in struggling 
through the channel between Zea and Macronissi, or Long 
Island. This channel is seven miles wide, and has no hidden 
dangers, except a rock on the Zea side, which is not laid 
down in any chart 

Zea is an elevated and apparently fertile island, and the 
summits of its hills are covered with numerous windmills, 
which produce a pretty eflcct ; and the harbour of the prin- 
cipal town is so closed in by rocks that its position can with' 
difficulty be detected. The island is eleven miles in length, 
and sevto broad, and has had the fortune, at various times, 
to receive numerous names. According to Pliny,* it was 

* Hilt Nat. lib. iv. 

F 



origioaily called Cauroa, and afterward Antandros ; ae- 
cording to Lyaimachus, it was called Lassia ; and by othen, 
Nonagria, Hydnusia, and Epagris. The town of Zea is 
perched near the summit of one of the highest ridges of the 
island, and although it is said to consist of 500 dirty hots, 
has a very pretty appearance from the water below. It is 
probable that the picturesque situation of the town, sus- 
pended apparently midway in the air, induced Lord Byron* 
to leave his frigate, and request to be set ashore upon this 
rocky isle. 

It may be reniaAed that the wind among these islands 
is cJ' a very variable character, veeiiog suddenly round to 
every point of the compass, and with every variety from 
a flat calm to a yosmg hmicane. An English sloop of 
war, with which we are now in company, illustrates the 
variable character of the vrinds in an eminent degree. At 
one time we are several miles ahead of her, and then, by a 
sudden shift of wind, our relative positions are reversed. 
In the course of the day, we were anxious to get a peep 
at a celebrated statue, which the chart states to be 396 
feet high. This would be a great marvel if true, and fiu- 
•xceeding the renowned but fabulous Colossus of Rhodes. 
The explanation is this. At Port Raiditi, or Tailor's PoiU 
the ancient Panormus, is a harbour which is said to be the 
most commodious and beautiful in the Grecian seas. In 
the centre of this harbour is a small island 398 feet high, 
and upon its summit is a mutilated statue, in a sitting pos- 
ture, 13 feet high. To this statue the modem Greeks have 
given the unpoetical name of ■* The Tailor," from Kmnw. 

Three leagues beyond are the bay and plain of Marathm, 
where our classical authorities inform us that Miltiades 
vanquished the Persians twenty-tliree centuries ago. Fmn 
the contemplation ijf these interesting scenes we were 
however recalled to our own situation at the mouth of the 

• Hoon'a Bynwi 



SKETCHES OF TUEKEY. SB 

•traits of Silota, or what is generally better known as the 
D'Oro Passage. 

The wind blew a gale down the straits^ and the lateness 
of the hour induced us to run under the island of Andros, 
and wait for daylight Here we lay-to, with Jura on our 
right, in smooth water, at the distance of two miles from the 
shore. Jura is apparently a barren rock, and was formerly, 
according to Martial, the Botany Bay of Rome. Andros, 
although very elevated, is a fruitful island, twenty-one miles 
in length, and contains a population of 15,000 souls, dis- 
tributed in fifty villages and hamlets ; its chief production 
is silk, of which it sends dOOOlbs., and an immense quantity 
of lemons, to Constantinople. This island, as well as its 
nei^ibour Tino, furnishes nearly all the servant-maids and 
cooks for Constantinople and Smyrna. Tino has 30,000 
inhabitants, and is the best cultivated of the Cycladet, 
although nearly one-half of its population are said to be 
employed at sea. In all these islands the inhabitants are 
divided into two great religious parties, viz. Roman and 
Greek Catholics. These hate each other most cordiaUy, 
and regard each other with even more horror than they 
view the Tuik. ** I am no Greek,^ said one of the pilots 
to me. — ** And pray, what may you be then V* I inquired. 
*• Why, a Catholic to be sure,** was the superb reply ; — and 
this is the common distinction adopted among themselves. 
It was in vain that I attempted to show him the absurdity 
of such a distinction ; nothing could persuade him that a 
Catholic could be a Greek, although a lineal descendant of 
Epaminondas, and bom within the walls of Athens. Dur- 
ing the revolution, the Roman Catholic Greeks were sus- 
pected of &vouring the Turks, and they were accordingly 
fined, persecuted, and in many instances, if my information 
be correct, were put to death by their own countrymen the 
Greek Catholics. Thusi in addition to the horrors of a 
foreign war, they were cursed by the demon of civil dis- 
cord ; and the cruelties they exercised upon each other are 



36 SKETCHES OF TURKEV. 

said to have far exceeded the injuries inflicted by the cam^ 
mon foe. 

A magnificent temjAe^ dedicated to Neptune, formerly 
existed on the island of Tino, but a solitary column is all 
that is left Xq attest its ancient grandeur. The island of An- 
drosy under the shelter of which we are now lying, presents 
numerous vestiges of cultivation in the shape of low stone 
or mud v^alls, dividing the several plantations, or farms^ 
from each other ; but we have not been fortunate enough 
to get a glimpse of even a single human habitation. Like 
all the otlier islands we have yet seen, it is a high brown 
rock utterly destitute of trees. 

Impatient of the delay, it was determined at all hazards 
to attempt the D'Oro Passage, although our pilots warned 
us against the consequences. They represented that the 
current with the present wind ran at least four knots the 
hour, that no ship had ever yet got through under such cir- 
cumstances, and finally, that it would be necessary to ap- 
proach the iron-bound coast on either side so near that a 
misstay would inevitably drive us ashore, with the loss of 
vessel and lives. In short, so much was said against makr 
ing the attempt, that, like most people under similar cir- 
cumstances, we determined to try our fortune, and trusted 
to the well-known qualities of our ship to carry us through 
this difficult pass. 

Accordingly, at midnight we made sail along the coast 
of Andros, and at four in the morning we entered the 
straits, with the wind dead ahead, and blowing so fiercely 
as to reduce us to close-reefed topsails. Our English friend 
of yesterday was contending most manfully against the 
gale several miles ahead. The passage is between six and 
seven miles wideband its whole length does not exceed nine 
miles ; and yet such was the strength of the wind and current 
against us, that it required every attention on the part of the 
officers to gain a single inch to windward. As the current 
runs with the least velocity near the shores, vre were 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 3T 

obliged to keep close in ; and every time we tacked ship 
it seemed as if we could have leaped upon the rocks, or into 
tbe breakers which were foaming and roaring among them. 
In ail my nautical experience, which has not been inconr 
siderable, I never had (to use a familiar expression) my 
heart in my mouth so often as on this occasion. We tacked 
eighteen times, and from a calculation it appeared that we 
must have traversed a distance of 120 miles in this little 
passage, the greatest part of the time flying at the rate of 
ten and a half miles the hour. On one of the rocky pro- 
jections from the coast of Andros, a solitary round tower 
was observed, the once proud symbol of Venetian sway. 
It is now the aliode of pirates, who are said to be numerous 
in these straits; and a more suitable residence for sea<r 
robbers cannot well be imagined ; it is certainly in keeping 
with the savage character of the surrounding scene. The 
portbern side of this strait is formed by Negropont, the 
ancient Euboea. Although within the limits of Greece, it 
contains about 5000 Turkish inhabitants. Its present name, 
which is legitimately derived from its ancient one, would 
form a curious article in the chapter of etymologies. Every 
one knows the change from Constantinople to Stamboul, 
through tli r*f wxiff and from Cos to Stance, through tii rn* 
urn ; but we suspect the derivation of Negropont from Eu^ 
boeais not so familiar to our readers. Its first change from 
Eubcea was Euripus, or as it is pronounced by the modem 
Greeks Evripus, whence comes tU rnf £v^<V«, by contraction 
Nfi^m, corrupted into Niy^iV*, which has been finally Italian- 
ized into Negropont! LiCt no one after this despair of 
tracing any etymology, however obscure, for even the 
humorous derivation of Mango from Jeremiah King, as 
detailed in Salmagundi, when compared with the example 
cited above, becomes not only probable, but almost divested 
of its absurdity. — But we are still in the D'Oro Passage. 

At two o'clock, we finally succeeded in weathering, at 
the distance of 500 yards, a horrible-looking cape (Guardia), 



9B •UIUMU OF TtnUUET. 

nesrly corered with foun, which formt one of the nortbem 
timita of the straits. For a long time it was doubtfiil 
whether we iheuld be able to weather it ; and daring thia 
state of auspense it might truly be said that * the boldeit 
held hit breath for a time." 

As we cleared the straits, we saw our English ctmsort 
levera] miles to leeward, and with every prospect of pass- 
ing the nigfat in this diimal passage^ He had sjdit his fi»« 
and mainsail, bat qoicklr replaced them by others, and his 
stem and dogged obstinacy, under such adverse circom- 
stances, excited our warmest admiration and sympathy.* 

We are now fairly launched upon the " blue Egean," and 
the wind, as if in recompense for our perseverance, has 
altered mui^ in our &vour. Ccxi&ned, as we have recently 
been, between rocky islands, it is a r^f to find ourselves 
in something which bears the semblance of an open sea. 
As we plunged and dived through tlie long Atlantic-lookfaig 
waves of the Egean, we had nothing in sight except the 
solitary Caloyero, or Monk Rock, and fer in the hoiizon we 
ootdd see fiiint traces of what (Hir pilots affirmed to be the 
islands of Ipsara and Scio. Ourcourse lay between the two, 

* bi till* pa«Mg«, tteeording to Poidie'a nilmf Xne&aoM, two locki mra 
•Wad ts exist in » aboal 3S°, uid calbd the Old M«o." Thcnr m Mid !• 
Ik in th* nuiUle [rf Iha ctuiincl, and woaU haTsadiM greatly to ooraaiiMj, 
had we been aware that nieh rock* weic anppoird to lie in ooi way. For- 
Innately, in ihia caee, ne had not the Muling direction! on boaid, and it ia 
■eaicaly necesaaij to alate that no auch rocki are in eiietence. Wa 
DMation thia with no oiah to delnct fron the otberwiaa acknowMgad 
neiita of Pardie'i book, bat (imply bma the auDe BxNiTe that wookd indoM 
ODa te notify U&vellen that a paiticnlai bridge oi ford which had been re- 
potted aa dangeroua waa no longer ao, and could be paaaed with impnnity. 
While upon thia anl^ect we are reminded of another "daagcT," which ia 
laid down in LowiVa diart, onder the naine ot the Pas Redt, off tba 
MOtbeni eoaat of Sardinia. We have paaied fooi or five laagnea to Iba 
aoathwardof the Ton Rock, with a fine day and deaihoiiion, orer the very 
apot npon which it ia placed in the chart, withoat being able to diacover a 
trace of it Ita eiiBtaDce ■* vetf generall; diacredited amoog the MtTigalota 
ofthoaeaeaa. 



8KSTCHX8 OF TUBKET. 80 

but at dusk the wind changed so much that this was imprac- 
ticable, and after a night spent in beating to windward, we 
found ourselves to the northward of them in the mornings 

Scio* is replete with historic interest. Independent of 
having been the nursery of the Homeric bards, whose 
rhapsodies have come down to us under the name of Homer, 
Scio lays claim to a melancholy notoriety in the pages of 
ancient and modem story. Its wealth and its refinement 
offered too tempting an inducement to the pirates and 
vagabonds of the heroic ages, and its insular situation a& 
fcrded but a feeble protection. Under Cambyses, the 
Fbenicians and Persians attacked and took possession of 
the island,t and put to death the whole population. In the 
year 1770, the strait between this island and the main was 
the scene of a naval combat between the Turks and Ru9- 
sians, in which the Turkish fleet was almost totally de^ 
stroyed. Count Orloff was the nominal commander of the 
Russian squadron, but the eflicient head was an English 
officer named Elphinstone. The Turks on that fatal day 
lost nine line-of-battle ships, three frigates, three sloops of 
war, and nine thousand men. The Russians only lost 
seven hundred and thirty men. 

This island was formerly considered one of the richest ii> 
the Archipelago. It contained 100,000 inhabitants, dis* 
tributed in about twenty villages, and they were distin^ 
guished above all their countrymen for their intelligence, 
their cultivation, and their acquaintance with all the art9 
which adorn life. Their urbane and peaceful demeanour 
so endeared them to their Turkish masters that they were 
favoured with many privileges not granted to other islands. 
They were allowed to elect their own municipal oflicers 
and advocates chosen from among themselves. The public 
acts of the latter were received as evidence in any of the 
courts of justice in the Turkish empire. They were per- 
mitted to have bells in tlieir churches, and were even 

* Pronounced Sheeo. f CUanock» i 87. 



40 SKSRSBXS OF TVRKBT. 

allowed to wear that enviable mark of distinction ihe white 
turban. In recompense for such important concessions, 
the Sciots were bound to pay the most scrupulous attention 
to the cultivation of the mastic, which was so abundant 
here, that it was and still is known by the Turks under the 
name of Sahkees Adassi, or Mastic Island. This article is 
a resin, which exudes from the piMacia kntiscus, of which 
there are four varieties on the island. It is used occasions 
ally in medicine, and likewise in the arts. It is very solu- 
ble in spirits of wine, and makes a clear and transparent 
varnish. It is also used to give an agreeable flavour to 
their wines, and to rakee, a pleasant spirit from the grape, 
which is nowhere made in greater perfection than at Scio. 
The greatest consumption of mastic is, however, among the 
Turkish, Greek, and Armenian ladies, who keep it almost 
continually in their mouths, in order to sweeten the breath. 
The plant is a low evergreen shrub, and requires much care 
in its cultivation. The use of this resin is of great antiquity, 
having been in great request among the women of Persia. 
The spikes of the seed-pods are exposed for sale at Con- 
stantinople for toothpicks, as they were at Rome in the 
days of Martial. For the court of Constantinople alone 
sixty thousand pounds were annually required^ and this 
amount the Sciots were bound to frnmish ; and if the crop 
failed, in lieu of it they were taxed in the sum of forty 
thousand dollars. Guards were stationed day and night 
among the mastic groves, and an agha, or farmer-general, 
was appointed to receive the mastic from the peasants. 
The annual crop was about one hundred and twenty thou- 
sand pounds, and the surplus over the required amount 
was purchased by the agha at the rate of half a doUar per 
pound. Under tfiese regulations and burthens the island 
continued to prosper, and its inhabitants were the wealthiest 
in the Archipelago. At the commencement of the Greek 
revolution, Scio remained quiet ; but not trusting too much 



0KXTC1IB8 or TUSKST. 41 

to appearancef, the Turks required from them hostages for 
their good behaviour. 

In an evil hour for Scio, a party of Greeks from Samos, 
whose inhabitants, according to an English authority, are 
the most unprincipled miscreants in existence, landed 
upon the island. Joined by a number of the Sciots, they 
commenced an attack upon the Turkish garrison. After 
some resistance they surrendered, and were immediately 
put to death in cold blood, together with every Turkish 
man, woman, and child on the island. Such savage cruelty 
did not long go unpunished* The Turks landed on the 
island, put every male they could find to death, and reduced 
the women and children to slavery.* Such was the famous 
massacre, or rather massacres, of Scio, which reduced a 
rich and flourishing isle to a frightful desert. The story is 
a horriUe one, and needed not the embellishments with 
which certain romance writers about Greece have been 
pleased to decorate it For instance, it has been stated 
that, after the first bloody massacre, the capudan pacha 
hung up on his yard-arms all his Greek hostages, compris- 
ing the most venerable and respected of the islanders. 
Upon referring to the Smyrna papers of 1630, the reader 
will find, by the testimony of Europeans then in the fleet, 
that the whole story is a gratuitous embellishment, a supero- 
gatory horror. 

* We are pleased to be enabled to state that the sultan has sinee ordered 
the pfopeity of the Greeks on this island to be restored to them, and that the 
Cmner inhabitants are iast retoming to their beloved homes. Mon. Ott. 
JaaoaiySl. 



42 aKBTCBES OF TWOSr. 



CHAPTER V. 

Mytilene— Ariftotle — Lemnog — ^Byron — ^Tenedos, and Coast of Troy — 
Ykit to the Agha of Tenedoa — EnglUh Consul. 

Light breezes are fanning us gently towards Mytileney 
with Kara-boomoo, or Black Cape, on our right, a most 
conspicuous landmark. As this is the first land we have 
seen of the continent of Asia, it is hailed with great plea- 
sure as an earnest of the termination of our voyage. Here 
Sappho flourished, and here also probably dwelt her beloved 
Alceus. Here, too, Hved Zerpander, and perhaps a host 
of other worthies, whose names may be disinterred from 
the pages of Lempriere ; but to our mind its proudest 
claim to distinction is that, more than two thousand years 
ago, a school was established here by Aristotle, the influence 
of whose doctrines upon the human mind has continued, 
through twenty-three centuries, to the present day. 

Monday » — ^We find ourselves under Lemnos, now called 
Stalimene, celebrated as the spot which received Vulcan 
when he was so unceremoniously kicked out of the good 
society of the Dii majorum gentium. This island, and its 
connexion with the accident of Vulcan, remind us of an 
anecdote of Byron, which we hold from a gentleman in 
whose presence it occurred, and which illustrates, in a 
striking degree, how continually his thoughts dwelt upon 
the trifling deformity in one of his feet. The person alluded 
to mentioned, that in America there was a current report 
that his lordship had gone to Greece, and had selected 
Lemnos for his residence. ** It was no doubt intended as a 
sneer at my misfortune," replied Byron, and immediately 
changed the conversation. 

Lenmos is a high barren island, and firom its configu- 



SKSTCmSS OF TURKXTk 43 

ratioB and apparent structure, there is no doubt of volcanic 
origin^ It is from this circumstance that it has been 
assigned, from the earliest ages, as the residence of Vulcan 
and his Cyclopean assistants. It is now chiefly celebrated 
for the number of hares and rabbits which annually attract 
thither numerous Europesin sportsmen from the Dardanelles. 

At noon we stood in towards the mainland, which we 
eagerly examined, as the celebrated Troad, or plains of 
Troy. This terminated at the south in a bold cape, Baba- 
boomoo, with its white fortifications at some distance above 
the water, and still farther in the south were the blue sum- 
mits of Mytilene. As we neared the shore, and objects 
became more distinct, we saw nothing but a low barren 
plain, bounded in the rear by an insignificant hill, or rather 
low knoll, which was pointed out as the celebrated Ida. At 
various distances along this plain were scattered a few 
mounds of earth, resembling our western tumuli. The 
numerous mounds of a similar size, which we afterward 
saw along the coast of the sea of Marmora, were in them- 
selves enough to stagger the faith of the most credulous as 
to any particular authenticity to be attached to those on 
the plains of Troy. Nor are they even peculiar to this 
region ; for, as we have already seen, they exist in Candia. 
They are found in Russia and Tartary, in Brittany, Ireland, 
and over the United States. 

Lucas, a traveller who wrote about one hundred and 
twenty years ago, describes them as so numerous about 
Karahissar in Karamania, that he enumerated himself 
twenty thousand in that district alone. 

These mounds are, doubtless, of great antiquity, although 
we are not disposed to consider them as an evidence of the 
necessity of a large population in order to contribute to- 
wards tlieir erection. The very materials employed, being 
of the simplest kind, indicate a people not far advanced in 
the arts, and this is in favour of their antiquity, even if we 
were not aware of the fact, that no monument is so durable. 



44 taancHMM ov tuiujbi* 

none so little liable to be affected by exposure to the ele» 
ments as a simple mound of earth alone. They resemble 
precisely those found in our western States, and, like themt 
faaye given risen to many ingenious, and to not a few ab- 
curd, conjectures. The most generally-receiyed opinion is, 
that these mounds are funereal monuments, and their sizt 
has led to the inference, that the people by whom they were 
erected must have been more numerous than is generally 
supposed, and that the individuals to whom they were 
erected were famous personages of antiquity. 

The history of the actual erection of one of these mouadt 
about four hundred years ago may throw some light upon 
the subject, and, at the same time, will serve to explain 
some of the difficulties which have accompanied the va- 
rious theories broached about their construction. Such a 
history may be found in the ** Voyage de Constantinople en 
Pologne** of Boscowitch. He mentions having seen a very 
large one, called Moorat-tepaysi or the Mountain of Amu- 
rad. This mound was, upon positive testimony, constructed 
by the army of Amurad IL, when he was marching to fight 
the Prince of Servia. It was, doubtless, intended partly to 
give occupation to his army and keep them out of mischief 
partly to inflame their enthusiasm, and partly to commemo- 
rate the fact that his army had encamped on this spot 

Towards dusk we dropped anchor between Tenedot 
and the coast of Troy, the wind and the current from the 
Dardanelles being against us. Upon the authority of 
Virgil, 

** Est in conspecta Tenedot notiuima &ina 
Insula, dec statio maUfida caritn$y 

If the poet, who probably was never on salt water in his 
life, meant that it was dangerous on account of the anchor- 
age, he is contradicted by that most authentic record our 
log-book, which purports, that we anchored in thirteen 
fathoms, with a soft oozy bottom. It is probable that the 
vessels of that day were nothing more than somJI open 



iXSTCHXS OF TUSKXT. 46 

boats such as are still to be seen navigating these seas. 
Upon this supposition they must necessarily have hugged 
close in with the shore, or, what is more probable, have been 
drawn up on the land. In this case the poet's reputation 
for accuracy may be saved, although, if he were now alive, 
he would probably smile at the idea of criticising his poem 
by the standard of a hydrographical survey. 

Tired with having been *' cabined, cribbed, confined," 
for so long a period on board ship, and anxious to set our 
foot on solid ground, we left the ship as soon as the anchor 
was dropped, and, as the distance was short, were soon set 
on shore at the town of Tenedos. It was already dark as 
we entered the little harbour, which was overshadowed on 
its northern side by strong fortifications, whose extreme 
whiteness enabled us to trace their extent The harbour 
was nearly filled with small craft of all possible varieties 
of construction, and it was with some difiiculty that we at 
last succeeded in making our way to the landing-place. 
Here we were met by a Turkish officer of police, who, 
after civilly inquiring our business, and learning that we 
were anxious to procure some " creature comforts'* in the 
shape of meat, wine, &c., offered to conduct us to the 
house of the English consul We ascended a short slope 
which brought us into the centre of the town. The houses 
appeared to be low mud and wooden buildings covered 
with flat roofs. On our way our guide asked us if we 
would not be desirous of paying our respects to the agha, or 
governor of the island, to which, as a lion of any kind had 
been a rarity to us for some time, we gladly assented. 
Having despatched a messenger to notify the English con- 
sul of our august arrival, we followed our guide to a 
house which rose proudly above its neighbours in all the 
dignity of two stories. After groping our way through 
the lower story over a stone pavement, and climbing a 
rickety staircase, we were ushered, with all due formalities, 
into the presence of the agha. The room in which he rt- 



46 8KXTCHB8 OF TURKJET. 

ceived us was about twelve feet square, with windows on 
three sides, the floors covered with matting, the walls 
coarsely plastered, and the ceiling formed of unpainted 
boards. Around three sides of the room was a low broad 
platfonn, about six inches above the floor, covered with 
large cushions, and similar ones leaning against the wall. 
This is the celebrated divan which is so frequently alluded 
to in all oriental descriptions. It is at any rate a conve- 
nient article of furniture, far surpassing Gk)ldsmith's 



«« Bed by night, and chest of drawen by day,** ^ 

for it serves in the fourfold capacity of chair, sofa, table, 
and bed. They are usually stuffed with wool and covered 
with calico ; the more common sort are simply stuffed with 
straw. Almost blinded and stifled with tobacco-smoke, we 
made our way to one of the corners of the divan, where 
we were presented to the agha. Having been previously 
tutored by our interpreter, we were on our guard not to 
commit the oriental incivility of taking off our hats, but 
following the motions of the agha, placed our hands on our 
breasts, and, with a gentle inclination of the body, expressed 
in sonorous English our happiness at having made his ac- 
quaintance. After inquiries as to the nature and length of 
our voyage, and our proposed destination, we were pre- 
sented with coffee by the attendants in small cups hardly 
containing more than a moderate-sized thimbleful, and en- 
-•^osed in thin brass cup-stands ; small as it was, one-half 
•Consisted of grounds, and some of our party afterward de- 
clared that no earthly consideration would ever induce them 
again to taste another cup of nasty, burnt, Turkish coffee. 
Long amber-headed pipes filled with tobacco, and properly 
ignited, were presented to each. Some of the more squeam- 
ish objected to smoking from pipes which, the moment 
before, had been in the mouths of the servants, but under- 
standing that amber could not communicate contagion, we 



SKETCHES OF TUBXET. 47 

were all soon pufSng away as lustily as our Turkish neigh* 
bours. The narghilay, or water-pipe, with its long flexible 
tube was, however, a puzzler to all of us ; and our vain 
attempts to obtain smoke, or, as we designated it, *' to get 
up a head of steam," excited the risibility of our new 
acquaintances. The room was filled vrith the chief digni- 
taries of the island : among them the bey of the island, 
the military commander of the garrison, an emir distin- 
guished by his green turban, and the chief of the custom- 
house ; the remainder were officers of the garrison. Among 
Ae servants we observed several negroes, di3tinguished by 
three large scars in each cheek, and dressed in long flowing 
robes of scarlet cloth. We learned that they were from 
Dongola and Sennaar. As our communications could not 
be very copious, where one interpreter acted for six indi- 
viduals, we amused ourselves by examining each other's 
dresses, decorations, &c., which was done on both sides 
with the greatest freedom. A watch belonging to one of 
our party was particularly admired ; and upon learning its 
value, the been-bashi, or colonel of the garrison, oflered to 
give in exchange for it one of his scarlet slaves. 

After making our obeisances we withdrew, and oa the 
stairs found the servants posted in line with the most 
money-beseeching faces imaginable. We did not succeed 
in getting out of the house until we had been relieved of all 
our superfluous cash, amounting in all, as near as I remem- 
ber, to five or six dollars. This was, however, a trifling 
tax, compared to the honour of smoking a pipe with an agha, 
exchanging nods with an emir, and sitting cheek-by-jowl 
with a been-bashi. 

At the door, we met with and were formally introduced 
to the English consul. It has been our lot to meet with 
queer specimens of mortality in the shape of American 
consuls in various parts of the world, and more particularly 
in the Mediterranean, where they have been scattered about 
by our naval commanders with an unsparing hand. But 



■n EngjJBh consul, being generally more carefully selectedr 
and always better paid, is a totally diflerent personage. 
Our surprise, then, may be well imagined when, in the per- 
aon of the English consul, wc were made acquainted with 

• ragged, dirty old man, with a long grizzly beard, and 
looking not unlike ao old-clothesman. He was habited in 
the Greek costume ; his feet disdained the vulgar encum* 
brances of shoes or stockings, and he carried with a very 
consular air a dozen fowls in one hand and a basket ofe^s 

in the other. His name was II Signor C , of Venetiui 

descent, and he had been bom and brought up on n6 
island : he spoke Greek, Turkish, and a most appalling jar- 
gon which passed for Italian ; it need scarcely be added, that 
of English he was most profoundly ignorant I inquired of 
him what were the usual occupations of the inhabitants. 

* Making wine," was the reply. " But that only occupies 
two months ; what do you do during the remaining ten 
months of the year J" — " Aspettano, signor 1 they wait, 
sirT 

The island of Tcncdos is, indeed, as much celebrated for 
its excellent wine, as for the general indolence of its inhab- 
itants. It is said to contain a population of 3000, includ- 
ing a garrison of 200 soldiers. Originally peopled from 
Greece, and celebrated in poetic history as the island behind 
which the Greeks concealed themselves, in order to throw 
the Trojans off their guard, it has been alternately occu- 
pied by Persians, Greeks, and Venetians, until it fell into 
the possession of the Turks. As it would in the hands 
of an enemy be a formidable station to harass the a&vigx- 
tion of the Dardanelles, the Turkish government have 
■pared no expense to render the fortifications as complete 
■aposnble. 

Our new ocqaaintances from Tenedoi returned our visit 
die next momiog. Aficr spending some time in examining 
the ship, they retired to the cabin, where they conunenced 
■noking their pipes. Cider was set before them with the 



8KSTCHE8 OF TUBXET. 48 

proper explanation that it was not wine, whereupon they 
drank freely. A few bottles of champagne were waggishly 
introduced, as another variety of cider ; and although they 
had previously lauded the cider, as pek oee, or very good, 
they unanimously pronounced the champagne to be much 
superior. We were afterward informed that our common 
ship's whiskey (not being under the ban of their holy law) 
would have been quite as acceptable. We had an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing the fondness of the Turks for medicines, 
and the consideration with which they view a Frank phy- 
ittan. Our surgeon was wearied with details of their 
▼arious ailments, and their repeated and urgent requests 
for doses of physic. Tired with weighing out powders, he 
at length prepared a most villanous, but harmless, com- 
pound, which he gravely distributed among them for their 
imaginary complaints. If they once taste it, they will 
long remember the marvellous medicine of the American 
haykim.* 

In other respects, our Turkish visiters were extremely 
courteous and easy in their manners. Some of the more 
elderly of the party certainly exhibited what we are accus- 
tomed to consider as Turkish giravity, but the middle-aged 
and the young were as gay, and perhaps more lively than 
the same number of our own countrymen would have 
been under similar circumstances. They took leave of us 
with many expressions of good-will, and often repeated 
invitations to come once more on shore and pay them 
another visit 

* Doctor. 




%v, 



ntiTOiii or nrxxiT. 



CHAPTER VL 



Wb were under way &t daylight next morning, and og^ 
■umed an entire day in beating up against a beadinnd,4r 
the strong current which always issues from the DardaneOsi 
and sweeps along the coaat of Troy. What volumes have 
been written on the subject of Troy, and the question not 
only of its precise locality, but even of its existence, is stilt 
undecided. The Trojan war lasted but ten years, and the 
war about Troy has lasted as many centuries ; nor is it 
likely soon to be terminated as long as the loose rhapsodies 
of poets are construed as literally as the pages of a modern 
guide-book. The poems attributed to Homer are thought 
to have been composed about 400 years afler the dcstrucdoa 
of Troy, and it is known that they could not have been 
written until three hundred years later still,/or the obvious 
reason that there were no suitable writing materials until 
that period.* And yet oil the grave and learned disserta- 
tions about Troy are based upon such loose documents. 
Alexander, who always carried with him a copy of the 
Iliad, and felt or feigned the warmest admiration for the 
H(»neric heroes, visited this plain twenty-one hundred 
years ago, and offered garlands and sacrifices before what 
was pointed out to him as the tomb of Achilles. From 
thence he is said to have " ascended to the storm-exposed 
city of Priam,"-!- ^"^ Strabo has shown that Alexander was 

* Wol^ Pnlcgoinena to Homer. 

t Tb* wd^ of nidciKa with iMpaet t« lEw Ht« of T107 appean to b« 



BKBTCHBB OF TUR9XT. 61 

deceived in believing the Ilium of his day to have been the 
ancient city of Prianiy and that his theatrical enthusiasm 
was expended upon a spurious object. It is well known 
that Alexander founded the city of Alexandria Troas (now 
known as Eski Stambool) on the seacoast, but historians 
are not agreed whether he meant to designate the precise 
site of ancient Troy, or merely to commemorate his im- 
portant visit 

In perusing the accounts of travellers who have visited 
this celebrated spot, it is curious to notice how completely 
^ib imagination has run away with the judgment, and how 
authoritatively they pronounce upon a subject which Strabo, 
writing 1800 years ago, was unable to elucidate. What 
was then considered by the best historians as enveloped in 
Egyptian darkness, is to these travellers as clear as noon- 
day; although no tourist (Hobhouse alone excepted) has 
undertaken to correct the random guesses of his predeces- 
sors, without falling into the oddest blunders imaginable. 
One of the most amusing of this class is the English travel- 
ler Clarke, who scales the summit of a mound, calls it the 
tomb of Hector, and after sacrificing to his manes with a 
bottle of London porter, commences with abusing all his 
predecessors, and then obligingly informs us which is the 
Scamandej^\ind which the Simois, where good King Priam 
kept house, and where the Grecian fleet was moored. All 
this pompous guess-work, for it does not merit the name 
even of hypothesis, is amusingly varied by a volley of 
abuse upon all who presume to doubt. Thus he speaks of 
the ingenious Bryant, as " Jacob Bryant and his pettifog- 
ging skeptics," and those who venture to hesitate are charged 
with ''the most contemptible blasphemy upon the most 
sacred records of history !"* 

in favoar of Boomabashi, a liule Tillage near the hot apringi, and between 
the Simoia and the sourcef of the Scamander, about aeven milea fitom the 
■eaahorc in a direct line. 
* Sic in Ciaike'a LiiiB and Remaina. 



SKSTCHBS OF TIIKKKT* 

For 8acb» however, as may happen to have this book 
with'tbem on the spot, and have a taste for these investiga- 
tioQS, we annex a small plan of the Troad, with the 
various views entertained respecting its topography by di£> 
finrent travellers. 




4 



1. Trapeza of Olivier. 

2. Temple of Apollo Thymbrias. 

3. A modem cemetery. 

4. Tomb of Ajax, according to Olivier. 

5. Rhetean promontory. 

6. Harbour of the Grecian fleet 

7. Mouth of the Simois. 

8. Koomkalay, or sandy fort 

9. Sigean promontory, now Cape Janissary. 

10. Tomb of Achilles, according to Olivier. 

11. Tomb of Patroclus, according to the same author. 

12. Mender Soo, or River Scamander. 

18. River Thymbrius ; modem Thimbrek. Simois of 
Hobhouse. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 68 

14. Mound of the plain. 

15. New Ilium, according to Clarke. 

16. Hilly with a few granite columns. 

17. Scamander of Clarke. Simois of others. 

18. Boomabashi. Troja vetus of Olivier. The Troy of 

Chevalier, Cell, &c. 

19. Hot and cold springs. 

20. Scamander of Olivier. 

21. Ruins. Boomabashi of Clarke. 

22. Supposed tomb of Hector. 
9L Supposed tomb of Priam. 

24* Supposed tomb of ^syegetus, according to Olivier. 

25. Old channel of Boomabashi, according to Clarke. 

26. New channel, supposed to be artificial. 

27. Mound of Antilochus, according to Olivier. 

28. Mound of Pcnelaus, according to the same. 

29. Amnis navigabilis of Pliny. 

With all this imposing pretension to exactness, there is 
not more than one point in this plan which can lay claim to 
probable accuracy ; and when we strip the subject of all 
the fabulous creations of the poet, and the subsequent 
mystifications of the historian, wc can only glean a few 
barren facts. 

Fuit Ilium — Troy was. Of this there can be little doubt, 
although the precise period of its existence is absolutely 
unknown. The reader may choose between the computa- 
tion in Pausanias which places it 1270 years before Christ, 
or twenty years later according to Larcher, or 100 years 
later as Eusebius thinks he has established ; or he may 
adopt the chronology of Newton, which places it only 900 
years before Christ. In either case he will not be more 
than 400 years wide of the mark ; but this is a mere trifle 
when we are discussing facts which may have occurred 
three thousand years ago. 

It appears, however, to be established, that such a town 



64 IKXTCHES OF TUHKBT* 

once existed. A peaceful tribe of Greeks, vrbo subsisted 
by grazing cattle, formerly occupied the plains of Troy 
and the adjacent regions. This tribe, under a sachem or 
chief, who has descended to us under the title of the godlike 
King Priam, possessed a town which the poets have of 
course invested with the requisite towers and castellated 
battlements, but which in all probability was a mud village, 
surrounded by walls of the same humble materials. After 
the second Theban war, a band of robbers and cut-throats, 
** the cankers of a calm world and a long peace,^ allured 
by the hope of plunder, determined upon a marauding A* 
pedition against this village. The origin of this war is 
said to have been the usual teterrima causa^ — a woman. 
This appears to be the general opinion, although the father 
of history thinks that he has satisfactorily proved that 
Helen never was at Troy, and that after its destruction 
Menelaus found her at Memphis in Egypt. 

Homer estimates the number of Greeks engaged in this 
expedition at 100,000 fighting men, and nearly 200 vessels. 
A cipher more or less would cost the poet no trouble, unless 
it should happen to interfere with the metre, and we are at 
liberty to make our own deductions accordingly. Striking 
off one-half of the number of vessels, and supposing them 
to be no larger than those employed at the present day m 
these seas, we may conclude that these freebooters scarcely 
exceeded a thousand in number. They succeeded in mak- 
ing good their landing, and a series of petty skirmishes 
ensued, in iriaeh the chief weapons employed were the 
nails and fistSi ckibs, sticks, and stones, 

UnsQilNU et pagnis, dein fiutiboi 



Even through the graceful veil which poetry has thrown 
over this story, it is not difficult to perceive that this ten 
years' skirmish was carried on pretty much in the same 



•KBTCHES OF TURXXT* 65 

manner as a modem Greek fight.* Millions of combatants 
would, according to the poet, be engaged in mortal conflict 
during a whole day, and the awful result would be that 
some one adventurous Greek or Trojan might be knocked 
over with a stone, or peradventure the capture of a fat ox 
be considered as decisive of the contest ; and such portions 
as escaped the tooth of the soldier would be paraded around 
the camp as the spolia opima of victory. It is amusing to 
see how the spirit of poetry can invest with dignity the 
most lowly subject, give intense interest to the veriest 
commonplace, and lead us, in spite of ourselves, to side 
with the weak, the wicked, or the undeserving. Not con- 
tented with distorting facts, it has not unfrequently been 
made to dignify crime ; and robberies, rapes, and murders, 
in the hands of a Homer, an Ariosto, a Byron, or a Scott, 
become praiseworthy, and almost divine transactions. It 
would be curious to try some of the most memorable and 
bepraised deeds of antiquity by our modern notions of 
equity. We should very possibly discover that where the 
ancients decreed an ovation, we should have recourse to 
the whipping-post; that solitary imprisonment would be 
substituted for the civic crown ; and that what formerly 
elevated a man to the rank of a demigod, would in our 
days inevitably bring him to the gallows. 
But leaving the ^ winy Homer^'f and his splendid fables,;^ 

* The groand is classic, and like the worthies of Homer, the hostile 
heroes mast first abuse each other . . . Then he would hair the descendants 
of Themistocles Tociferating, " Approach, ye turbaned dogp I come and see 
OS making wadding of your Koran ; look at us trampling on your faith, and 
giving pork to your daughters.**. . . When the carnage ceased, he would find 
half adoien killed on either side, and he would see the classic Greeks wrang* 
Hng over the bodies of their own people for the dead men's shirtsii . . . 

t Laudibus arguitur vini, tintmu Homerus. 

HoR. Ep. xix. 

t ** The chief of ancient eiities,'* says Shaftesbury, •* extols Homer above 
all things for understanding how to lie in perieetioii. His lies, accoiding t» 



56 IKSTCHEB OF TITBKBT* 

our business is with the plains of Troy, as they appeased 
in the summer of 1831. 

What is called the Troad, or plain of Troy, is about 
thirty miles in length along the coast, and extends from the 
Dardanelles to the Gulf of Adramettus. At either ex- 
tremity, however, it terminates in elevated land, as at 
Sigeum or Cape Janissary on the north, and Cape Baba to 
the south. Sailing along the coast you see a barren plain, 
bounded in the distance by a low chain of hills. The most 
elevated of this range is called Ida, and to a number of 
pyramidal mounds of earth are fancifully given the naidik 
of Hector, iEsyegetus, Priam, Ajax, Protesilaus, &c. Inde- 
pendent of their historical or fabulous associations, the plains 
of Troy present a dismal scene. They are covered with 
thistles and a species of scrub oak, and during the winter 
are generally overflowed with water. Near the sea-shore 
the plain ends abruptly in low clay banks a few feet high. 
We came to anchor in the afternoon near Koom Boorno 
(sand cape), with a village situated on an elevated hill. 
This village I find entered in my note book, from the infor- 
mation of our pilots, under the name of Javoor Keui. It 
should be stated tliat this name, or rather Giaour -Keui, 
means literally Greek village, and docs not designate this 
from any otlier ; and aflbrds another example of the facility 
with which mistakes respecting the names of places may 
be made by travellers. As we approached the shore, the 
scene became lively and animated. Reapers were cutting 
down grain, peasants were actively employed in loading 
cartSt drawn by oxen, with the rich han'cst, and the crowd 
of labourers, with their gay, particoloured dresses, gave an 
air of gayety and enchantment to this pastoral picture. 
From the summit of the hill a steep and winding path de- 
scended to the seashore. In many places it was completely 

that maiter's opinion, and the gravett and most venerable writen, were in 
themaelvea the jutteit moral tinths, and exhibitiTe of the beit doctrines and 
instruction in life and manners/* 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 57 

hidden from view by the tall trees which overshadowed it, 
but in the open spaces we could see groups of women 
passing up and down the path. From the crowds wKo sur- 
rounded one particular spot, it was easy to perceive that a 
fountain of water was the chief attraction. Impatient to 
mingle in this busy scene, and to set foot upon the con-^ 
tinent of Asia, we left the ship and hastened on shore. 
The water was of crystal transparency^ and the boat 
grounded at the distance of several hundred yards from the 
shore ; but in our eagerness to land we rejected the prof- 
ferred backs of the sailors, and jumping overboard waded 
quickly to land. We soon struck into the hill-path noticed 
from the ship, and about midway up we came to the fountain^ 
It was a lovely spot, shaded by large trees, and looking out 
upon the wide Egean with the islands of Tenedos, Lemnos, 
and Imbro in the distance, and beyond them all the lofly 
peaks of Samothraki. Almost under our feet lay our noble 
ship, and around her were scattered many of those pictu- 
resque vessels whose white and fantastically shaped sails gave 
an additional interest to the scene. The far edge of the 
horizon was dotted with white specks, while here and there 
a pile of canvass, rising like a pyramid in the air, indicated 
the presence of some foreign vessel of war. 

The fountain itself was composed of a large coarse- 
grained white marble slab, standing upright against the side 
of the hill, and furnished with metallic spouts, through which 
the water was discharged into a deep marble basin beneath. 
Connected with this was a range of similar stone basins or 
troughs, evidently intended to supply the cattle with water* 
On the upright slab was a long Greek inscription, which we 
did not copy, because the Greek cross above it attested its 
modem origin, and we had no doubt that it had already been 
copied by many of the hosts of travelling bookmakers who 
had preceded us. Although on classic ground, we did not 
oficr libations to the goddess Egeria, but contented our- 
selves with slaking our thirst in the limpid stream, which 

I 



68 8KXTCHX8 OF TUHKBT. 

derives its supply from the Scamander, and congratulating 
each other on the prospect of a speedy termination of our 
voyage. We then hastened forwards to the plains of Troy. 
A weary and toilsome scramble through scrub oaks, this-, 
ties, and reeds, with no work of art nor any striking pro- 
duction of nature to animate our search, soon induced our 
party to retrace their steps ; and one of the number, who 
had travelled in Greece, vehemently declared that the 
Troad was as complete a humbug as Corinth or the ruins 
of ancient Argos. The plain, it is true, is here, and so 
is the yellow, or rather muddy Scamander, and the little 
brook Simois, and the gigantic tumuli which are supposed 
to be sepulchral mounds; and at a distance is the little 
dirty hamlet of Boornabashi, with its hot-springs; but, 
except as affording a fine field for conjecture and snipe- 
shooting, all the rest is, 

** Tionortcm* no no rfy^ 
%iKKafia9 KiKKa$a9 
Toporoporopo ropoXtkiXiyiJ'* 

We returned to the village Yenikeui, near our landing- 
place, and were soon surrounded by numbers of haggard 
wretches, who implored our charity, or endeavoured to per- 
suade us to exchange genuine antiques and copper coins 
for the silver representations of his Spanish majesty. We 
purchased a few; and among them a brass finger-ring» 
which may perhaps have decorated the royal hand of good 
King Priam, or the king of men. In the course of our 
stroll through the town we had occasion to witness the 
fabrication of pottery — ^the most useful, and probably the 
oldest, of the arts. In shape and fineness the articles manu- 
factured here are not superior to those which have descended 
to us from our aboriginal predecessors through many cen- 
turies. Provisions, such as Indian com, egg-plants, melons, 
poultry, and eggs, were remarkably cheap : of the latter, 400 
were purchased for a dollar. The biead is black and coarse ; 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 60 

but after eating ship-biscuit for nearly two months we found 
this very palatable. In the shop of a grocer we observed a 
number of modem Greek Bibles with the London imprint 
We inquired if many were sold : the man replied, that the 
people were too poor to purchase, and he was not such a fool 
as to give them away. If this be true, it would seem that 
notwithstanding the praiseworthy efforts of the London 
society, its objects are defeated by the selfishness of its 
Trojan agent 

The next morning found us under way, and beating up 
through a very narrow channel: we weathered a rock, 
north of Rabbit Island, and stood over to Imbro, to avoid 
the current which is here sensibly felt running out of the 
Dardanelles. As soon as the direction of the wind per- 
mitted, we shaped our course for the straits, keeping close 
in with the European or Thracian shore. A mound which 
we noticed on the Thracian peninsula is considered, but I 
know not on what authority, to be the tomb of Protesilaus. 
At any rate, the Macedonian madman Alexander supposed 
it to be such, and sacrificed to the manes of that hero. We 
soon entered these celebrated straits, which are about six 
miles wide at their mouth, and defended by very powerful 
military works, built, it is said, by Mohammed IV., in 
1659, to guard against the hostile attacks of the Venetians. 
The castles and long line of batteries, tier upon tier, at- 
tached to them, had an imposing effect. They are said to 
have been much improved of late years, and to be quite as 
efficient and formidable as any similar fortification of the 
same size in any part of Europe. In some parts of the 
works we could see those immense brass guns which, from 
their size, have figured largely in the journals of travellers. 
They discharge stone balls, of which heaps were piled up 
alongside of them. We are now within the Dardanelles. 
High hills are on either side, under cultivation on the 
European shore; but on the Asiatic or Trojan coast covered 
with wood, chiefly the oak {Qiiercus aegilops), which fur- 




M ntETCHSI OF TUBKKT. 

nisbes the valonia. Numerous English vessels were an- 
chored along the shore, waiting for cargoes of this article, 
which has of late years been extenuvely introduced into 
England for the purposes of tanning leather. The prindple 
of tannin is found most ahundant in the cup, although the 
whole acorn is used for this purpose. We beat up eight 
miles, and came to anchor four mites helow the upper 
oastles, a short distance astern of the corvette John Adams, 
which had left America two weeks before our vessel wai 
launched from the stocks. 

We went on shore on the Astatic side, in hopes of pick- 
ing up some game, which we were informed abounded on 
the hills. A camel* and its young were the first objects 
that attracted our attention, and brought with them a vivid 
impression that we were in the land of the East. We passed 
likewise a Turkish peasant, raking wheat-straw ; but, aside 
&om his costume, we saw nothing in his instrument, or the 
manner in which he liandled it, different fitHn an American 
fiirmer. Scarcely stopping to pluck the various plants, 
among which we remarked the Spartan ciaiua, sumach, and 
the beautiful orfrutiu with its scarlet fruit, we hurried on to 
a Turkish village, which, from the ship, appeared to be on a 
hill nearly over the water. The hills in this neighbourhood 
are composed of clay in various states of indurati(»), with 
beds of a vesicular limestone. Near the shore the clay- 
beds are very extensive, and beautifully variegated widi 
many bright colours. About midway up a calcareous grit 
made its appearance, and near the summit a fine-grained 
limcatooe. When we bad attained this elevation, the vil- 
lage appeared on the summit of a hill still farther in the 
interior, and, nothing daunted by the disappointment, we 
pushed on in hopes of reaching it in the course of an hour 

* There sra Iwo ipeeiei of (he carnal — C. Battrvaaa, with Iwo himip*, 
■nd C. ifrcnidnniu, with but ona. It u tha latter apeciai, which ia mora 
fanerallj knowa DDder the nuie of diomadaT;, that ia moat oHninMi u) 
Tvi^Kj, PenU, .nd Syria, 



SKXTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 61 

at the furthest. Crossing a piece of cultivated ground, which 
was covered with ripe musk and water-melons, we had 
much difficulty in preventing a Turkish peasant who was 
near the place from running away. We made him under- 
stand that we wished to purchase some of his melons ; to 
which he agreed. After despatching several on the spot, a 
new difficulty arose, as we had no money except gold with 
us. By this time he had recovered from his alarm at the 
presence of so many armed strangers, and told us, very 
civilly, that we were heartily welcome to what we had 
eaten, and as much as we could carry away. Upon in- 
quiring the distance to the village, which was then in sight, 
but apparently farther than ever, he told us that it would 
take us full two hours to reach it. We had already trav- 
ersed through bush and brier at the expense of our skin and 
clothes ; and as the sun was sinking fast in the horizon, we 
determined to retrace our way to the ship. 

Although the country appeared to be in general wild and 
uncultivated, and holding forth an encouraging prospect of 
game to the sportsmen, yet nothing beyond a solitary wood- 
pecker (Picus major) rewarded their exertions. In one of 
the wild mountain-paths we suddenly fell in with a Turkish 
youth, about 16 years old, mounted on a spirited Arabian, 
and pouring forth a song with all the light-heartedness of a 
school-boy. Upon seeing us, his hand was instantly upon 
his dagger; but after a moment's pause he approached, 
threw himself from his horse, and addressed us with all the 
ease and self-possession of a well-bred man. His face was 
extremely prepossessing ; and although his legs were bare, 
and from exposure tanned yellow, yet the almost feminine 
delicacy of his complexion and the richness of his dress 
induced us to suppose he was the son of some man of con- 
sideration in the vicinity. His curiosity was much excited 
when he learned that we were Americans ; and his ques- 
tions evinced more judgment than could have been expected 
from one of his age. Who was our padir shah ? what was 



«8 

our religion f what use did we make of all the opium we 
carried away from Turkey? and a number of other 
questions were uttered with the volubility of a Greek, 
rather than with the stupid apathy which we are accus- 
tomed to consider as characteristic of the TurL We 
parted with many expressions of good-will on our side^ 
which he returned with the most graceful gestures and 
acknowledgments. 



CHAPTER VIL 

Vint firom Uie Pacha — Hm armed Attendant! — ^Anecdote— DasdaneUea — 
Difficulties of the Paasage — Scenery — Sestoa and Abjdoa — Lord Byron 
— ^An American Swinmier — Forta of the Dardanellea — ^Foraging Visit to 
Maito— Mode of taking Fish in the Helle^Mmt — Lampsaki — Gallipoli — 
Sea of Maxmora. 

Or the following day we received a viat fit>m the aid of 
the Pacha of the Dardanelles, accompanied by an Italian 
physician. Dr. Lazaro, as his interpreter. The aid, whose 
rank was that of a colonel, was splendidly dressed in a 
military uniform, and, but for his scarlet fez, or Turkish cap, 
might ahnost have been taken for a European officer. He 
was extremely gay and frank in his manners, laughed 
heartily, and tossed off our cider with great freedom, but 
objected to champaign, not, as he declared, from any reli- 
gious scruples, but on account of the example to his attend- 
ants. Among these were two Greek slaves, who had 
embraced Islamism, and several soldiers in superb scarlet 
uniforms. Their arms consisted of a pair of huge pistols, 
with silver mountings, worn in the belt, and a dagger or 
yataghan. This is furnished with a large and curiously- 
shaped ivory handle, and a blade eighteen inches long. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 63 

slightly curved, with its cutting edge on the concave side. 
The blade was inlaid with gold, and was covered with long 
inscriptions on each side in Turkish characters. 

A pair of foils and masks happening to attract the atten- 
tion of our visiter, their use was explained, when he ex- 
pressed a great curiosity to witness a scientific set-to. This 
was immediately complied with, and in all probability it 
was the first thiqg of the kind that he had ever seen, for his 
countenance immediately assumed a grave and anxious 
appearance, as he watched the progress of the mimic fight. 
It was highly amusing to witness the eager gaze and ani- 
mated looks of his attendants ; and as the passes became 
more frequent, they held their breath, grasped their arms, 
and seemed ready to join in the conflict. The scene was 
becoming too serious, and we accordingly broke off, and 
adjourned to the cabin to resume our pipes and thin pota- 
tions ; for by this time we had furnished ourselves with 
tobacco and the Turkish chibook of the legitimate size. 

As the jest and the laugh freely circulated, some one 
observed, that in America we had been led to believe that 
a Turk never smiled, and that they regarded the slightest 
jest with aversion ; but that from what we had already seen 
we were agreeably surprised to find them a set of jolly 
dogs. The colonel, with great readiness, immediately re- 
plied, that he also had been surprised to find the Americans 
such polished and agreeable people, and not, as he had been 
informed, complete savages. '' But I suppose," he added with 
a significant smile, ^ the mutual misrepresentations about 
each other may be traced to the same kind source. Let us 
hope, that when we come to be more intimately acquainted, 
the result will be reciprocal esteem and respect." He took 
leave of us with many cordial invitations to pay him a visit, 
which we promised to do, if we were detained by the wind 
another day. 

In the aflemoon we received a present, in the name of 
the pacha, of fresh beef, half a dozen sheep of the broad^ 



64 SKXTCHS8 OF TUSKST. 

tailed variety, and remarkably fine lobsters, besides several 
bushels of delicious white and black grapes, egg-plants, 
ockres, and other vegetables. This was accompanied by 
two demijohns of the excellent wine of the country. Ac- 
cording to oriental usages, a present always requires a 
return, and we accordingly, for want of something better, 
begged his excellency to accept a few boxes of our best 
American cider. 

The Dardanelles, or Hellespont,* for it is known under 
both these names, is, according to the chart, about fifty 
miles in length from its mouth to Gallipoli, where it begins 
to widen into the Sea of Marmora. Its breadth varies from 
two to five miles, but in the narrowest part, as at the upper 
castles and Abydos, it docs not exceed a mile and a half 
across. There is a perpetual current running into the 
Mediterranean at the rate of firom one to four miles the 
hour, which presents a great obstacle to commerce. As 
the wind most frequently has the same direction with the 
current, vessels are detained many days, and even weeks, 
waiting for a favourable wind. We were informed that 
an American vessel was compelled to wait here last year a 
whole month for a fair wind, and an Austrian was still 
more unlucky, for it was detained fifty-eight days. This 
was not a very agreeable prospect for us, and we wished 
most heartily for one of our own steamboats, to give us a 
friendly tug through the most difficult part of the passage. 
Two or three powerful steamboats would indeed be of great 
service here, and would amply remunerate their owners. It 
should, however, be a government concern ; and all vessels, 
upon paying a sum equivalent to light or sound duties, 
should be entitled to its benefits. The whole distance for 

* A imidl town, Daidanut, near Cape Janizary (Sigeam), originatod 
the first name ; the aecond is a compound, meaning the Grecian Sea. Old 
Bochart, however, derives the latter from Elisha, the eldest of Javan*8 sons, 
Elis-pont ! ! The Turkish name is Boghaz-hissarlairee ; which may b« 
translated, the fortified passage or straits. 



nUSIXlUJfiS OF TUBKXT* 6ft 

which the services of a steamboat would be required does 
not exceed five miles ; and this might be easily done by 
two vessels, which would, at the same time, serve to form 
a daily line between Constantinople and Smyrna. The 
distance between these places by water does not much ex- 
ceed three hundred miles ; and this could be accomplished 
\irith ease, by vessels built after our Hudson River models, 
in twenty-four hours. 

While we were speculating upon our future prospects, 
and anticipating a tedious delay, our pilot, who had been 
anxiously scrutinizing the southern horizon at the entrance 
of the straits, announced that the wind was coming in from 
the sea, and gave the joyful order to weigh anchor. We 
quickly got under way, with nearly one hundred sail of 
all descriptions and nations, literally whitening the Hel* 
lespont with our canvass. Among these vessels wero 
Italian bombards, Dutch galiots, Ionian trabacolos, Greek 
misticos (under the Russian flag), English brigs, and a fleet 
of Turkish chektermays and saccalayvas. 

The scenery on each side strongly reminded us of our 
own dear Hudson above the Highlands, although infinitely 
more picturesque. The hills slope up from the water's 
edge, sometimes forming bold and abrupt blufis in their 
ascent, while at others the gradual rise is interrupted by 
long lines of terraces, absolutely glittering with flowers of 
every brilliant hue. Occasionally beautiful valleys descend 
to the water's edge, interspersed with cottages and country- 
seats, among groves of pines, orange, and lemon-trees, while 
dense clumps of the dark green cypress marked the situa« 
Uon of a Turkish burying-ground, and, by its sombre hue, 
heightened by contrast the general beauty of the picture. 
White marble fountains, shaded by majestic trees, were 
surrounded by groups of Turks in gay party-coloured 
dresses, smoking their pipes, and quaflSing sherbet in the 
shade. 




HKKTCKB8 OF TUBKSr. 




As we approached the extensive fortressefl which com- 
mand the narrowest part of the Dardanelles, a scene of a 
difierent nature presented itself. As a compliment, we 
hoisted a large Turkish flag, and immediately a hundred 
flags arose from every part of the castles on either side of 
the straits. The consuls of all the European nations lesid- 
iog here also hoisted the standards of their respective 
countries,* and the long line of white battlements was 
crowded with spectators. Taking the lead of our fleet, 
we nn rapidly up the straits, and passed a low point ot 
land on our right, which is covered with a circular batteiy, 
maricii^ the site of Abydos. At this place Xerxes croned 
with hia Persian host, on his disastrous expedition against 
Greece. The wind, shortly alter we had passed this placer 
died away, and we anchored about three miles above, on 
the European side, under a high point of land, which ic' 
commonly supposed to have been the ancient locality of 
Sestos. This spot has obtained a singular celebrity, aa the 

■ The American Bag nu the onlj one not eihibileil. We were ■IU|> 
Trard informed that ne have a connil herr, but he nan loo poor to purelkwe 
a fla£. Ha ii a reipectabte Jtvr, with twenly'live children, and hia connlar 
feci amount tosboot lii dollan per annum. It need warcelf be wlded Aal 
he hai no lalaijr. His oRlciBi rank, hoRever, ia very great, and he enjoja 
tha ineitimabte privilege of ilrulUng through Iho iliitj ilieeta of Ihii tillage 
with bii tnentj-fite children all clad in jelloi* ■lippen. He ii the LeratttiiM 
Jew alluded to by Turner, who waa formcrlj the Kugliah lice^coiiaul M llw 
Dardanellea, a poal which bii family hu filled for succeiuTa gniarDlioDa. 



nvrcHEs OF tubket. 67 

pkoe wbence Leander swam across the Hellespont to visit 
his mistress. As doubts had been thrown upon this import- 
ant historical fact by various erudite authors, Lord Bjrron, 
whose fondness for aquatic exercises of this kind is well 
known, attempted to prove the possibility of Leander's feat 
by swimming from Sestos to Abydos. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, for his lordship's experiment, he seems to have mis- 
taken the real locality ; for, according to his friend Hob- 
house, who was an eyewitness of the exploit, he swam from 
the European shore, " nearly a mile and a half above the 
European castle, at a point of land forming the western 
bank of the deep bay of Maito, and landed two and a half 
miles below the castle on the Asiatic side.** Commodore 
De Kay swam across from the shore near which our ship 
was at anchor, and of course from the most authentic site 
of Sestos, to the opposite shore, under the point of Abydos, 
in about an hour and a half, with comparative ease. 

The whole thing of course is of little moment, except as 
it gave rise to an amusing controversy between Byron and 
Mr. Turner. This latter gentleman insisted, that to prove 
the possibility of Leander's exploit, Byron should liave 
swum back again, allowing as reasonable a delay lor lett 
as Leander might have done for love. Turner attempted 
to swim from the Asiatic side ; but, after struggling twenty- 
five minutes against the stream (" the first modem tory, 
Byron observes, who ever swam against the stream for 
half that time"), he found that he had not advanced a hun- 
dred yards. The truth is, that by going up on either side, 
so as to take advantage of the downward current, there is 
no difficulty in passing and repassing the straits. But, as 
Byron observes, whether Leander really performed it is 
another question, for he might have had a small boat to save 
him tlie trouble. 

The accompanying sketch, on a scale of an inch to a 
mile, will furnish the reader with an idea of the various 
defences of the Dardanelles, from the upper or inner castles 



toAbydoa. It wiU be recollected, that in additioD ta tbefe^ 
an enemy ivould have first to encounter the fire of the two 
k>wer castles at the entrance of the Dardanelles, besidea 
aeveral water-bstteries along the shores, carrying altogether 
HOS guns, jHrevious to meeting these formidable castles. 




fflili 



EVBOPIAW. 

B«htf 



156 font. 



% Kiamhiy Boormimy 30 do. 
8. Water Battery 20 do. 
4. Boovam Isealewee 60 do. 

S65 



ASIATIO. 

No. 6. Dardanelles, or Sool- 

tanie leealeasee ' IMguai 

6. Water Battery 60 do. 

7. Kioarie Booraoo 40 do. 

8. Nagara BooiBOO M do. 

S76 



Although these present a formidable aspect to an enemy, 
yet their importance has, we imagine, been greatly over- 
rated* A debarkation on the Thracian peninsula would 
take the works on the European shore with great ease, and 
those on the opposite side would fall of course. The real 
enemy, and the one most to be dreaded, is far in the rear 
of all these formidable works ; and past experienoe should 
have instructed the Turk that Russia does not depend so 
much upon her ships as upon her armed battalions. 

In the afternoon we set out upon a visit to a little village, 
called Maito, pleasantly situated on the borders of a deep 
bay below us, on the European side, and formerly a naval 



UUTCHX8 OF TUBXBT* 

Station of the Athenians. Passing the point opposite 
Abydos where Xerxes is supposed to have landed, we 
reached the village at dusk, and proceeded to the chief 
coffee-house in the place. It was dimly lighted up by an 
antique-looking lamp, suspended from the ceiling, and the 
cord by which it was attached was covered with a nimber 
of swallows, twittering and nestling about, perfectly unheed- 
isg the smoke and chattering below. The floor of this 
coffee-house was of earth, and the walls and ceilings were 
covered with gay paintings of fruits and flowers (arar 
besques), which had a very pretty effect After partaking of 
pipes and coffee, and discharging our bill, which amounted, 
if I recollect right, to the enormous sum of three cents for a 
party of six persons, we walked out to examine the village. 
For want of a better guide, we followed the steps of our 
Greek purveyor, who^ upon the strength of having lost his 
eyes in a Russian campaign, and speaking a little Italian, is 
the acknowledged agent and, for aught I know to the oon« 
trary, the consul-general for all the powers of Europe. The 
village is on a low marshy piece of ground, and a dirty 
stream of water occupied the centre of almost every lane 
through which we passed. It was formerly celebrated by 
Xenophon under the name of M adytus, but its present dis- 
tinction is confined to furnishing Greek carpenters and 
masons for Constantinople. Preceded by a Greek ladt 
bearing a paper lantern nearly as long as himself, we 
threaded many a dirty alley, while our consul-general 
bawled out his demands for poultry, &c. in the name of 
the United States of America. Heads were thrust out from, 
the windows, and various shrill voices were heard in reply, 
and our homely occupation afforded us an excellent excuse 
for seeing the interior of many families literally in disha^ 
bille. They all appeared to be miserably poor. On the 
ground-floors a large mat was spread, which, from the 
children still asleep on them, we supposed must serve at 
beds for the whole male part of the family. The women 



70 8BXTCHKS OF TUUKXV* 

and girls sleep up stairs. The old women were disagree- 
ably ugly, but the younger ones had sparkling black eyes 
and good complexions, as far as it was possible to discover 
it through the coats of dirt which covered their faces. 

Returning to the ship we had an opportunity of witness- 
ing the mode of catching fish by torch-light, which is, I 
believe, peculiar to the Mediterranean, and forms a beauti- 
ful subject of one of Lefueur's pictures. A fire is made on 
a grating projecting from the bow of the boat The net is 
carefully displayed, and the boat rowed slowly along, while 
a man at the bow alternately strikes the water with the flat 
part of an oar, and jumps up and down on the bottom of 
the boat It was a calm, starlight night, and the various 
flickering lights moving in all directions, the noise and 
shouts of the fishermen, and the plashing of the water, came 
upon us with a strange and startling efifect. 

The Hellespont has in all ages been celebrated for the 
abundance and excellence of its fish, and, if necessary, clas- 
sical authority might be adduced in proof. Commentators 
have been exceedingly puzzled about an epithet which 
Homer has applied to the Hellespont, and scores of scholia, 
annotations, and excursi have been written to prove that 
Homer, when he speaks of the broad Hellespont, either 
meant to say narrow, or that he knew nothing about it, or 
that he meant something else. So many wild and absurd 
conjectures have been sported by the learned as to what 
should be the real epithet, that I do not fear to advance a 
conjecture of my own. Insert then meo periculo, "the 
Jishy Hellespont," and the interpretation goes on swim- 
mingly. It is true that ix^viu^ is scarcely reconcileable with 
the metre, but every one will admit that it gains in sense 
what it loses in rhyme. 

The next morning we crossed over to Abydos, but after 
traversing fields covered with wild thyme, nothing but a 
few ruined walls and cellars of very doubtful antiquity 
rewarded our search. A &vourable breeze springing up, 



SEXttmmB OF TURKKT. 71 

vre rapidly passed Sestos, and the Hellespont now becomes 
a much wider stream. The mountains on the Asiatic side 
DOW recede, leaving wide and fertile plains under high cul- 
tivation, while the European shore, retaining its bold, moun- 
tainous character, was covered with large flocks of sheep 
and goats, tended by shepherds, as in the poetic days of 
pastoral existence. 

Passing the towns of Foondookli, Karacoval, and Galata, 
we were soon abreast of Lamsaki. Under the name of 
Lampsacus it has obtained some celebrity in ancient history. 
When the renowned Grecian naval hero Themistocles, 
who crushed the Persian fleet of Xerxes at Salamis, was 
afterward banished by his countrymen, the successor of 
Xerxes magnanimously received him, and allotted the reve- 
nues of three rich cities for his support. Lampsaki was 
one of these cities, and was for some time honoured with 
his residence. Here, too, resided the stem moralist Epi- 
curus, who by example and precept taught that true hap|H- 
ness consisted alone in intellectual enjoyments, and in the 
practice of virtue ; but by a strange perversity his name 
has descended to us as the apostle of voluptuousness. It 
is possible that the character of the ancient Lampsacus 
may have contributed to tarnishjiis own, for it was so cele- 
brated for its worship of the obscene deity, that its name 
has passed into a proverb. 

Nam mea Lampncio lascivit pa^na vena. 

Martial, lib. u. ep. 1 7. 

Below this town we endeavoured to find the Egos Pota- 
roos, or Goat's River, which is celebrated as the scene of a 
naval battle between the rival republics of Greece some 
twenty-three centuries ago. We saw indeed a little creek, 
Kara Ova Soo, which is usually noted as the place where 
this action occurred, but it required much faith to believe 
that 180 vessels on one side„and perhaps as many on the 



9S gaj T i ' cimi or 

other, should have been able to fight or maiKBavTe in this 
contemptible creek. If a battle in which such nomben 
were engaged ever did take place here, it must have been 
an afiair of rowboats. The modem Lampsaki has a pretty 
appearance from the water, is still as famous for its wine as 
it w^i 2000 years ago, and at present appears to contain 
about 900 houses. 

The breeze continuing to freshen, we soon were abreast 
of Gallipoli, on the European side, and the largest town on 
the Hellespont It is pleasantly situated in a bay on the 
slope of a hill, and a picturesque rocky bluff juts out from 
the town, surmounted by a venerable octangular tower, 
which formerly served the purpose of a lighthouse. Twelve 
minarets* were counted from the ship, and this will give 
a more tolerable idea of its size than the contradictory 
statements of travellersi who vary in their estimate of its 
population from 15 to 80,000. We observed in the town a 
large ruined tower, and the remains of a still greater one, 
which are not devoid of historic interest They are said 
to have been built some 400 years ago, by the celebrated 
Moslem conqueror Bajazct, surnamed Ylderem, or the 
Thunderbolt. Gallipoli is likewise memorable as the first 
town in Europe occupied, by the Turks under the learned 
and virtuous Amurath. The barracks for soldiers appear 
to be very extensive, and the town has an artificial harbour 
for small craft, with a small light on one of its piers. 
Between the two projecting capes on which stand the old 



* The miomret is a tlender tower aboat ten feet in diameter, and firom forty 
to eighty feet high. A spiral staircase within leads to a projecting balcony 
near the top, from whence the muzam, or parish clerk, calls the faithfol to 
ptayer. These minarets are always painted white, and their sammita 
terminate in a black pointed conical roof. They are always connected with 
a mosqoe, and prodace a pleasing and picturesqae effect in the distance, in 
■pite of the ludicrous association excited by their grotesque form. They 
hare not nnaptlybeen oompaied to a gigantic candle sonnoimted by its 
•ztingiiisher. 



8KBTCHES OF TURKBT. 7S 

and new lighthouses, is a bay of some extent, at the bottom 
of which is a lofty white octangular tower. This was said 
by our Greek pilots to be connected in some way with the 
receipt of customs, but its position and distance from the 
town renders this assertion very doubtful. The second 
point bears the new lighthouse, which, however, is never 
lighted except when the Turkish fleet is at sea. The Hel- 
lespont at this place is about seven miles wide, but imme- 
diately above spreads out to ten and fifteen, as it terminates 
in the Sea of Marmora. 

At dusk, the island of Marmora was descried from the 
-ship; it was rapidly passed during the evening, and the 
next morning at daylight found us at anchor under Cape 
Ste&no, with the domes and spires of Constantinople 
dimly seen through the haze. The wind had died away, 
mnd^ imt>atient of any further delay, we hastily threw 
ourselves into the ship's boat, and proceeded towards the 
city. 



94 ^ SKSTCHES OF TUBKBT. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

View of CoiiBtantinople— Seven Towers — Walls of the City — Sera^^' 
Point — Golden Gate — Galata — Dogs — Monks — Locanda Triestinft — 
Cmiks — Golden Horn — Bazars — Tozkish Eating-house — ^Kebaabe. 



Even at the distance of ten or twelve miles, the view of 
Ccmstantinople is highly beautiful. A ridge of considerable 
elevation, covered with habitations, and bristling with mina* 
rets and domes, terminates in a low wooded point, which 
marks the situation of the Seraglio, and the mouth of the 
Bosphorus. Over this point are the high hills of Asia with 
the city of Scutari, while farther on the right are seen the 
picturesque Prinkipos Islands. 

At the distance of four miles from Cape Stefano we 
reached the dilapidated walls of what is well known in the 
annals of diplomacy as the Seven Towers. Only four 
towers remain, the others having been destroyed by earth- 
quakes ; but it still retains in Turkish the name of Eeaidee 
Koolaylair, or the Seven Towers. Here commence the 
sea-walls of the city, which extend to Seraglio Point, a dis- 
tance of six miles. They are about thirty feet high, with 
battlements on the top, and at regular intervals strengthened 
by square bastions or towers. It is in a ruinous state, and 
apparently of great antiquity. Stones and bricks appear 
to have been indiscriminately used in its construction, with 
fragments of white columns, gravestones, and portions of 
sculptured marble. Here and there we passed a few miser- 
able huts on the outside of the wall, apparently inhabited 
by fishermen. To avoid the current, we kept close under 
the walls, which completely shut out the city from our 
sight ; and it was not until we had rounded SeragUo Point, 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 75 

that glorious Stambool, the ^ well defended city,** with its 
princely suburbs, the teeming Golden Horn, and the Bos- 
pborus lined with royul palaces, burst suddenly upon our 
view. 

The Seraglio, with its extensive gardens, occupies the 
lite of the ancient Byzantium. It is on a rising ground, 
but walls, which are very high at this place, and the thick 
groyes of trees, did not permit us more than an occasional 
glimpse of the lofty royal palaces within. A substantial 
stone quay runs along outside of the wall, and serves as a 
tow-path for boats against the current of the Bosphorus, 
which here flows with great rapidity. Passing by ranges 
of cannon of various uncouth forms, we came to the Golden 
Grate, one of the cockney curiosities of the place. It is 
merely a large folding gate, covered with gilding ; near it 
we noticed some large bones suspended by chains to the 
wall, which the vulgar believe to have belonged to a former 
race of giants. A single glance at the head was sufficient 
to enable us to pronounce them to belong to the spermaceti 
whale.* 

We landed near the custom-house in Galata, when a 
person addressed us in English, and communicated the 
unpleasant intelligence that plague and cholera were both 
raging in Constantinople, and that Pera, the residence of 
the foreign ministers, had been burned to the ground two 
days previous. Procuring a guide from the motley group 
around us, we proceeded to the counting-house of a mer- 
chant to whom we had letters of introduction. Making 
our way through narrow lanes, in many places completely 
shaded by grape-vines, stopping at every moment to survey 
some novelty, and jostling among Turkish porters, dirty 
Armenians, more dirty Jews, and chattering Greeks, our 

* Physeier mMcrocepkalus, According to Cuvier, a ipecies of this genus 
is not nnireqqently captured in the Adriatic. For many centuries the bones 
of the extinct elephant and mastodon were supposed in Europe to hare 
btkMigcd to the ancient sons of Anak. 



76 8KKTCHBS OF TTRKBT. 

progress was neoessarily slow. Two things particidarijr 
attracted our notice : the first was the entire absence of 
wheel-carriages of any description, which gives a strange, 
silent character to the streets ; the other was the few dogs 
we met with in our walk. They were, it is true, occasion- 
ally W be seen basking in the streets ; but they were per* 
fisctly harmless, and if struck ran yelping away. From 
the relations of travellers we were prepared to find them 
at every step» and to be attacked, if not absolutely devouredt 
before we could reach our destination* One of our partyr 
who, par parenthese, was a Philadelphian, declared, that so 
fiir firom findii^ dogs in such numbers, he really doubted 
whether they were as numerous as the bogs in New- York. 
The merchant received us with much civility, but informed 
us that every respectable lodging-house had been consumed 
by the recent fire. His own family resided at a village 
fourteen miles distant from the city, but he kindly sent one 
of his clerks with us to make the necessary inquiries for 
lodgings. 

Galata is almost exclusively occupied by Europeans; 
It is there that all the shops and counting-houses of the 
merchants and artisans are assembled ; and all the foreign 
commerce centres in this place. They are exempt finom 
taxes, and enjoy other important privileges ; but it is not 
true, as stated in all books of travels, that foreigners must 
reside there, or that they are not allowed to live in Con- 
stantinople. Their number is variously estimated at firom 
three to eight thousand, and they are allowed the firee ex^ 
ercise of their various religions. Indeed, to see the numbers 
of Franciscan, Dominican, and other monks stalking about 
the streets, with their sanctimonious and dirty fiices, one 
would be apt to imagine that he was in Palermo or Messina» 
rather than in the empire of the Faithful. I was afterward 
assured by an Irish gentleman, himself a Catholic, that there 
was no place in Christendom, not even excepting Sicily 
or Portugal, where the tenets of hia chiirob were ii^ni 



8KXTCHE8 OF TURKST. T7 

^orantly falsified, or where a more blind and stupid 
bigotry prevailed than among the Frank residents of Galata 
and Pera. 

After many inquiries we at last succeeded in obtaining 
temporary accommodations in a mijserable tavern. It was 
dignified with the title of Locanda Triestina, although 
Trista would have been a more suitable appellation. Our 
hostess, a fat bustling little Italian, ushered us into a dirty 
room, separated by a thin partition from another, in which 
a party of French sailors were carousing and shouting bac- 
chanalian songs, with as much ease and impunity as if they 
occupied a cabaret at Toulon. While our meal was pre- 
paring for us, we were diverted with one of the songs^ 
which was repeated so frequently that we could scarcely 
help retaining some portions of it in our memory. 

** Qae Mahomed fiit pea sage, 
Lortqu'il interdlt le vio ; 
£n verity, c'est dommage 
Son paradis est dinn. 
Je serdis tent^ d*y crois, 
Car j*aime fort lea houris ; 
Mais si I'on ne pent y boire, 
Serviteur au Paradis." 

Our talkative landlady expatiated largely upon the merits 
of the LfOcanda Triestina, and when she found that to 
this we lent rather an unwilling ear, dexterously changed 
the subject, and descanted upon the horrors of Con- 
stantinople. According to her statement, life was sur- 
rounded by so many terrors and dangers that it was 
scarcely worth preserving. And then she began to reckon 
these various horrors on her fingers. There was, first, 
revolution, then bastinadoes, plague, fire, and cholera. It is 
impossible to say how far the list might have extended, but 
we unceremoniously cut it short by requesting to be shown 
to our sleeping apartments. 

Thursday. We took a caj3c (pronounced cab-eek) this 



78 ntBTCHKS OF TVBKIT. 

momiiig, and crossed the Golden Horn to Constantiiiople. 
These caTks are the neatest and pretlieet boats that ever 
floated on the water. Light as our Indian bark canoei^ 
diey are for more tasteful in their form, and skim over the 
vater with surprising velocity. In their shape dec they 
■boDgly reminded us of those ancient paintings of boaU 
in which Charon is represented as ferrying departed sjurits 
over the Styx, and aa they have no row-locks their noisekas 
fffogress heightens the resemblance. They are elaborately 
carved within, and nothing can exceed the scrupulous 
cleanliness with which they ere constantly preserved. Ths 
watermen are dressed in a loose white Canton-crape shirt, 
and wear on their heads a small scarlet scuU-cap, which 
appears to be a feeble protection against a burning soo. 
They have the reputation of being very dvil, ootwitb- 
standiog their mustachios, which give them a ferocious 
look, and they afford the finest specimens of the genuine 
Tatar physiognomy to be found in the neighbourhood of 
Constantinople. 




These caiks are so very light that passengers are com- 
pelled to sit down CM) a carpet in the bottom of the boat, and 
the least motion, even the turn of the head, is sufficient to 
disturb the equilibrium. They are so numerous that one is 
in continual apprehension of being jostled or nm over, in 



SKETCHES OF TURKIT, 79 

which case they would, from their delicate construction, 
ineTitably be destroyed. Accidents of this kind are, how- 
ever, very rare ; they shout as they approach each other, 
glance off to the right or left as required, and hundreds 
may frequently be seen crowded together, and yet shooting 
forward in various directions, and avoiding each other with 
matchless dexterity. The number of these caiks has been 
variously estimated at from eight to fifteen thousand ; they 
cost from 950 to 9150 apiece, and the men are paid 
$15 per month, finding themselves. Gentility is measured 
by the number of oars. A shabby fellow uses a caik with 
a single pair of oars ; a gentleman must have two, but 
cannot exceed three. Foreign ministers are permitted to 
use seven, while the sultan frequently figures with twenty. 
From various opportunities which we subsequently had of 
testing their speed, there is no question that a three-oared 
caik, manned by Turkish rowers, would far outstrip our 
fleetest Whitehall barges. 

The Gk>Iden Horn, at its mouth, is about as wide as the 
East River ; and in less time than I have taken to describe 
the caik, we were transported across, and landed on a low 
wooden wharf on the opposite side. Making our way 
through narrow rough-paved streets, we soon found our- 
selves in the most striking part of Constantinople. It is 
needless to state that we were in the far-famed Bazar. 
The general effect is splendid and imposing; and yet, 
when examined in detail, there is little to create surprise 
or excite wonder. 

The Bazar, as every one knows, is a collection of shops 
Where goods are sold by retail : it covers several acres, 
and contains numerous streets crossing each other in every 
direction. A description of one shop will serve for all. It 
is a little stall, about ten or twelve feet square, hung round 
with the various articles exposed for sale : like the shops of 
Pompeia, they are entirely open in front, and are closed at 
night by hanging shutters, which serve as an awning during 



80 anrcHBt or Ttnuonr. 

tlis day. The 6oor of the atall ia raised two feet from 
the ground ; and upon a small rug, spread ont od this floor, 
sits the cross-I^ged Turkidi or Annenian shopkeeper. A 
small door behind him opens into a Uttle recess or apart- 
ment* where those articles are kept which cannot be co»- 
Teniently exposed in the stall. In making purchases, it is 
necessary to be on your guard, if you would avoid the 
grossest imposition. The Armenian. Greek, Persian, and 
Jewish shopkeepers do not hesitate to ask, at first, double 
the price which they mean eventually to take, and the Turit 
ia fost felling into the same practice. After I had visited 
these bazars several times, I inquired of a Tui^ &om whom 
I bad made several purchases, why he had adopted the ui^ 
fair practices of his neighbours 7 He replied, that they had 
informed him, that Franks were so much in the habit of 
beating down the price, that if they named immediately the 
lowest sum they would never be able lo dispose of their 
goods ; and that finding this to be really the case, he had, 
of course, adopted the practice. Id general, however, it ia 
safest to deal with the Turk. 

The bazars are covered overhead, and in many places 
arched over with stone in a substantial manner. As you 
traverse them, astonishment is raised at their apparently end- 
less extent and varied riches. Here, as far as the eye can 
reach, are seen ranges of shops filled with slippers and 
shoes of various brilliant hues : there, are exposed the gaudy 
products of the Persian loom. At one place drugs and 
spices fill the air with their scents, while at another, a long 
line of aims and polished cutlery flash upon the eye. Each 
street is exclusively occupied by a particular branch ot 
trade, and we traversed for hours the various quarters in 
which books, caps, jewehy, harness, trunks, garments, furs, 
dec., were separately exposed for sale. The crowds which 
thronged the bazars were so dense that it was with no little 
difliculty we made good our way : and when to this are 
added the numerous persons who were running about, hold- 



SKETCHES OF TURXET. 81 

ibg up articles for sale, and crying out the price at the top- 
of their voices — the sonorous Turkish accents predominaU 
ing over the various dialects of Europe^ — ^with the running 
accompaniment of the ceaseless Greek chatter, one may 
form a tolerably accurate idea of the noise and bustle of the 
scene. ' In many districts, such as the seal-cutters, diamond- 
workers, pipemakers, &c., the same little stall serves both 
as a place to sell their wares and as a workshop to manu« 
facture them ; thus giving an additional air of life and move-^ 
ment to the bustle which continually pervades these re^ 
gions. No person sleeps within the walls of the Bazar.- 
It is closed near sunset by twenty-two immense gatesr 
which lead into as many different streets ; and the shop^ 
keepers, at that time, may be seen returning to their homes- 
in different parts of the city, or filling the numerous 
eaika which then literally darken the waters of the Bos- 
phorus and the Golden Horn. 

In the course of our rambles through the streets our as- 
tcmishment was excited by witnessing the enormous loads 
carried by Turkish porters, and their capabilities in this- 
respect prove, if any proof indeed be wanting, how much 
sobriety and habits of rigid temperance add to the physical 
powers of man. When the article to be transported is ex- 
ceedingly lieavy, it is suspended by ropes to poles, of whicb 
the ends rest upon the shoulders of two men, similar to what 
is seen in the ancient paintings found in the catacombs of 
Rome. 

Upon our return we were induced by curiosity to enter 
a Turkish eating-house. The chief article of food is pilaffr 
or boiled rice and mutton, which is much finer flavoured 
than any I ever tasted in America. Ascending a high plat- 
form, we crossed our legs with becoming gravity, and had the 
pleasure of seeing our dinner cooked before our eyes. 
The mutton is cut up into snrvall pieces of the size of a 
quarter of a dollar. A spit, not much larger than a dam- 
ing needle, is thrust through a dozen of these bits ; and 



IKSTCHSS OF TUULBV* 



when the required nomber is prepared, the sfntf axe placed 
over a charcoal fire. They are roasted in this way very 
expeditiously. A soft, blackish cake of rye, previously 
browned, is placed upon a large tinned plate of copper ; 
melted grease, with finely chopped herbs, is poured over 
the cake, and the miniature mutton-chops, or kebaubSt 
are scraped ofi* upon the copper; over the whole is 
poured a quantity of sour milk ; and the dish is then pre* 
pared for eating. It was placed upon a small stool, about 
six inches high, before us ; and as knives or forks were, of 
course, out of the question, we ate with our fingers, after 
the fashion of the ancient Romans. We found the kebaub 
to be a most savoury dish ; and, notwithstanding the ab- 
sence of forks, we contrived to make a hearty meaL 
Water was afterward presented, with towels and soap, to 
wash our hands and beards ; and a large goblet of clear 
iced water concluded the repast. 



r.. • 



8KBTCHX8 OF TURKEY. Bt 



CHAPTER IX. 

TIm Fire al Pen— Tuikiih Fire-engine— Firemen— English Palace- 
Hie MiniaUrs* personal Losses — Anecdotes of Ibe Sufferers — Destructire 
Fires not peculiar to Turkey — Causes, wooden Buildings — Carelessness 
a!K>at Fire — Humanity of the Sultan — AsrAnd the Bosphorus — Its Name 
— ^Biide— Buyukdery — APidace — Its various Occupants — A Circasaiaa 
Lady. 

A FEW days since I ascended the narrow, steep, and 
break-neck lane which leads from Galata, to visit the scene 
of the late destructive fire at Pera. It broke out at ten 
o'clock in the morning, behind Pera, and at the foot of the 
hill upon which this suburb stands, and lasted until six in 
the afternoon, when, the wind dying away, it ceased of itself; 
having in that space of time swept over two square miles, 
and destroyed 10,000 houses, and property estimated to be 
worth eight millions of dollars. An English gentleman, 
who was an eyewitness and a sufferer, assured me that 
nothing surprised him more than the activity of the Turks 
on this occasion ; but that, apparently, no human efforts 
could have been of any avail. Indeed, when we afterward 
saw the machines used by the Turks to extinguish fires, we 
were not surprised at the feeble resistance which they could 
oppose to the progress of the devouring element. The 
engines, in fact, are not larger than those employed with 
us to water our gardens. They have but a single cham- 
ber, which is about eight inches long by three or four in 
diameter : they are carried readily about by hand, and, in 
fact, seem far better calculated to nourish than to quench a 
flame. The tulumbagees, or firemen, are selected for their 
great personal strength and activity. They arc naked to 
the waist, and their heads are protected by a broad copper 
cap. In this state they will rush into the midst of flanges. 



and work with the energy of demons. Our cwnpanion 
assured us that he saw a party of these tulumbagees thua 
employed, while another party were playing upon them to 
keep them cool, and preserve them from the scorctung beat 
The seraiskier with the principal high dignitaries of state' 
were present on this occasion, directing the operations of 
the firemen ; and when they could do nothing else, tbey 
assisted personally in removing furniture from the bumii^ 
buildings. This fact is mentioned, because I have siDce sees 
statements in some of the Europem newspapers, that the 
Turks manifested not merely their characteristic indifiei^ 
ence, but even a savage joy, at the destruction of m> mnch 
European property. I cannot well understand why they 
should have evinced any pleasure on this occanon, for 
independent of mosques, colleges, and other public build- 
ings, nearly every house, except those belonging to the 
foreign ambassadors, was Turkish property. That many 
ruffians, who are to be found in ail large cities, displayed a 
savage and ferocious exultation cannot be questioned, any 
more than that robberies of the most daring kind were also 
perpetrated during this distressing period. In these rob- 
beries the Maltese and Greeks of the Ionian Islands were 
the most conspicuous. Wc conversed freely with many 
of the Frank sufferers ; and they assured us that In no 
instance had a single article been lost which tbey had 
intrusted to the care of a Turkish porter. 

Many of the palaces of the foreign ministers, judging 
from the size and extent of the walls which were left stand- 
ing among the smouldering ruins, must have been exten- 
sive and costly structures. Over the door of one of these 
princely-looking mansions we noticed a marble tablet with 
this inscription : 

Muic ct JoMph 'pralecloribui 

Doniu M oDuin credidiL 

Anne 1807. 

Fridencoa Chirko. 



nanctass of turkbt. 85 

But neither Joseph nor Mary appears to have assumed the 
guardianship ; for the house and its contents had shared the 
common fate of its neighbours. The destruction of the 
English palace (built by Lord Elgin, of Parthenon memory) 
was unexpected, as it stood far removed from any other 
building. It was situated in the midst of a garden as ex- 
tensiye as the Washington Parade-ground, and this was 
surrounded by stone-walls twenty feet high. Trusting to 
its apparent security, much property had been conveyed 
there ; and many of the neighbours in the streets adjacent 
to the walls had thrown their furniture from their windows 
into this garden for safety. But the flames flew over the 
garden with the speed of the wind, and in the course of a 
few minutes the palace was enveloped in flames, although 
a hundred men had been previously engaged in keeping 
various parts of the building wet, as a precautionary mea- 
mre. The private loss of the English minister Gordon is 
said to have amounted to nearly 920,000, chiefly in the 
diamonds and jewels of his various orders. When I heard 
his losses regretted in society, I could not but compare 
them with those of my excellent friend Groodel, who, inde- 
pendent of the total destruction of his furniture and cloth- 
log, was in a few minutes deprived of his valuable library ; 
of manuscripts which had cost him the labour of years, and 
which never could be replaced. He had just completed an 
Armeno-Turkish dictionary and grammar, which would 
have proved invaluable to the oriental student ; these also 
shared the same fate. 

As we passed through the choked streets and over the 
still hot and smoking ruins, the walls of a house which had 
escafied the general conflagration of that day were pointed 
out. The owner congratulated himself upon his singular 
good fortune ; but upon opening the front door on the fol- 
lowing day the whole interior was discovered to be on fire. 
Owing to the want of sufficient air, the fire had made slow 
progress ; but upon opening the door, the whole burst forth 



8o aKBTCHxa or tvxhet. 

into flams, and the house was burnt to the grouod. Many 
moecdotes were detailed which illustrated the total want <^ 
self-possessiont which is but too frequently exhibited in sea- 
sons of sudden and general calamity. A poor widow, who 
bad buried her husband and three children a few weeks 
previous, was observed to be busily engaged in throwing 
all her furniture into a deep well. When the flames Anally 
drove her from the house, she was seen with her only child 
■none arm and a large bundle in the other. To the horror 
of the spectators, she deliberately threw the child into tha 
well, and ran off hurriedly with the bundle. 

It has been customary with travellers to advert to the 
frequency of fires at Constantinople, and to draw frwD it 
inferences unfavourable to the Turkish character. It can- 
not be denied that fires often occur, and when they take 
place, they must necessarily be of a very destructive 
character. A Frank resident of Constantinople during the 
last ten years assured me that he had kept a register of 
the number of fires, and of their extent ; and that up to the 
present time almost every private house in the suburbs of 
Pera, Galata, and Fundukli, had been burnt to the ground. 
But are such tires peculiar to Turkey T In the south <tf 
France a town was so completely destroyed, three years 
since, that not a single house was left standing ; and to 
come nearer home, had we not in New-York 131 difierent 
fires in less than a year ? Who can forget the destructive 
firea of Savannah, or the still more disastrous fate of Fayetto- 
ville 1 We have already alluded to the insufficiency of the 
means at Constantinople to extinguish fires : let us examine 
the causes which occasion their frequent occurrence. All 
travellers agree in stating that popular discontents are 
invariably accx>mpanied by extensive and repeated confla- 
grations. This is undoubtedly true; although fires from 
this cause are not so common at present as they were dur- 
ing the bloody reign of the Janizaries. It is only necessary 
to see the narrow streets, the ordinary style of buildingt 



flJUBTOUfiS OF TUKKEY. 87 

and the mode of living and customs of the inhabitants, to 
account for the extent and frequency of fires in this place. 
The streets are rarely more than twenty feet wide ; and 
the sultan, absolute as he is, would find much resistance in 
any attempt he should make to enlarge them. One of the 
tenures by which real estate is held in this country is called 
Vahkoof. 3y this, property is left to the legal heirs, and 
when these are finally extinct it ne(5essarily falls into the 
hands of the church. It may readily be imagined that such 
property is considered sacred, and, of course, cannot be 
interfered witli or taken away. In this particular, the com- 
mander of the faithful, the descendant of the prophet, and 
the absolute lord and master of the lives of millions of his 
fellow-beings, has not as much authority as the corporation 
of the city of New- York. If, however, he was really 
anxious to enlarge the streets, he might, one would suppose, 
stretch his power a little ; and, whenever a fire occurred, 
wder the streets to be made straight and enlarged. The 
mosques, tekkays, and a few other public buildings are 
cooatructed of stone ; but their private dwellings, and even 
the palaces of the sultan, are of wood. Any other style of 
building is considered by the Turks as a presumptuous 
attempt to raise imperishable dwellings for perishable man, 
and to imitate the temples erected for the worship of the 
Deity. Europeans, however, are permitted to build accord* 
ing to their own fancy. It will readily be conceived that 
houaea built of such combustible materials must afford ex- 
cellent fuel for a conflagration ; and the only wonder is, 
that when it has once fairly commenced, how it should 
ever stop. It is, however, satisfactory to know that build- 
ings of this kind arc of small pecuniary value, and can 
readily be replaced. Indeed, we remarked that the work 
of restoration had already commenced, and houses were 
running up in all directions with a rapidity which would 
have even excited the astonishment of our New- York job- 
builders. It was not uncommon to see a house framed, the 



roof on, tbe garret floored, and occupied by a family wfukr 
the carpenters and masons were hammering and plaiteiing 
ibe iloors and walls below.* 

Another cause of the frequency of fires is to be fcuad id 
the private habits, not only of the Turks, but of tbetr imi- 
talors the Greeks and Armenians. We allude to their 
charcoal fires, wbich are rjirelpRRly carried nhmit the houM 
in every direction, and to their constant practice of smok- 
ing. Carpenters, cabinet-maken, dec. may be seen daily 
smi^ng in their workshops, and knocking out tbe fire with 
the utmost nonchalance among the shavings and other com- 
bustible materials with which they are surrounded. In 
their own dwellings the fire is thus carelessly scattered about 
from their eternal pipes, cither upon the board fioor, or the 
more dangerous mat which covers it ; and in the cofiee and 
other public houses, the floors ore so marked with these 
burnt boles, Ih&i at a distance they somewhat resemble 
what is termed arabesque in architectural drawing. It it 
difficult to say whether this carelessness as to consequences 
results from the habitual indifference imputed to the Turka, 
or to the apathy which is said to accompany the immoderate 
use ot tobacco. 

In a conflagration where 1 0,000 houses were destroyed, 
and S0,000 persons turned into the streets, there must 
necessarily have been much suficring, but we did not learn 
that more than four or five Uvea were lost The TuA 
mtiers but little by a fire. His wardrobe is carried on hii 
back, and a large chest contains all his moveables, consiat- 
ing of a few amber-headed pipes, an oke or two of tobacco^ 
and perhaps the same quantity of coffee. If he saves thit 
his loss is nothing, except tbe rent of the bouse, wliich it 

* Ths Turidih word n U applinl to ■ prinle bailding, konaJt, or JbUmajs 
to apablic edifice uud by the govemmeal, and ami to a palace of the lalUn. 
Hence we have the baibaroui Levuiline word aen^io, which haa bean 
legated inlii oar language. The French have with more proprielj Mloptad 
BMuJy Iba oiiginal word. 



, SKBTCH88 OF TURKEY. 89 

always paid in advance. The fire luckily occurred in the 
day-time, and during a warm and pleasant season of the 
year. The sultan immediately caused 100,000 piastres to 
be distributed, and issued a firman in which he enjoined 
upon his subjects to receive into their houses, and to treat 
with kindness, all the sufferers by the fire, whether Greek, 
Frank, Armenian, or Jew. He likewise assigned for their 
immediate accommodation the large barrack in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pera, which is capable of holding 7000 men ; 
ordered provisions to be distributed, and furnished tents to 
such as were still without shelter. We saw hundreds of 
these tents erected over the ashes of their former dwellings, 
and the inhabitants raking among the ashes and composedly 
straightening the nails which are to serve in the construction 
of a new dwelling. 

The aknost total absence of any thing in the shape of 
decent lodgings compelled us to search elsewhere for 
accommodations. The village of Buyukdery on the Bos- 
phorus, the summer retreat of the ambassadors and of many 
Frank families, distant fourteen miles from the city, was 
pointed out to us as a convenient and desirable residence^ 
We accordingly engaged a two-oared cai'k and ascended 
the Bosphorus. So much has been written, and so graphic- 
ally has it been described, by others, that I may be excused 
firom what would only be a repetition of their descriptions. 
The Bosphorus is about twenty miles in length and a mile 
in breadth, and receives in its course about thirty inconsid- 
erable streams. At one point it narrows to less than a 
mile. It is full of historic interest, for it has witnessed the 
assembled armies of Darius, the celebrated retreat of Xeno- 
phon, the armed mob of phrensied crusaders rushing by 
thousands to the Holy Land, and finally the desperate 
legions of Mohammed the Second making at this spot hi» 
victorious entry into Europe. Throughout its whole extent 
it winds between high mountains, which descend occasion-^ 
ally in graceful slopes, and often form wild and {HCturesque 

N 



90 aKwrcHBfl or nwnr. 

bluBk and promontories. These are covered in ctmtinaal 
guccessicMi by villages, palaces, and country villas, some- 
times overhanging the abrupt clifis, but more commonly 
lining the brink of the stream. We have attempted to 
convey in the acomipanying sketch an idea of the usual 
s^le of buiJding in Turkey, by a representation of the 
eountry<houses which ornament the banks of the Bo»- 
^loms. 



ftllllA'f^MEiv^Hi^ 



^i^..,^S^mm^-^ 



Tlirougb the stone arches cailis pass into the inner coort 
of the houses, where the inhabitants disembark without 
subjecting themselves to the observation of prying neigh- 
bours. In this particular they display the same taste with 
die ancient Romans. The apertures in the latticed win- 
dows serve the purpose of peep-boles, when it is wished to 
examine with more distinctness passing objects. The (cA- 
lowing is a list of the chief villages and remarkable place» 
along the course of the Bosphorus, commencing widi the 
Asiatic side opposite Constantinople t 1. Scutari ; S. Ista- 
vros ; 3. Kooskoopjook ; 4. Beglar Beg ; 5. Cheugel Keui ; 
6, Vanikeui ; 1. Kandellee ; 8. Anadol Hissar ; 9. Koitexj 
10. Kanlijar; 11. Choobooklee; IS. Jujeer Keai; 13. B^ 
Koz; 14. YalUkeui; IS. Hooncair iscalessee; 16. Madjah 
(a fort) ; 17. Anadol Kavak ; 18. Philboomoo ; 19. Boreas 



8KXTCBXS OF TURKEY, 91 

Liman ; 20. Anadol phaneraki (lighthouse). On the Eu- 
ropean side, after leaving Constantinople, we pass, 1. Gala- 
ta; 2. Tophannah; 3. Foondooklee; 4. Kabatash; 5. Dol- 
mabatchi ; 6. Beshiktash ; 7. Kooloodjaly ; 6. Cherajoon 
yalisy ; 9. Orta Keui ; 10, Deftardar Boornoo ; 1 1. Kooroo- 
chesmeh; 12. Arnoot Keui; 13. Bebek; 14. Kaiyalah 
(cemetery); 15. Roomeli Hissar; 16. SheytanAkoonteseh 
(Devil's Current) ; 17. Balta Liman; 18. Boyagi Keui; 19. 
Ameergan Ogloo ; 20. Tokmah Boornoo ; 21. Isthenia; 22. 
Selvi Boornoo ; 23. Yeni Keui ; 24. Kalender ; 25. Thera- 
pia ; 26. Buyukdery ; 27. Sarrayah ; 28. Yeni Mahalli ; 
29. Roomeli Kavak ; 30. Buyuk Liman ; 31. Keribehek ; 
32. Roomeli Phaneraki, or lighthouse. 

The waters were covered by myriads of seafowl, which, 
as they are undisturbed by the Turks, exhibited no signs of 
fear on our approach. Indeed, they were so entirely free 
firom alarm, that they would merely move out of the reach 
q{ the oars, without rising from the water. Considerations 
of policy have undoubtedly had their influence in preventing 
these birds from being disturbed, for they perform a useful 
part as scavengers, in removing the animal and vegetable 
matter which must necessarily be daily discharged from a 
large city. I have, however, already had opportunities of 
witnessing the kindness universally manifested by the Turks 
towards the brute creation. It is not an uncommon thing 
to see open boats in the Golden Horn loaded with grain, 
and Cterally covered with flocks of ringdoves feeding un- 
disturbed. Besides these water-birds, there are others, 
which are constantly on the wing, and hence termed by 
the Turks Yengwan, which the Franks have translated into 
"ames damnes,'* in allusion to their perpetual restlessness.* 

In some parts of the channel the current runs with so 
much rapidity, that we were obliged to approach the shore, 
which is here lined by a continuous quay, and accept die 

* A ^eciet of P^diccpi. 



8KBTCHS8 OF TITllKBT* 

assistance of persons ^v^ho are in readiness to tow the boati 
along. This naturally suggested an explanation of the 
name Bosphorus, which has frequently exercised the critical 
acumen of etymologists.* I had previously noticed oxen 
and other cattle employed to tow small vessels around the 
point against the stream, and this is a more probable origin 
of the word than the usual explanation, which purports tfiat 
oxen were transported across the stream. Some idea may 
be formed of the activity of the caikgees or boatmen, from 
the fact that although they had to contend against a four- 
knot current, and in some places even more, yet we accom- 
plished the fourteen miles in very little more than three 
hours. 

Bujrukdery is a European colony. It lies very prettily 
along the borders of a large bay formed by one of the 
sinuosities of the Bosphorus. It looks out upon the Black 
Sea, from whence it is six miles distant, and from the pre- 
vailing style of architecture, it might readily be taken for 
an Italian marine villa. It is inhabited chiefly by foreign 
ministers, and the various bobs to the tail of the diplomatic 
kite in the shape of jeunes do langues, dragomen, secreta- 
ries, aide interpretes, &c. &c. Since the fire at Pera, the 
ministers have made this their permanent residence ; and 
the same formality, the same insipidity, and the same duH 
round of etiquette, varied by ombres chinoises and ecart6, 
which formerly characterized Pera, is said to have beea 
transplanted to Buyukdery. The occupations of its inhab- 
itants have been concisely described by a lively French 
writer. "Souvent on s'observe ou plutot on s*epie. Apr^ 



* ** It was called Bosphorus, for that oxen were accastomed to swim firom 
one side to the other, or, as the poets will haye it, from the passage of th« 
metamorphosed lo." — Sandys. According to Pliny (lib. iv.) buhu nutJnH 
traruitUj unde nomen. *< Oxen can easily swim across, whence the name.** 
See also the co'mmentators upon Apollonius Rhodius, and Hesychius in voc* 
W9fmt9aL 



6KBTCH1SS OF T1JRKBY* 9S 

^etre mutuellement fatigue d'intrigues, de delations^ on 
B^isole, on se renferme." 

We succeeded in obtaining lodgings ; and whatever may 
have been the minor vexations or inconveniences which we 
sufiered in our new abode, they were certainly mitigated in 
the feeling that we were actually living in a palace. I have 
undoubtedly fared better in a (^ennan posthouse, a French 
auberge, or an English tavern, but then these were very 
OHnmon, everyday affairs, whereas a palace, to an Ameri- 
can ear at least, conveys the idea of something very magnifi. 
cent and etherial. Our palace is delightfully situated on 
the water's edge, and from the terrace we may amuse our- 
selves with angling. The large court is filled with orange, 
lemon, and rose trees, and that universal favourite of the 
Turk, the oleander, which here grows to the height of fifleen 
or twenty feet, and bears exposure to the open air during 
the whole winter. Connected with this is a garden of about 
ten acres, beautifully laid out in walks shaded by hornbeam 
and myrtles, the whole foriiiiug a succession of terraces, 
from the uppermost of which we look over our palace and 
enjoy a superb view of the Bosphorus. In the evening the 
bushes and groves resound with the notes of the nightingale, 
which gives a poetic character to the scene. After all, how- 
ever, the merits of the nightingale are much overrated, and 
not worthy of being mentioned in the same day with our 
mocking-bird. Its notes consist of a low twitter, which inter- 
ests one merely because it is heard in the evening, when the 
rest of animated nature is hushed in repose. Even then it is 
not half so effective as the shrill scream of our night-hawk 
as he careers high in the air, or the phantom-like, unearthly 
cry of our whippoorwill.* The palace is a large and lofly 

* M«nj attempts have been made to introdace the nightingale into the 
United States, but hitherto with little saccess, on account of the difficulty of 
soppoTling them on the passage. The following was communicated to me 
by a foreign minister at Constantinople, as having been snocessfullj used on 
sereral long Tojages : — 



bnildiiig, built indeed ot wood, but coataining mtian ipor 
oous halls paved with marble, and a magnificeDt •taircaw 
leading to a lofty receptioD-room. Exteriorly it looks like 
a huge pile of black boards, but within every thing bears 
witness to the taste and magnificence of its former owoera. 
The gardens, too, which I have already alluded lo, ibow 
traces of former splendour in the shape of marble fountaiosi 
&Cn which are now nearly obliterated. The history of this 
palace is one of the many episodes in the bloody annals of 
the Greek revolution. Its proprietor was a Greek prince^ 
who was decapitated during that revolution, and wbon 
estates were confiscated. His children fled to Russia, 
where they were protected and supported by that govem- 
ment On the return of peace, two of the daughters came 
to Constantinople, and presented a petition to the sultan for 
the restoration of this property. This petition was -pre- 
sented in person to the sultan on bis way to the mosque, 
and was immediately granted. It is now occupied as a 
lodging-house by several families, and oflers a (air sample 
of a congress from all parts of the globe. We have, for 
example, representatives of the following nations and tribes: 
American, Irish, Maltese, French, Gennan, Hungarian, 
Gre^ Armenian, Turk, Russian, and Circassian ; and six- 
teen languages and dialects are daily spoken, to wit: Eng- 
lish, Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Persian, Russian, 
Arabic, Sclavonic, German, Ulyric, French, Italian, Latii^ 
Maltese, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Spani^. Amoi^ 
our fellow-lodgers our curiosity has been much excited by 



T>ks k ilica of beef, two pound* ; peaie uid iweat ■Imonds, each ooa 
pound ; ufTnm in powder, ■ dram and ■ half ; tnelirc Inch egga- Poonit, 
■ifi, and grind the peaK. Peel Ihe elmondi, after wwking in waim water, 
and then pound them fine. Infate the aaffinn cms hour in a gtaaa of baiUng 
wU«t. Mix the itbole, and make mall ronnd balla, wbich in to ■>• bakad 
in an ona ot beloM a fire. When well done, thejdioiild have the cooMat- 
«M7 af Mact)iu> Tby iM to b« iwU amUtd befina girinf tbaai to the 



•KBTCHX9 OF TUBKKT. 95 

a Circassian lady, the widow of a Russian officer* She 
has already reached that period of life quaintly termed by 
the Frenoh as entre deux ages^ and when I state that 
to regular features she added a brilliant complexion, my 
readers will understand that she was handsome, although 
not in the very eminent degree which we have been accus- 
tomed to attribute to the Circassian fair. Scores of hand* 
somer women might easily be selected from any village in 
our own country, although possibly they might not rival 
our Circassian acquaintance in gracefuhies» or ease of 
manner. 



CHAPTER X- 

Foeodooksoo^A Russian Attach^ — A Turkish Concert— >TIie celebratedf 
Plane-tree— Crusaders — Fishing on the Bosphorus — Sword-fish and 
Tunny — Making Kafe — Agiasma, or Holy Fountain — Turks adopt many 
Oieek Superstitions — ^Therapeia — ^Ypsilanti — Sir Henry Willock- 

Chm walks lead us frequently to a charming spot about 
two miles from the village. It is called Foondooksoo, or 
filbert-water, from the number of filbert-trees which sur« 
round a marble reservoir filled with water by conduits from 
the neighbouring hills. Passing through the village of Sari 
Yeri which adjoins Buyukdery, our road lay through an 
ancient Turkish burying-ground. Foondooksoo is one of 
those numerous delicious retreats so common in Turkey 
which owe their origin to Mussulman piety^ A pleasantr 
retired spot is selected, in most cases looking out upon 
•ome lovely scene, although this is not always attended to« 
A large tank or reservoir is formed, and its borders planted 
with trees and flowering shrubs ; a small wooden box is 
erected for the accommodation of a vender of cofiee, who 



»6 

at the same time furnishes pipes and tobacco to the vistten } 
and a marble slab, with quotations from the Koran sculfH 
tured upon it, indicates the purposes for which it was 
raised. At this place we met a young Parisian-looking 
dandy, who, after a careful surrey of our persons, kindly 
condescended to introduce himself to our acquaintance. 
He proved to be an attache to the Russian embassy, and 
his French was so interlarded with Turkish words, that we 
supposed him to be in draining for a consulate. He kindly 
made us acquainted with all the petty scandal of Buyukdery, 
and in a few minutes we learned how many oars were 
allowed to a charge, and how many to a minister ; the di& 
ferent strokes of a bell to announce the grade of a visiter ; 
and the last representation of the ombre chinoises at the 
Austrian internuncio's. Amid all this trifling there was a 
vein of good feeling, for when we alluded to Polish afiairs 
he expressed his admiration of their gallant conduct, and 
his hopes for their ultimate success. This from a Russian, 
and an employe of the Russian government, was not a little 
surprisiDg, but we had afterward frequent opportunities of 
hearing similar sentiments openly expressed by Russians in 
fevour of the Polish cause. 

While chatting with our new acquaintance, the sound of 
musical instruments, with a rich nasal twang by way of 
accompaniment, was heard on the hill above us. Casting 
our eyes upwards we saw a procession of musicians de- 
scending the hill, followed by a portly-looking Turkish 
officer, who had been amusing himself in this philharmonic 
manner while strolling over the neighbouring hills. The 
band consisted of a violin and guitar, with a singer, whose 
monotonous nasal drawl was only interrupted by an occa- 
uoaal discordant yell like that of a North American Indian. 
I had previoudy been in doubt whether to assign to a 
Scotch bagpipe or to a knife screaming over a China plate 
the pre-eminence in torture, but it became evident that the 
palm must be awarded to this Greek nightingale and his 



nOTCHES OF TUKKST. 97 

instrumental associates. The Turkish officer took his seal 
on the edge of the basin ; a narghilay, or water-pipe, was 
placed in his hands ; and Nrhile his attendants continued 
their sweet strains, he sat, apparently unconscious of their 
presence, looking steadfastly into the water, reminding 
us of a certain bird which may be seen for hours on the 
edge of a pond watching the motions of the Moaiy tribe 
beneath the surface. 

South of Buyukdery is the broad -valley or plain which 
furnishes the name to the village. Buyukdery, or great 
valley, which is a translation of the anoient Greek name 
Sahf ns^TTof^ OT beautiful field, is also occasionally used. One 
of its most conspicuous ornaments is a plane-tree (P. orient 
talis) which I should suppose to be unequalled for size in 
the world. It is so large that the grand vizier pitched hit 
tent within, it last year, when he reviewed the troops sta- 
tioned in and around the metropolis^ It can, however, 
scarcely be said to be one tree, although it springs from one 
common root Eight distinct stems or trunks are arranged 
in a circle, and include a space of about 150 feet in circum- 
ference. There were formerly six others, which nearly 
completed the circle, but these have so entirely disappeared 
as scarcely to leave a trace of their former existence. 

This beautiful plain is memorable as the spot upon 
which the crusaders under Godfrey de Bouillon encamped, 
and ancient travellers relate that in their time they foond 
inscriptions and monuments of the crusaders dated 1006. 
Not a single orie of these is now to be found, although, in 
the vestiges left by the tents of the grand vizier, I endea- 
voured to persuade myself that I could detect the traces of 
the crusaders. It was here, too, that those mutinous troops 
assembled in 1807 under Kachaya Ogloo, which succeeded 
in deposing and putting to death the virtuous and wise 
Sultan Selim. This valley looks out upon the Bosphorus, 
and is surrounded by hills partly covered by vines and 
partly by forest-trees. Numerous vnnding footpaths lead 



along these alopei, and at diflerent pointf present a IQCOM- 

aioB of almost fairy scenes. 

Another delightful walk ii from this valley along the 
shores of the Bosphonis to the adjoining village of The- 
lapeia. Passing a new hotel, tlie speculation of an Italian 
macaroni-maler, where the traveller may have any thing 
be calls for except decent food or a comfortable bed, the 
road winds along the bay nearly at the water's edge. 




Here one may witness the operation of taking fidi, which 
is effected in the following manner. One or more stout 
posts are thrust into the water at the distance of one <x 
two hundred feet from the shore. Upon this post, at lh» 
height of ten or fifteen feet above the water, a rude shed 
contains a person whose business it is to annotmce the ap- 
pearance of fish to his comrades on shore. A quadrai^Iar 
space, whose limits arc defmcd by four posts, is enclosed by 
nets, and the moment a fish appears within it he is inevit- 
ably captured. These fisbiog stations are surrounded t^ 
numerous birds, who watch the capture of the fish and 
frequently deprive the fisherman of his prey. In rough 
weather they spread a few drops of oil cm the surface, 
wliich pvrmita them to see clearly to a great depth. 1 was 
aware that oil would cahn the sur&ce of the sea, but until 



SXBTCHB8 OF T17BXET. 

recently I did not know that it rendered olqects more dis- 
tinct beneath the surface. A trinket of some value had 
been dropped out of one of the upper windows of our 
palace into the Bosphorus, which at this place was ten or 
twelve feet deep. It was so small that dragging for it 
would have been perfectly fruitless ; and it was accordingly 
given up for lost, when one of the servants proposed to 
drop a little oil on the surface. This was acceded to, with, 
however, but faint hopes of success. To our astonishment 
the trinket immediately appeared in sight, and was eventu- 
ally recovered* 

The Bdspiiorus, like the Hellespont, has in all ages 
been celebrated for the excellence and variety of its fish. 
Indeed, it could scarcely be otherwise, when we recol- 
lect its position as the embouchure of the Black Sea and 
the Sea of Azof. There is scarcely a month in tlie year 
in which the Bosphorus is not crowded with shoals of 
fish, either pursuing each other for food, or performing their 
periodical migrations. Among these the tunny {Scorn* 
ber thynniLs) and the sword-fish {Xipkias gladitu) are the 
most numerous, and are a firm and excellent article of 
food. They are both taken in nets. The name pelamide 
is applied to tlie tunny, although it belongs in fact to another 
species with stripes on its sides {Thynnus pelamys)^ The 
most conspicuous of all the inhabitants of the Bosphorus 
are porpoises {Phocena vulgaris)^ who, availing themselves 
of the general amnesty accorded to the brute creation, or 
perhaps owing their safety to some popular superstition, 
may be seen at all times tumbling about among the crowds 
of boats which cover the Bosphorus with entire fearless- 
ness. Shoals, too, of smaller fry infest the shores, and the 
most frequent spectacle is groups of men, women, and 
children, with tiny hooks and lines, angling for minnows. 
The sultan himself is said to be fond of this amusement ; 
and at Beshik Tasli,* one of his palaces, which resembles 

* Beihik 7mA, rocking itoiie. 



J 



100 MMw te uM M or Tinanr. 



a Fenian kiosks and is built mostly of blue porcelain, he 
hai a room devoted to this purpose. A tsap-door opens 
in the centre of an apartment over the water, where he 
can and does amuse his idle hours without being observed 
by his subjects. 

Passing Kiretch Boomoo, or Limestone Cape, we stopped 
under a clump of majestic trees to refresh ourselves with 
coffee. The grateful shade, the fountain, and the reservoir 
invited us to rest, while the fervent heat was here entirely 
dispelled by the cool breezes from the Black Sea, which 
fiu^es this charming spot Crowds of Turks, Greeks, and 
Armenians were here sipping their coffee, and making kqfif 
as it is termed. This word implies a frolic, or what we 
would perhaps express by the term of holyday-party. A 
fort near this was built in 1607, under the direction of a 
French engineer, to defend the anchorage in Buyukdcry 
Bay. After devoting some time to the enjoyment of the 
surrounding scene, we resumed our walk along the sea^ 
shore, and passed a fountain arched over in the side hill. 
This fountain, like many others I have noticed in Turkey, 
is called by the Greeks Agiasma^ or Aiasma^ and perpetu- 
ates the memory of an ancient classical superstition. The 
Greeks were formerly in the habit of imputing marvelloue 
properties to any fountains whose waters were clear alii 
cold ; and Horace, in his ode ad Fontem Blandusise, has 
perpetuated the memory of one of this kind. Sacrifices 
were offered up to the presiding deity of the fountain, the 
genius loci, and the modem Greek, ingrafting his crude 
notions of Christianity upon his ancient pagan idolatry, still 
performs the same rites. To each of these fountains some 
monstrous legend is attached ; and these are firmly believed 
by the crowds which flock round them upon the anni* 
versary of certain saints, who merely occupy the niches 
formerly held by their demigods and heroes. The enthu* 
siasm of the Greeks on such occasions has infected the 
sober Turks themselves; for although they abhor the 



tXXTCHEfl OF fUBKST. 101 

Greeks and their religion, yet they admit their saints to 
iiave been great and good men, and consequently suppose 
their intercession to be valuable in the other world. We 
heard the other day a laughable illustration of this supersti- 
tion, if indeed there can be any thing laughable in such 
gross and humiliating ignorance. It is the custom among 
the Greek fishermen, on the anniversary of a certain saint 
(I believe St Demetri), to form a procession, walk into the 
water, and perform many unmeaning mummeries, to pro- 
pitiate his saintship, and implore his aid and blessing for 
luck during the ensuing year. When the revolution broke 
oat in Greece, the Greek inhabitants of the capital and its 
vicinity naturally abstained from all public exhibitions, and 
this particular ceremony was of course omitted. It so 
happened, however, that tlie fishery was extremely unpro- 
ductive during the ensuing season, and the Turkish fisher- 
men were as unfortunate as the Greeks. They attributed 
it to the neglect, on the part of the Greeks, to propitiate 
their patron-saint, and at the next anniversary actually 
compelled them to resume their customary processions, and 
St Demetri received on that occasion the prayers of many 
a pious Turkish fisherman. 

Before we entered the village, we passed the palaces at 
present occupied by the French and English ambassadors. 
That of the French ambassador was a gifl from the sultan. 
It formerly belonged to the brave but unfortunate Ypsilanti; 
and its extensive gardens, which are laid out with great 
taste, owe many of their decorations to that illustrious mah. 
The Prince Morousi formerly owned the palace now occu- 
pied by the English minister. Sir Robert Gordon, a rela^ 
tive of the Earl of Aberdeen, holds at present this station ; 
but, as he gives out that he wishes to return to England for 
the benefit of his health, it is probable that he has been re- 
called, and a successor appointed in his place. The change 
in the ministry, and the accession to ofiice of a new set of 
aristocrati, must necessarily bring up numerous claimanti 



108 fXXTCHBt OF TVBXBT. 

for the ** spoils of victory."* It is recorded of Sir Ro- 
bert, by his countrj'mcDy that during his residence here be 
was never known to speak aflably to a single human 
being, which of course would lead one to form a tolerable 
estimate of Iiis social qualities, and also of the regret with 
which his departure must be witnessed. The French 
minister is an inoflensive invalid, of whom nobody knows 
any harm, which, in the East, and among Franks, is no small 
praise. Therapeia is a dirty little Greek village, prettily 
situated on a small bay, and is a favourite residence of many 
Europeans ; there we met, and were introduced to, Sir 
Henry Willock, who has been for many years a public 
functionary in Persia. H is title was that of resident* which, 
if I am not misinformed, implies that he was appomted by 
the English East India Company. Bating English stiflness^ 
we found him a communicative and well-informed man, and 
his long residence among the Persians had furnished him 
with a fund of anecdotes, which he detailed with true ori»« 
ental gravity. 

* This was afterward confirmed by the appointment of a Mr. MaodeviUfl^ 
and subsequently of Stratford Oanning. 



SKETCHES OF TUBXET. 103 



CHAPTER XI. 

Belgrade — ^Thracian Horses — Aqueducts of Batchikcni — Great ConsDinf^ 
tion of Water by the Turkii — Threshing in the Ancient Manner — Forest 
of Belgrade — Cholera — Lady Montagu — Wolves — Bulgarians — Their 
primitiTe Occupations — Their Virtues. 

Bblgbapb is another object of attraction to the stranger, 
and we determined to pay it a visit. Horses were accord- 
ingly procured, and as this was our first feat in horseman- 
ship, it may be requisite to descend to particulars. It will 
be recollected that the country we arc now in was formerly 
called Thrace, famous throughout all antiquity for its 
horses and herds. The former, however, have strangely 
degenerated, if the animals whicii we bestrode arc taken 
as specimens of the Thracian breed. The Turkish sad- 
dle is a huge cumbrous-looking concern, with projections 
before and behind like those used by cavalry. The 
stirrup consists of a broad plate of iron, as long as the 
foot, and its sharp edges serve the purpose of spurs. Ali, 
our Turkish guide, accompanied us, to show the way and 
attend the horses. Leaving the paved and dirty lanes 
of our village, we were soon -scampering across the lovely 
valley already described, over a paved road al>out twelve 
feet wide, which extended rather more than two miles into 
the countrj'. The road was Hned on both sides with shrubs, 
among which our blackberry was the most common ; and 
clouds of blackbirds passed over us, followed by numerous 
Frank sportsmen. 

Ascending the hills, we soon reached one of the aque- 
ducts, which furnishes the suburbs of Pcra and Galata with 
water. It is in tha midst of a complete solitude ; and this 
gigantic woriL of man, although of important daily utility. 



104 SXXICBMB OV TUBIIFr. 

comes upon the mind with more of that religious awe than 
we feci at surveying aome magnificent but idle monument 
of antiquity. This aqueduct, which takes its name from a 
neighbouring village, Batchal Keui| is scarcely more than 
one hundred years old. It consists of twenty arches, and 
is four hundred feet in length, and eighty feet high. la 
the centre the road passes under another arch, beneath the 
principal row. The aqueduct is built of a coarse vesicular 
limestone, and is constructed in a substantial and workman- 
like manner. Notliing is more common than to hear it as- 
serted that the ancients were unacquainted with the first 
principles of hydrostatics; that they did not know that 
water would rise to its own level, and consequently that 
aqueducts were employed instead of close pipes or conduits. 
However true this may have been of the civilized Romans 
or the polished Greeks, it will hereafter be shown that the 
Turks have displayed a thorough acquaintance with the 
subject They derived it probably from the Arabian^ 
traces of whose hydraulic labours may be seen in Spain to 
this day. This aqueduct is sixteen miles from Fera, and 
derives its waters fr»m reservoirs in the mountains, several 
miles farther. The top is covered with marble slabs, and 
the accidental displacement of one of these gave us an op- 
portunity of ascertaining the quantity of water which daily 
passes through. It was fifteen inches wide by eighteen 
inches in depth, and had a velocity of about six feet per 
second. This would give a supply of about six million 
gallons of water in twenty-four hours. This great quan- 
tity is, however, not always sufficient for the wants of the 
suburbs ; and during the dry season, I aflenvard saw water 
transported from Constantinople, and sold by the skin-fiiU. 
When we recollect that the Turks drink nothing but water, 
and that great quantities are required for their daily re- 
ligious exercises, it will readily be perceived that tha sup- 
ply must be prodigious for the wants of llie metropolis. A 
Freodi savant, Andreossi, attempted to fiwm an idea of 



SKETCHES or TURKEY. 105 

the population of Constantinople from the daily consump- 
tion of water. I have never seen liis calculations, but I 
presume that his estimate of the quantity used by each 
&mily must far exceed that of any other city in the world. 

Looking through the arches down upon the valley, the 
•ye rests upon a charming picture. The beautifully- wooded 
valley spreads out into a verdant plain at Iluyukdery, be- 
yond which is the silver Bosphorus, resembling our own 
Hudson, or rather a broad placid lake, bounded by the 
high hills of the Asiatic shore. To the south, the minarets 
of the capital may be faintly traced on the horizon. At a 
short distance from the aqueduct we passed through a dirty 
liltle Greek village, from whence the aqueduct derives its 
name. We stopped under a clump of lofty pines, whose 
horizontal branches afforded an ample and agreeable shade, 
to witness the operation of threshing, wliich is performed 
in the open air. The grain is laid on the ground in a large 
circle, and a flat wooden frame, slightly turned up in front, 
is drawn oVer it by a pair of horses. This rude sled is 
riiod beneath with iron, and the driver sits upon it in order 
to increase its weight. It is curious to perceive in this 
arrangement the identical machine, trihula^ in use among 
the Romans more than two thousand years ago, and em- 
ployed in the same manner. But this was not the only 
vestige of antiquity which we noticed on the road. Near 
this threshing-floor, or areay we observed a brickkiln in 
which straw was used, as in the early Scripture times. 

Shortly after leaving the village of Batchikeui we en- 
tered the forest of Belgrade. This immense forest is said to 
extend seventy-five miles along the Black Sea, terminating 
in Croatia. It consists chiefly of the chestnut, which here 
grows to an enormous size, and resembles so much our 
own forests that my companion observed we should never 
be able to lose our way in it, for we should always find 
ourselves at home. It was formerly infested with robl>ers, 
but they have been extirpated, and it is now occupied by 



\ 



•^•- 



106 8KSTCHBS OF TURKS Y. 

wild boars and wolves. Parties arc frequently made up 
frona,.Constantinople to enjoy the boar-hunt. 

At ten we reached the village of Belgrade, which is dis- 
tant seven miles from Buyukdery. It was formerly the 
summer residence of the foreign ministers, but it is now 
shorn of all its glories by its rival Buyukdery. It Js prettily 
situated on the slope of a hill, and a cool rivulet, the ancient 
Hydraulis, running through it, adds much to its beauty : 
but I looked in vain for that poetical scenery, or ** the beauty 
and costume of the women which resemble the ideas of the 
ancient nymphs as given by poets and painters." We dis- 
mounted at the door of a miserable shed where no refresh^ 
ment could be procured, except some execrable wine and 
equally detestable rum. A Greek papas, or priest, offered 
to conduct us to the house of a man who spoke Italian, and 
who served as the village Cicerone. We found him at home, 
but labouring under an attack of that disease which at this 
moment is spreading terror and dismay throughout civilized 
Europe. It had been brought on by eating green fruit and 
by exposure. The attack began yesterday, but after a co- 
pious bleeding he was much relieved, and was already con- 
valescent. It seems to be a disease which requires vigorous 
treatment at the onset, when all the formidable symptoms 
disappear, and it becomes a slight and controlable malady. 

Our first visit was to the house in which the gay and 
witty Lady Montagu composed some of her agreeable 
romances about Turkev. Some travellers assert that the 

w 

house in which she resided was pulled down ; but I have 
the authority of a gentleman in Buyukdery that this is not 
the fact. lie states that his father owned the identical house 
occupied by Lady Montagu, and that it is now in his pos- 
session. Fortified then by this assurance, we entered a 
spacious wooden house which is now undergoing repairs, 
and, alter examining every room, laughed at our own sim- 
plicity in expecting to find, after such a^pse of time, any 
traces of the fair authoress. Her lively ladyship has been 



.ifci 



■$ 



SKBTCHES OF TURKEY. 107 

often accused of painting manners and scenes rather highly, 
and Belgrade is an evidence against her. It is a shabby 
tumble-down village, notorious for completely baking in 
summer those who are merely broiled elsewhere ; and 
instead of being " in view of the Black Sea," is surrounded 
by dense woods, which afford a complete obstacle to " the 
refreshment of cool breezes." It is very unhealthy, and is 
now only occupied by second-rate diplomats, such as drogo- 
men and their dependants. Who would have expected to 
find an American palace imbosomed in the woods; and 
yet a large mansion bearing this imposing title was actually 
poiBted out to us. Of its history or its owner we could 
learn nothing, except that it belonged to an American who 
lived there occasionally ; no further information could be 
obtained, although we murdered no small quantity of 
Turkish, Greek, and Italian in the attempt, and we left 
Belgrade in utter ignorance of our mysterious country- 
man. The garden of a wealthy English merchant, Mr. 
Black, forms one of the attractions of the village : it is pret- 
tily laid out into pleasant shaded walks, ornamented with 
fountains overhung by silken roses (mimosa arborca), and 
numerous nightingales were chirping among the trees. 
The house was unoccupied, the garden neglected, and an 
air of stillness and solitude pervaded the spot. Our ride 
beneath a burning sun had prepared us to enjoy the cdoI 
shaded walks ; and as we were in no mood for pensive 
meditation, we took -the liberty of availing ourselves of a 
privilege which is generally conceded in all shoiv places to 
travellers. Despatching the gardener in search of food, he 
quickly returned with eggs, coarse broad, a pitcher of wine, 
and a dish which we were puzzled to arrange under any of 
the known genera described by culinary authors. It 
resembled white putty in appearance and consistence, and 
was insipid to the taste. It is termed tayrayah^ and is, in 
feet, the butter of this country. Belgrade has lon^ been 






108 flKSTCHXS OF TURKST. 

celebrated for producing this equivocal rejHreseDtative eC 
our butter in its utmost perfection. 

From the concurrent testimony of all travellers, no people 
were so happy, and few in a more prosperous condition 
than the Bulgarians. Their fields supplied them with more 
than was requisite for their wants, and their industrious 
and peaceable habits rendered them the most contented and 
orderly Christian subjects of Turkey. It is as rare to hear 
of a Bulgarian having committed a crime in Turkey, as to 
hear of a Quaker being guilty of a misdemeanour in our 
own country. In an evil hour, the Muscovite pouring down 
from the Balkans over their plains excited them to rey<dt; 
and notwithstanding a solemn decree of the sultan, by 
which, at the last peace, they were assured of protection, 
and promised that no notice should be taken of their past 
behaviour, yet many thousands were induced to leave their 
fertile plains and follow the Russian army. Those who are 
still alive arc by this time, doubtless, enjoying the benefit of 
Russian protection under the discipline of a drill sergeanf s 
cane. 

On the sides of several houses in this village we observed 
nailed the skins of wolves. These animals are, as I haTOfl 
before mentioned, common in the neighbouring woods; 
f and to judge by the skins we saw, they are larger than our 
species. It is partly on their account that flocks of sheep 
and goats in this country require a shepherd to watch them 
continually. We saw several of these on the road, and 
their appearance naturally reminded us of the primitive 
occupation of man. These shepherds are chiefly Bulgft* 
rians: a simple-hearted and virtuous, but ignorant race, 
who occupy the lowest stations in Turkey. They are 
meanly dressed, and are easily recognised by their black 
sheepskin caps. The sound of a pipe attracted our atten* 
tion ; and upon examining the instrument, we found it to be 
a rude sort of double-flageolet, with six ^les, and another 
near the end which served as the drone. It is not a mere 



SKETCHES OF TUBKET. 109 

idle instrument to relieve the idle hours of the shepherd, but 
•serves as a help to regulate or restrain the motions of the 
flock.* Of this the shepherd convinced me by playing 
several notes, which appeared to be immediately under- 
stood and obeyed by his flock. I had supposed that the 
pastoral crook had long fallen into disuse, if indeed it had 
ever existed except in the fantastical brains of poets, or in 
its magnificent representative the golden sceptre of God's 
vicegerent at Rome. Judge of our surprise at finding it in 
the hands of these shepherds, a substantial instrument of 
wood and iron, and applied daily to very unpoetical 
purposes. 

* A pauage in the Life of Haydn illustrates very pleasingly this sensi- 
liility on the part of sheep and goats to music. — ** We were surrounded by a 
large flock of sheep which were leaving their fold to go to their pasture ; one 
of oar party took his flute out of his pocket, and saying, * I am going to 
tarn Corydon, let us see whether the sheep will recognise their pastor,* began 
to play. The sheep and goats, which were following each other towards the 
mountain with their heads hanging down, raised them at the first sounds of 
the flute ; and all, with a general and hasty movement, turned to the side 
from whence the agreeable noise proceeded. Gradually they flocked round 
the musician, and listened with motionless attention. He ceased playing : 
'litill the sheep did not stir. The shepherd with his staff obliged those nearest 
to him to move on. They obeyed ; but no sooner did the fluter begin again 
to play than his innocent auditors again returned to him. The shepherd, 
oat of patience, pelted them with clods of earth, but not one of them would 
move. The fluter played with additional skill ; the shepherd, exasperated, 
whisUed, swore, and pelted the fleecy amateurs with stones. Such as were 
hit by them began to march, but others still refused to stir. At last the 
shepherd was obliged to entreat our Orpheus to cease his magical sounds. 
Hm sheep then moved off; but continued to stop at a distance as often aa 
oar friend resomed his instrument.'* — Vie de Haydn par Bombet, 



SKBTCHBa or TVtMMT. 



CHAPTER Xn. 



Sopptr of Water undet the Greek Empnon — Soo Nanii. or Chierof tlw 
Wain Depaftmmt — Hb PoHcia — Nomber of Ftxintai&i in Tuifcef — 
BendU — Plin of one — AquedacU of Huitaph^ Coiutantine, Jiutinuu — 
PKnunad Qiuntiij of Wxei fijniulied to the Capital— Tunneli—Saal*- 
nji — Raaarroin — Sapcriority of Conalaiitiiiople ova Nsw- Yoift. 

Etxrt stranger is struck 'with the numerous contri- 
THDces around Constantinople for supplying it with pure 
and wholesome water. Belonging to a city in the United 
States which has long been distinguished for its nauseous 
ajid detestable water, and for the culpable negligence of ita 
rulers on a subject of so much importance, no opportunity 
was neglected to obtain all the information in our power in 
regard to the hydraulic establishments in this ocigfabouiv 
hood. The result, however mortifying, must not be con- 
cealed, and we therefore state, that on a subject intimately 
connected, not only with the comfort, but with the health of 
the people, the commercial emporium of the United State* 
b some centuries behind the metropolis of Turkey. 

Under the Greek emperors, Constantinople was supplied 
with water by the means of aqueducts, and large reser- 
voirs were established in diScrent parts of the city. These 
latter, however, have now gone into disuse, as expensive and 
inadequate for the purposes intended. Under the present 
system, aU the water- works about Constantinople are under 
the management of an officer, termed the soo naziri, or 
inspector of waters. It is his business to keep them in good 
repair, and he is responsible for any accidents which may 
obstruct or diminish the supply. As no time is to be lost 
to repair injuries, this officer is clothed with great power, 
and he compels every one to assist in restoring the line of 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. Ill 

communication. This resembles the corvee of old France 
in some measure, but is much more oppressive ; for the soo 
naziri fines most rigorously all who dwell in the vicinity of 
any breach or injury unless they give immediate informa- 
tion of the disaster. So important are these water-courses 
considered that the sultans have always been in the habit 
of making annually a formal visit of inspection, which is 
accompanied with much ceremony, and ordering such im- 
provements and alterations as are deemed necessary. 

It is impossible to travel anywhere in the vicinity of Con- 
stantinople without being struck with the great pains taken 
by the Turks to treasure up every rill, or the minutest 
trickle from the face of the rocks. These are carefully 
collected in marble or brick reservoirs, and the surplus 
is conveyed by pipes to the main stream. In passing 
through sequestered dells, the traveller frequently comes 
suddenly upon one of these sculptured marble fountains, 
Khich adds just enough of ornament to embellish the rural 
scene. They are frequently decorated with inscriptions 
setting forth the greatness and goodness of Providence, 
and inviting the weary traveller to make due acknow- 
ledgments for the same. Unlike our civilized ostenta- 
tion, the name of the benevolent constructor never appears 
on these sculptured stones. The quaint Turkish adage, 
which serves as a rule of conduct, is well exemplified in 
this as well as in many other instances ; *^ Do good and 
throw it into the sea ; if the fishes don't know it, God will.** 

Among the hills at various distances, firom fifteen to 
twenty miles from the city, are constructed large artificial 
reservoirs. These are termed bendts, a word of Persian 
origin, and are built in the following manner: Advan- 
tage is taken of a natural situation, such as a narrow val- 
ley or gorge between two mountains, and a strong and 
substantial work of masonry is carried across, suflliciently 
high to give the water its required level. Four of these 
bendis were visited and examined, but there are several 



I or TnxuT. 



othen which we did not see. A descriptioa of one of Av 
largest will give an Idea of the manner in which they ore 
constructed. 




A solid wall of marble mnsonry, eighty feet wide, and 
supported by two large buttresses, rises to the height of a 
hundred and thirty feet from tlie boltom of the valley. It 
is four hundred fuel long, and the top is covered with large 
marble slabs of doz/Ung brilliancy. On the side next tbo 
reservoir, a substantial marble balustrade, three ieet in 
height, gives a finish to this Cyclopean undertaking. A tall 
marble tablet indicates the dale of its erection, or raon 
probably of its repair or reconstruction. From the date, 
1211, it appears to have been built about forty-six years 
ago. It is called the Vatiday Bcndt, and is said to have been 
built by tlie mother of the rci<;nin<; sultan. It is furnished 
with a waste gate, and, at a short distance below, the water 
from the reservoir is carried across a ravine by a short 
aqueduct. About two miles from this is another bcodt, 
erected in litis, which corresponds to the year 1749. This 
is also a magnificent work, althou<rli inferior in size to the 
preceding. They both supply the aqueduct of Balchikeoi, 
which, as has already been stated, furnishes the suburbs a€ 
Pera and Galata with water. Beyond Belgrade are other 



SKBTCBE8 OF TCIUDST. US 

reservoirs which will be elsewhere noticed. These supply 
Constantinople proper, with water. 

In order to convey a clear idea of the direction of these 
various hydraulic works, it may be advisable to follow each 
singly. Beyond Belgrade is a large bendt, which sends its 
waters into a basin already partially supplied from another 
reservoir. A mile farther on, the water is carried across 
two aqueducts, the larger of which is known as the aque- 
duct of Mustapha III. From this it is conveyed into the 
aqueduct of Justinian. This is twelve miles from Constan- 
tinople. It consists of two tiers of arches, each forty-two 
feet wide. The arches are four in number ; the total length 
of the aqueduct, with its abutments, is seven hundred and 
twenty feet, and its greatest height a hundred and ten feet 
A gallery pierces the square pillars, forming the first story, 
of arches, and allows a passage through its whole length. 
There are four small arches at each end of the first story, 
about twelve feet wide. The precise epoch of the construc- 
6oa of this aqueduct is not known, although it is commonly 
attributed to the Emperor Justinian 11. This aqueduct 
receives also water firom two others, the principal of which 
18 knovm under the name of Solyman. This is sixteen 
hundred feet long, and eighty feet high, and consists of two 
stories of fifty arches each. It is a Turkish work. An- 
other aqueduct also conveys water into that of Justinian, 
and is generally supposed to be of the age of Constantine# 
It is three stories high ; the lowest tier consists of thirty* 
three arches fifteen feet wide, the second of twelve archeSf 
and the uppermost of four. It is three hundred and fifty 
feet in length. All these magnificent and costly structure* 
are intended for the supply of Constantinople alone, and we 
will now trace the course of tho water. leaving the aquo' 
duct of Justinian, it follows the right bank of the Cydaris, and 
receiving in its course various tributary rivulets from the 
neighbouring hills, it enters within tlie walls of Constanti- 
nople near the aygri/ hapooat^ or crooked gate, whence 



114 mrcHBs or Tnuny* 

it 11 distributed over tlie city. It was impossible to ascer- 
tain the quantity of water furnished through ttiis series iji 
hydraulic works; but, judging by comparison with that 
which supplies the suburbs, it cannot be less than fifteen 
millions of gallons within twenty-four hours. 

We will now return to the aqueduct of Batchikeui, and 
follow the direction of its waters. These are carefully 
brought round the heads of the valleys in covered canals^ 
in which there are at certain intervals sudden breaks or 
alterations in the level, which answer the double purpose 
of agitating the water in contact with air and of precipitate 
ing its impurities. It likewise affords fountains on the 
road for the use of cattle and weary travellers. When 
hills intervene, tunnels are boldly driven through, at the 
depth of fifty, eighty, and in some places a hundred feet. 
The course of these tunnels may be traced on the road 
between Pent and Buyukdery by numerous pits, which 
were about two hundred feet apart These pits were con- 
venient for giving air and light beneatli, and also afibrded a 
ready means of getting rid of the excavated earth and rocks. 
It is possible, that at the period when these tunnels were 
made, the pits were previously dug, in order to enable them 
to give the necessary direction and level to the subterra- 
nean passage. Branches from this main stream are con- 
tiaually thrown ofif to supply the villages, and the palaces 
of the sultan along the Bosphorus. Notwithstanding all 
these expensive works, it sometimes happens, after long 
droughts, that the supply becomes scanty in the suburbs ; 
and during my residence here, I have known water to be 
sold at Pera and Galata at from two to six cents the pail- 
ful. This, however, never occurs in the city itself, which 
is abundantly supplied at all seasons of the year. 

Where a valley of great extent is to be crossed, the 
Turks have resorted to an ingenious contrivance, which I 
have nowhere seen clearly described, but which, from its 
simplicity and value, merits a more particular notice. 



IIS 

IVom the waot of sufficient mechanics] sldll to manu&cture 
water-pipes strong enough to bear the -weight of a large 
column of water, they adopted the following plan : In the 
directioa of the proposed water-cliaDnel, a number of square 
pillars are erected at certain short intervalB. They are 
about five feet square, constructed of stone, and, slightly 
resembling pyramids, taper to the summit. They vary in 
height, according to the necessities of the -case, from ten to 
6&y feet, and in some instances are even higher. 




They form a striking peculiarity in Turkish scenery, and 
it was some time before the principle upon which they were 
constructed was apparent The water leaves the brow of 
a hill, and descending in earthen pipes rises in leaden or 
earthen ones, up one side of this pillar, to its former level* 
which must be, of course, the summit of the pillar, or 
sooUray, as it is called by the Turks.* The water is 
here discharged into a stone basin as large as the top of the 
■ooteray, and is discharged by another pipe, which descends 
along the opposite side of the pillar, enters the ground, ad- 
vances to the next sooteray, which it ascends and descends 
m the same manner ; and in this way the level of the water 

* Thii word it from the TuikUh loatcToytoo, nhich meaiu the IvrelKng of 
tlia water, and oxpretM* vciy wall (ha object of ttw wMttrajr. 



116 

may be preierved for Diaoy miles orer large rannei or 
plains, where as aqueduct would be, from its ezpentive- 
ness, mamfestly out of the queation. lu tbe city of Con- 
ttantioople, tbe old ruiooui aqueduct of Valens, which do 
longer conducts water in the usual manner, is converted 
into a series of sooterays, and permits one to examine their 
structure m detail. The stone basin on the summit is cor- 
ered with an iron plate, to prevent the birds from injuring 
the water. This is connected by a hinge, and, upon lifting 
it up, tbe basin is found to be divided into two parts by a 
stone partition. Several holes are made in this partitioD 
near its upper edge. The water from the ascending jnp* 
is allowed by this means to settle its foreign impurities, and 
the surface water, which is of course the most pure. Sow 
throi^ these apertures into the adjoining compartment, 
from whence it descends, and is carried to the next soote- 
ray, where the same process is repeated. A number of 
projectiiig stones on the sides &cilitate the ascent of tbe 
person who has chaige of these sooterays, and whose busi- 
ness it is to remove the deposites from the water in the stone 
basins. 

This ingenious hydraulic arrangement seems to possen 
advantages which might recommend its adoption elsewhere. 
As the pressure is thus divided among this series of syphons, 
the necessity for having verj' strong and costly pipes is 
obviated. As they are from three to five hundred yards 
apart, the cost is probably much less than by any plan which 
could be devised, where, in addition to the cost of a canal 
or series of pipes, we should be compelled to xmsc it again 
by the expensive agency of steam or some other costly 
apparatus. The frequent exposure of tbe water to air and 
light at the summit of these sooterays is another very im- 
portant advantage which cannot be too strongly insisted 
upon ; as it is now well known that nothing lends more to 
purify water than tlie presence of tliese two agents. The 
arrangement likewise of the basins on the top of the piUars 



SKjrrCHES OF TUSKEY. 117 

if well adapted for getting rid of much of the matters de- 
posited from turbid waters. Lastly, to the descending 
pipe a small cock is attached near the ground, by which the 
flocks and herds of the adjoining villages and fields are fur- 
nished at all times with a copious supply of water. 

On the heights of Pera there is a large reservoir, 200 feet 
square, built of the most solid and substantial masonry ; 
from this reservoir the water is distributed through the 
suburbs of Fundukli, Pera, Galata, and Cassim Pacha* 

After a deliberate survey of the various hydraulic con- 
trivances for supplying Constantinople with water, one is 
at a loss to know which to admire most, the native good 
sense which pointed out the necessity and importance of 
furnishing the capital and its suburbs with pure and whole- 
some water, the ingenuity displayed in conquering almost 
invincible obstacles, or that wise and liberal economy which 
considered no expense too enormous, no sacrifices too great, 
in comparison with the health and comfort of the people. 
The various water-courses about Constantinople must ex- 
ceed fifty miles in length, and the expenses of the various 
reservoirs and aqueducts could not have been less than fifty 
millions of dollars. With a single remark we shall conclude 
our observations on this subject The city of New- York, 
with a population of more than 200,000 inhabitants, has 
been deliberating for years over the question — whether it is 
expedient to spend two millions of dollars for the purpose 
of introducing a copious supply of pure and wholesome 
water. 



SKBTCHU OF TUBKBT* 



CHAPTER XIIL 



Tiiit towardi in Gngliih Min-of-irar— Hmmcuris calenee — Impnul Taa- 
aeij — Vmlonii — Styla of building— Foreignen in Ihe TuiUah S 
Pdpsr HuinfkctoTT —WoollcD Cloth Huia&ctoi; — Valley - 



Thk Eogitsh frigate Acteon, commanded by one of the 
nnmerouf office-holding &mily of Lord Grey, ii now an- 
chored in the Bosphorus, opposite to Buyukdery. Aa ibe 
ii one of a new class of vessels, and has all the most recent 
nnproTements in naval architecture, we were natQially 
desiroui of paying her a visit Upon coming alongside we 
were refused permission to see the ship, and were obliged 
to conteat ourselves with an inspection of her exterior. It 
struck us as rather whimsical, that the only two places in 
Turkey hitherto inaccessible to us should be the seraglio 
aod an English man-of-war. The Acteon is a twenty-eight 
gun vessel, mounting 35 guns, and belongs to that class of 
vessels in the British service popularly known as jackan 
frigates ; a description of ship which, according to many 
naval authorities, combines all the defects o[ the frigate and 
the sloop-of-war. The name b believed to have been CMi- 
ferred in compUment to the illustrious projector. Her out- 
side plankiug is rather peculiar, and is put on in what Is 
technically called anchor-stock fashion. She appeared to 
be quite as full-built as one of our newest corvettes, is 
doubtless a stout sea-boat, and, with the exception of speed, 
is weU calculated for the purposes of war. 

Invited by the appearance of a grove of majestic plane- 
trees in a valley on the Asiatic shore, we pulled away from 
the Acteon. We accidentally fell in with a Cornish man, 
who had been imported by the Turkish government to 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 119 

introduce the English mode of tanning and preparing 
leather. All the leather manufactured in Turkey is of 
the worst possible kind ; and a pair of shoes that will last a 
month is almost a prodigy. In consequence of this poor 
quality of the leather, the troops suffered much for want of 
stout serviceable shoes during the last campaign against the 
Russians ; and thousands are stated to have been put hors 
de combat, from this cause alone. To remedy this evil, the 
sultan lias interested himself warmly in improving the 
quality of tlic leather, and has adopted a plan the most 
likely to ensure success. It will, however, only be half- 
done if he stops here ; he should also import a score or two 
of first-rate shoemakers, to give his subjects lessons in the 
art of making a stout and serviceable shoe — an article not 
to be obtained at present in all Turkey. 

Mr. G. very civilly showed us through his estabUshment, 
and explained the various processes which he proposed to 
employ. The specimens which he exhibited of sole-leather, 
already finished, appeared to be of the best quality, and have 
given great satisfaction to his employers. He mentioned, 
as a remarkable fact, that he had much difficulty in pro- 
curing hides of a suitable quality, or prepared in the proper 
manner, in Turkey, and that the best were from Odessa, in 
Russia. Much use will be made of valonia — an article 
which has not been introduced in tanning more than twenty 
years. It is the acorn, or more strictly the cup, of an oak 
(Q. €Bgilops)y which grows in great abundance in Turkey, 
and is exported from thence to all parts of Europe. There 
are two varieties of this valonia: the best is small, and 
nearly covers the included acorn ; it is said to be the first 
produce of the young oaks. The valonia contains so much 
tannin that it acts too powerfully by itself upon the leather ; 
and it is therefore ground up, and used in combination 
with bark. Mr. G. believed that the introduction of valonia 
into the process of tanning, although it greatly abridged the 
time and expense of the operation, is injurious to the quality 



ISO fSBTCHBs OP Tinuanr. 

of the leather ; and in this way he explained why the leather 
of England has so much deteriorated of late years from its 
former high reputation. 

With regard to the introduction of foreigners into his 
manufacturing establishments, the sultan appears to act 
upon a wrong principle, if he wishes, which he undoubtedly 
does, to instruct his subjects in the various processes re- 
quiring scientific or manual skill. He should hold out 
inducements to foreigners to instruct a certain number of 
his subjects ; and it would materially advance his views 
if, instead of giving them salaries which undergo no 
change, he should bestow an additional recompense in 
proportion to the quantity of goods manufoctured. In 
consequence of not having adopted some plan like this* 
the parties have been mutually dissatisfied with each other. 
Many useful projects have fallen to the ground, and even 
when the contract is rigidly observed, no beneficial result 
has accrued to the empire. 

As an instance in point, I may mention the case of an- 
other foreigner, a Mr. Kcllie, who manages the two steam- 
boats in the service of the sultan. He has been nearly five 
years in Turkey, and yet when I left Constantinople, there 
was not in the whole empire a single Turk who was com- 
petent to start or to stop a steam-engine. His salary is 
sufficiently large, no extra exertions are required, and rf 
course it would be perhaps too much to expect of him to 
give such instruction as would at some future day enable 
the Turks to dispense with his services. This case is 
alluded to as illustrating the defects of the system, and has 
no reference to the merits of the individual in question. 

A large building for the accommodation of Mr. G. and 

his assistants had been commenced a short time previous 

V to our visit It gave us an opportunity of witnessing the 

mode in which houses are constructed in Turkev. The 

~ • 

mechanics and labourers are chiefly Armenians and Bulga- 
rians, and their daily wages do not exceed ei^t cents per 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 121 

day, but to judge from the indolent manner in which they 
set about their work, the frequent interruptions caused by 
their everlasting pipes, and the slovenly manner in which 
their work is executed, it may well be doubted whether 
they actually earn even this small pittance. Their tools 
are few in number, and of the simplest kind. A long gim^ 
let, a short saw, which when used is drawn towards the 
workman, and a short-handled adze, which also serves as a 
hammer, comprise nearly all the tools of a Turkish car- 
penter. The workmen are directed by a foreman^ and it is 
with him that the government contract for the erection of 
this building. 

The frame, which is of very small dimensions for the 
size of the building, is clumsily fastened together by large 
spikes. The roof is then raised, and immediately covered 
with tiles, and it is not uncommon to see large stones 
arranged along the ridge, in order to keep the last rows of 
tiles more securely in their places. No chimnies of course 
are ever seen in a Turkish house. The ceilings are of thin 
boards, and, as close joints never occur, they are concealed 
by long strips of wood, which, when painted, as they usually 
are, of a difierent colour from the rest of the ceiling, pro* 
duce a singular and not unpleasing efifect. The lower / 
story is filled in with bricks and mortar, or rather with 
mortar and a few bricks. From an examination of the 
mortar used in the construction of the most ancient build« 
ings about Constantinople, there is reason to believe that 
the process of making mortar at the present day in Turkey 
does not vary materially from that employed under the 
Greek emperors. Much pains appear to be taken in mix* 
ing it; tow, fuiely chopped, is substituted for hair, and 
pounded bricks and tiles form one of the most important 
ingredients. The windows, when glass is used, arc in the 
French style, opening upon hinges, but more commonly 
they arc closed by lattice-work, and the external air is kept 
out by inside shutters and curtains. The operation of 




painting goes on pari passu with the laboun of tbs t/tf 
penter and mason. The different steps of puttying) pmn* 
ing, and then applying successive coats of paint, are hen 
unknown. Anned with a long brusht which he wiekU 
1 with both hands, the painter follows up the carpenter, and 
lays on the paint as thick as it can by any possilxlity be 
made to adhere. We could liken it to nothing better than 
tfaa operation of paying the bottom of a ship. The houn 
we are now examining is about one hundred feet front aad 
thirty deep, is two stories high, and when finished would 
cost, as we were informed by the foreman, about 9n00. 

At a short distance from the establishment of Mr. G.wa 
visited the kiat haonay, or paper manufactory, which haa 
also been established by the present sultan. It is a lai^ 
building, formerly occupied by a Turkish grandee, and at 
his death it reverted to the crown. It is the practice ia 
Turkey, as our readers are aware, when an officer of the 
government dies, that all his property is taken by the sultan, 
who allows the family out of it enough for their maioto- 
nance. This remnant of barbarism is attempted to be de- 
fended on the ground that all public officers are merely the 
stewards of the sultan, but its effects, as we shall show in 
another place, are very injurious to the country. 

Fine writing-paper was formerly fabricated at this place, 
but when we visited it they were engaged in manufacturing 
merely cartridge-paper for the use of the troops. The 
process appeared to be very rude ; the materials are cotton 
and hemp, and from the specimens we saw, litdc judgment 
seems to be exercised in their selection. In the court in 
front of the building sat the director of the establishment, 
complacently smoking his pipe under tlie cihjI shade of a 
tree, and evidently too magnificent and dignified a perscni- 
age to attiind to the details of tlie ciDncem. These very 
great men, of whom there is always one, and sometimes 
more, attached to every public establishment in Turkey, are 
a serious evil. Entirely unacquainted with the business 




HKBTCHIS OF TDRKET. 133 

I Mf|^ which they are appointed to preaide, they do harm 
nABoevor they attempt to iDtermeddle ; but this fortunately 
ii of rare occurrence. In any case, however, they eat the 
bread of idleness, and consume a great part of ihe profits 
of the establishment. We were introduced to the director, 
and invited to partake of coffee and a pipe. To his inqui- 
ries whether we made paper in America, we replied by 
Bhowiog him a small piece which accidentally happened to 
be al>out us. He surveyed it in all directions, touched it 
with his tongue, held it up to the light, and finished by ex- 
claiming, " Mashallah I we never shall make as good paper 
MS this in Turkey.'* Putting this down to the score of na- 
tional politeness, we inquired in turn some particulars 
respecting the manufactory under his charge. He informed 
us that twenty workmen were usually employed, and that 
they could turn out about eight reams per day. He also 
stated that there were several other paper-factories about 
Constantinople, but could give no positive information as to 
their precise locality. Repeated inquiries were subse- 
quently made of various individuals, but we never could 
ascertain whether they realty existed except in the braio 
of our informant. The difficulty of procuring statistical 
details in Turkey is proverbial. From the Franks, one 
eoa obtain no information to be relied upon ; the rayabs 
are either unable or unwilling to communicate; and the 
Turks, independent of the difficulties of the language, seem 
to regard such inquiries as idle and frivolous. 

Among the many pretended discoveries which the nations 
of Europe assume to themselves, tliat of paper may be 
mentioned, which is now well known to be of oriental 
origin. The Chinese, indeed, made a paper of silk from 
the earliest antiquity, but paper from cotton was first made, 
A. D. 640, at Samarcand, and from thence it was spread 
with great rapidity throughout all the dominions of the 
Arabians, and more particularly in Spain, where they sub- 
stituted flax for cotton. It was not until 500 years aA«r- 



124 aaercBMB of tubjutt* 

ward that paper was made by any of the Christian powen. 
This important invention, without which the art of printiDg 
would have been undiscovered or useless, more than com- 
pensates for any injury which the Arabians are accused of 
having perpetrated, by the destruction of the Alexandrian 
library.* The number of inventions for which we are 
indebted, without being aware of it, to the East, is prodi- 
gious. It would lead us too far to enter into details, but 
we may mention the compass, gunpowder, and paper, 
which of themselves alone have wrought such mighty 
changes in war, in navigation, and in science. The curious 
reader will find many interesting particulars on this subject 
in Sismondi's Literature of the South of Europe. 

A part of this large building is to be used as a woollen- 
manufactory. We understood that it was intended to 
fiibricate coarse cloths for the use of the army ; several 
German workmen are already employed, and many others 
ue daily expected from France. The reader will in these 
slight notices distinctly perceive that nearly all the modem 
improvements introduced into Turkey have sole and ex* 
elusive reference to the military establishment. In a gov- 
ernment like that of Turkey, which is supported by the 
sword, and borders upon a nation which is only v^atching a 
fiiYOurable moment to dismember the empire, she must of 
necessity be continually on her guard, and maintain inces- 
santly a warlike attitude; and although these ameliorations 
have no immediate reference to the condition or the wants 



* The story of Omar and the Alexandrian library has been so often 
repeated that it has become almest true history. It was first mentioned, 
■ooording to Emerson, by Abdollatif^ an Arabian writer of the 13th century. 
Being mentioned by no Christian authorities, as well as involving a manifest 
fiJsehood in its details, since the number of books, after so nuuiy conflagra- 
tions, and their dispersion scarcely a century before by Theopbilus, could 
not possibly equal the report of Abdellatif, the veracity of the story may be 
justly questioned. But there is no doubt of the dispersion of the library* 
■mail and valuable as it must have been, about the period mentioned. 



BXITCHES OF TUBXST. 185 

of tbe people, yet in the end they cannot fsdl to be exten- 
■hrdy benefited. 

At a short distance from these establishments is a lovely 
valley looking out upon the Bosphorus, known by the name 
of Hooncair Iscalassee, or the sultan's place. It is the occa- 
sional resort of the sultan for amusement and relaxation 
from the grave duties of his station. Clumps of those ma- 
jestic plane-trees* which we have so frequently admired 
were scattered over the verdant plain, while the tasteful 
hand of art had been busy in adding to the natural beauties 
of this enchanting spot Serpentine walks, edged with 
various young forest-trees, were gracefully distributed 
through the valley, while under the majestic plane-trees 
groups of Turkish women were chatting, laughing, and 
apparently much entertained virith the scenery and objects 
around them. In passing near one of these groups we 
noticed a general titter, and the words Efiendi Ingelesi, or 
English gentlemen, induced one of our party, who spoke a 
little Turkish, to address them. They were partaking of 
a little picnic repast, and with a freedom which was per- 
fectly unexpected, invited us to taste some of their delica- 
cies. Not having the fear of the ** turbaned Turk^ before 
our eyes, we were about to seat ourselves sociably on the 
grass alongside of them, when it was distinctly intimated 
that this was a familiarity not to be permitted. Thus 
enlightened as to one article in the code of Turkish polite* 
ness and good-breeding, we stood before them, and tasted 
of such delicacies as they were graciously disposed to 
offer. 

A common article of food among these people, and a de- 
licious one it is, is yaoort, or curdled milk. It is prefMured 
in a peculiar manner, and is so far superior to any thing of 

* The platanu* oriaitaliMf which resembles our plane-tree (P. occida^ 
taliM\ or as it is sometimes called battonwood, and improperly sycamore^ 
in ererj particular except the shape of its leaf. Its Turkish name Is 
chae&ar agadge. 



IS8 IKKTCBXS OF TUKJUT. 

the kind with us, that it would be well worth aoneyqg 
to our culinary list. It is prepared by pouriDg a qout 
of boiled milk upoo tlie yeast of beer, and allowing it to 
ferment. Take of this a spoonful and a half and poor on i* 
another quart ; after a few repetitions it loses the taste of 
yeast, and becomes a verj' palatable and savory food.* 
The Turks have a tradition that an angel taught Abrahano 
bow to make it, and that Hagar made the first good pot of 
it. We were also favoured with morsels of confectionery, 
in which, it is supposed, the Turks are unrivalled ; but, 
with a single exception, the great family of candiei, includ- 
ing the species rock-lemon and hoarhound, with the minor 
varieties of plum, comfit, &.C., are in nowise different) but 
if any thing rather inferior, to our own. The exception to 
which we allude is a delicious pasty-mass which melts 
awny in the moutli, and leaves a fragrant flavour behind. 
It is, as we are informed, made by mixing honey with the 
inspissated juice of the fresh grape, and the Turks, who 
esteem it highly, call it ra/tat locaom, or repose to the throat, 
— a picturesque name to which it seems fairly entitled. 

The conversation, if such it inic>ht be termed, which con- 
sisted entirely of questions on the part of our ftiir enter- 
tainers as to whether we were married, if our women wen 
handsome, how many children, &c., was kept up for some 
minutes ; and we left agreeably undeceived as to the impos- 
sibility of conversing with Turkish women. It is true that 
we never spoke to them upon any subsequent occasion ; 
but the hundred groups of women, distributed about this 
valley, without not merely a watchful guardian, but not 
even a single male attendant, was enough to make us skep- 
tical as to the jealous seclusion which travellers have unani- 
mously represented as the fate of Turkish women. 

* In order to prtpaie the milk for use, take n ipaKpaonful of the jaooit, 
bruiw it with a ipoon, anJ pour on it a iiuiiTt of lukewaim milk, and *M it 
uide in an parthen vesael : it will be fit far iiKi< in Ihr ciiurw of an hour Or 
two. Il appears tu be the Mine article tn-'nlionnl liy Strabo (lib. rii.) In 
UM among ths Taitara of the Crimea, and called by him a^wf^Utli. 



aKZTCHXS OF TUEKXy. 127 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Toikish Maimer of House-cleaning — Greek Funeral — Turkish Intennents 
— Rumours of Plague — Fire at the Arsenal — Another at the Seven Towen 
— ^Executions — A Persian Traveller — Cholera — Patrols — Counterfeit 
MoDAy. 

I WAS witnessing, this morning, the operation of house- 
cleaning, which is performed by deluging the floors with 
water, and then the servants dance backwards and for- 
wards on small bundles of heatli-twigs ; when a low chant, 
interrupted occasionally by a loud shriek in the streets of 
our little village, summoned me to the window. It was the 
funeral of a Greek. The deceased was dressed in his best 
clothes, and the body was entirely exposed to view. This 
practice, which is universal among the Greeks, is at all 
times disagreeable ; but when death has ensued after small- 
pox, or any other loathsome disease, the spectacle becomes 
truly revolting. A poor woman, apparently the widow of 
the deceased, walked alongside of the coflin, tearing her 
hair, which hung dishevelled about her shoulders, and ex- 
hibiting other manifestations of the deepest wo. One was 
reminded of Ariadne's 

Aspice (lemissos lugentis more capillos, 
Et tunicas lacrymis sicut ab imbre graves. 

As the procession moved slowly onward, the poor mourner 
would frequently bend over the corpse, kiss its pallid fea- 
tures, address it in the tendcrest manner, and then break 
out into a wild shriek which completely drowned the dismal 
funeral dirge. With mingled sensations of pity and disgust 
I turned away from the scene ; when a friend, who hap- 



1S8 SKBTCHES OV 

pened to be present, dryly inquired whether this wiadn 
first Greek funeral I had ever seen, and then fumiahea me 
with the following explanation. The death of a Greek is, 
in some respects celebrated like an Irish wake ; as it ii 
always the signal for a regular frolic, and the ^w ! ^f« ! of , 
the mourners is the undoubted prototype of the Irishululal 
The poor bereaved widAir, as I had considered her, whose 
passionate grief had made such an impression upoa my 
feelings, was, in all probability an utter stranger to the de- 
ceased, and had been engaged for the occad^n at the rate 
of five piastres a day, with bread and rakee at discretion. 
I had firequent opportunities afterward of verifying the 
accuracy, of this information, and the practice seems |o be 
of the highest antiquity.* This custom also prevailed ex- 
tensively in ancient Rome ; and was carried to such lengths 
by the real mourners, that women were forbidden by the 
laws of the Twelve Tables to scratch their cheeks or tear 
their flesh with their nails. When a Greek dies, his body 
is sewed up in a coarse cotton sheet, over which are placed 
his finest clothes. When it reaches the place of intermentf 
the clothes are stripped off, and the body is launched into the 
grave without any further ceremony. If wealthy, a marble 
slab with the customary words, " Here lies the servant of 
God,** &c., is placed over his grave,f and masses are said 
for the repose of his soul. If the deceased be poor, no fiir^ 
ther attention is bestowed upon his body or soul. 

The practice of the Turks differs from this in several 
particulars. The body is scrupulously washed and cleansed 
after death ; and conformably to their well-known resigna- 
tion to the decrees of Providence, all outward demonstra- 
tions of sorrow are abstained from, as not only unmanly, bat 



* Consider and call for the mourning women, that they may mak« hast« 
and take up a wailing for us, that our eyes may run down with teara and 
our eyelids gush out with waters. Jer. ix. 17. See also Amoa ▼. 16. 

f %ySmU Kttrmi o inXf two Onu. k.t.X, 



fnOTCBBB OF TURXBT. 120 

imppous. The corpse is buried within a few hours after 
denh ; the imaum, or parish-clerk, and a few only of the 
nearest friends or relatives accompany it to the grave. I 
have frequently on the Bosphorus met with boats transport- 
• ing corpses to the Asiatic side, to be interred at Scutari ; 
and the poetic fable of Charon and Styx appeared to be 
realized in the noiseless progress of the solitary boatman, 
and the very form of the cait, which seemed to be an exact 
copy of the identical skiiT of old Charon himself, as it has 
reached us <m antique vases. 

It id usually stated by travellers that there is a very 
prevalent idea among the Turks that sooner or later their 
empire in Europe must cease ; and hence, that those who 
are able to afibrd it are desirous of being buried on the 
shore of Asia. Tliat this may operate upon the minds of a 
few we would not attempt to deny ; but we may suppose 
other feelings associated with it, less mingled with calcula- 
tions of what the future may bring forth, and connected 
with the purer and more exalted feelings of our nature. 
The Osmanli, however gorged with tlie wealth or^satiated 
with the luxuries of Europe, always looks back with a 
yearning heart to the cloudless sky, the fruitful soil, and 
genial climes of Asia, — the scene of the ciiivalrous deeds of 
his amcestors, at once their cradle and their grave. With 
these heroic chiefs he may naturally be supposed to wish to 
mingle his dust, far removed from the contaminating pre- 
sence of his European enemies.. 

The graves of the Turks are generally shallower than 
ours, and their coffins are plain unpainted boxes. No other 
ceremfbny accompanies the deposit^ of the coffin in its nar- 
row cell than a simultaneous silent prayer ; after which the 
grave is filled up and water sprinkled over it by the nearest 
relatives.^ This last ceremony is connected with the poeti- 
cal association that, like a plant, the soul of man will 
rise to immortality. Pots of flowers are placed near and 
over the grave ; and in those which are covered with marble 

8 



t 



a amall aperture is left, in which the pott are imbsddad, 
and the care necessary to watch and preserve these pAti 
fonns for many months, and even years, the mournful occu- 
pation of the bereaved relatives. It is scarcely worth 
while to notice the absurd stories that the Turks are buried 
with their faces downward, and that their nails are allowed 
to grow as long as possible in order that they may ba the 
better enabled to scratch their way into Farudise. It if 
with such childish fables that too many travellers in the 
East have chosen to disfigure their works ; and it would 
seem that his popularity is the greatest who has accumu- 
lated th0 greatest number of these silly inventims. 

Sunday, We had divine service this morning in tbo 
palace of the American minister, Commodore Porter. It 
was the first time that an American congregation bad ever 
been assembled upon the banks of the Bosphorus, and this 
was alluded to by tbe Rev. Mr. Goodel in a very appro- 
priate and impressive manner. Although our congregation 
was small, yet wc had almost as many sects among as u 
there were individuals present; but ail united in one c<hd- 
moQ thanksgiving for our high privileges, and joined fer- 
vently with the preacher in aspirations for tbe continued 
prosperity of our native land. Old Hundred was chanted 
with all the fervour of a national anthem ; for it was asso- 
inated with thoughts of that beloved home where thousands 
of our countrymen were, perhaps, in the very same wordSf 
ofiering up their homage of thanksgiving and praise. 

Wednesday. We have had rumours of plague for several 
days past, and tlic consternation and anxiety are excessive. 
It is truly surprising that people who have been from their 
childhood accustomed to the presence of this disease should 
yet live in such continual terror. The first question asked 
is, " Are there any new accidents to-day 1" for by this polite 
periphrasis do the ignorant and timid European residents 
here designate one of the greatest scourges of humanity. 
I have noticed, fur several days jiast, tliat people of all 



8XBTCHB8 OF TVRKBY. 181 

chuKes walk about the streets with smelling-bottles in their 
hands, and with rags or bits of cotton thrust into their nos- 
trils. To a new-comer it is laughable to witness the cau- 
tion with which the Franks pick their way along the streets, 
carefully avoiding to tread on the least particle of woollen, 
cotton, or paper, and jumping from side to side to avoid 
touching even the clothes of the passers-by. As an amus- 
ing contrast to this, I see the Turk marching along with an 
air of the greatest nonchalance, elbowing his way through 
the crowd as if unacquainted with the existence of such a 
disease as plague, or rather to show his constitutional forti- 
tude and his utter contempt for the puerile precautions 
adopted by his timid neighbours. But then, on the other 
hand, everybody knows that Osman is an infidel, and of 
course not a civilized being, consequently he has not intel- 
lect enough to comprehend when he is in danger, and when 
he is safe. With this sapient conclusion, the Franks of 
Pera, who are far from being the representatives of the col- 
lective wisdom of Europe, persist in their childish terrors^ 
and continue their absurd precautions. 

Friday, A great blaze last evening in the direction of 
Pera announced another fire in or near the capital. We 
learn this morning that the palace of the arsenal, a beautiful 
and extensive building, the residence of the captain pacha, 
has been burnt to the ground. It is said to have been the 
work of incendiaries ; and if such be the case they must 
have set about it in a very crafty manner, and effected 
their object with a great deal of cool determination. This 
building stood in the centre of the navy-yard, and was sur- 
rounded night and day by careful guards. To ensure their 
watchfulness during the night, they are compelled to bawl 
out every five minutes until break of day. It was my lot 
to reside some time near the arsenal, and it required the 
experience of several weeks before I could sleep undis- 
turbed by these lugubrious and discordant screams. 

Saturday. Another fire broke out last evening about 



r. 



18S aXBTOHEB or TUBXIY. 

midnight, not far from the Seven Towers, and laated imtfl 
four o'clock this afternoon. It commenced in a quarter 
which is chiefly inhabited by Armenians and Jews, and 
although during its continuance there was scarcely a breath 
of air, it continued its destructive progress, and was at la«t 
finally subdued by blowing up fifteen or twenty bouse*. 
1 happened to bo ia the city at the time, but the crowds of 
people in the streets rendered a near approach impossible. 
At the distance of a mile my clothes were covered with 
the cinders Irom the conflagration. When I visited tha 
■pot a few days aflerward, I found a space aboat two miles 
in pength, and a quarter of a mile bioad, entirely de- 
vastated. Houses, mosques, minarets, and palaceswerein 
one undistinguishablc ruin. One of the reasons why firei 
make such progrcBs is, that persons not immediately inter- 
ested abstain from odering their services, as the police 
arrest and deal in a very summary way with such as 
cannot explain why they are near the spoL If detected in 
the act the incendiary is thrown without cerenKwy into tin 
fire. 

This is the third fire which has occurred since our 
arrival. The first consumed 450, and the second 300 
houses. During the whole of my subsequent residence in 
Constantinople, and until the month of August of the ensu> 
log year, comprising a pcriud of twelve months, there were 
three otlicr inconsiderable fires, so that, in the frequency, if 
not in the extent, of these calamities, this city must yield 
the palm of superiority to New- York. From an official 
itatement it appears that in New- York there were during 
the last year 119 fires, and nearly as many more false 
alorms and instances in which the fire Mas subdued before 
it hod made any progress. But then, on tlie other hand, it 
must be acknowledged that when a hre actually does 
break out in Constantinople, it is, from the causes already 
alluded to, much more destructive. In consequence of the 
pVMnt general alarm aa this subject, the sultan has adopted 



8KBTCHE8 OF TUJUUnT. 188 

rigorous measures. All who can afford it are ordered to 
suspend lamps before their doors ; and the old regulation 
of arresting every person found in the streets at night 
without a lamp is rigidly enforced. The Franks attribute 
these fires to popular dissatisfaction, occasioned by two 
recent measures of the sultan. One is that which requires 
all pubUc officers of the government to pBiy a certain amount 
of their salaries or incomes into the treasury, and the other 
the reduction of the pay of the soldiery. This reduction is 
from twenty-five to twenty piastres* per month, and appears 
to be injudicious ; and as winter is fast approaching, when 
the soldier will require more comforts, it is certainly ill 
timed. Whatever may have been the cause, it is asserted 
that three ex-janissaries and two women have been put to 
death, having been detected under suspicious circumstances 
near the place where the fire first made its appearance. 

There are causes enough to account for the frequency of 
these conflagrations, to be found in the ordinary habits and 
practices of the people, without the necessity of adopting 
fbe belief that they are always the effect of design. Every 
Turk (with the exception of the sultan himself) smokes his 
chibook night and day, and his fire is knocked out vrithout 
the least care. If the floor is matted, the straw material is 
amply sufficient to nourish the flame, and if not covered, 
the joints between the planks are generally open enough to 
receive a coal of fire, and at midnight the family are 
awakened by the blaze of their dwelling. I have fire- 
quently observed coopers, cabinet-makers, and other me- 
chanics smoking their chibooks, and knocking out the 
embers among the shavings and other combustible mate- 
rials, with all the indifference which may be supposed to 
denote an every-day occurrence. 

These frequent fires cause much anxiety to the govern- 
ment ; they have all occurred within too short a time to 

^ Twenty piastres at present equal a dollar. 



lit 8KBTCHB8 OF TUBKBT. 

be the result of accident, and it has been remarked that 
they arise in the very spot where, from the direction of the 
wind, they are likely to do the most mischief. Thus, when 
the palace of the captain pacha was burnt a few days ago, 
if the wind had not suddenly shifted, the whole of the Otto* 
man fleet then at the arsenal would have fallen a prey to 
the flames. One of the diplomatic people, who is well ac- 
quainted with the Ulterior of the government, informs me 
that five hundred persons are now in prison under suspi- 
cion of being concerned in these fires. It is, however, a 
matter of extreme difficulty to asc^ertain the exact truth ; 
for, in fertility of invention, and disregard of facts, the 
gossip of foreigners here may well compare with our own 
newspapers during a contested election. It is currently 
reported that the sultan has sent an express for Hassim 
Pacha, who is at present at Adrianople. He is represented 
as being bloody, bold, and resolute ; and from his former 
exploits has acquired the name of Janissary-killer. Such 
is the terror inspired by his name, that it is generally be- 
lieved his mere presence here would be sufficient to pre- 
vent any further incendiary attempts. 

Thursday. I formed an acquaintance this morning with 
a young Englishman, who has just arrived from India by a 
rather unusual route. He left Calcutta five months ago, 
and from thence proceeded to Bombay, and in a steamer 
from that place up the Persian Gulf to Bushire. He 
traversed Persia by the way of Tabriz, Ispahan or Te- 
heran, Ararat, and Erzeroom. From Trebizond he coasted 
along the southern shore of the Black Sea to this place. 
A part of this journey was made in company with caravans, 
but the greatest portion was accomplished without any 
companion. He spoke no language but his own, had no 
servant or guide, and yet performed this long journey with- 
out danger or impediment. He describes the panic occa- 
sioned by the cholera to be so great throughout Persia 



SKBTCHSS OF TUBKET. 135 

that many towns refused to permit him to enter,* and he 
was consequently compelled to bivouac frequently in the 
open fields. Bands of robbers were roaming about the 
country, and taking advantage of the general consternation, 
would knock at the door of a house at midnight, and in 
answer to the demand of who they were, would reply, ** I 
am cholera," The aflrighted inmates would immediately 
take to their heels, and leave their houses to be pillaged by 
these ingenious miscreants. 

Mr. W. describes the Persians as a vain, gay, and loqua- 
cious people ; sumptuous in their dress and furniture, ex- 
ceedingly disputatious, and, in short, he terms them the 
Frenchmen of the East. 

He represents the country as generally fertile, although 
much impoverished, and in many places entirely ruined and 
depopulated by the annual visits which the shah, or the 
members of his family, pay to various parts of his empire. 
In these excursions every thing is seized and appropriated 
for the use of the court, and the news of its approach is 
regarded in the same light with the visit of the destroying 
angeL Their military force is very inefficient, and the 
country will at no distant period fall an easy prey to that 
colossal power which may yet, in our own day, extend its 
conquests from the Bosphorus to the Ganges. Judging 
firom what he has seen of the Turks, he considers them, in 
comparison with the Persians, a more solid, rational people, 
and infinitely more honest and trustworthy. 

An edict of the sultan was read publicly this day in the 
streets, calUng upon the agha, and the chiefs of every vil- 
lage and district, to establish night patrols, and to be vigi- 
lant in preventing all incendiary attempts. Several decapi- 

* This shorUighted and ignorant policy bai since unfortunately been 
displayed in oar own enlightened country. The authorities of Newport 
have in this particular acquired a very unenviable pre-eminence. Fully 
Island, too, in the neighbourhood of Charleston, seems to have acquired » 
stronger title to its very appropriate name. 



tated bodies were exhibited in the streets of the capiiuA 
yesterday. They were said to have been inceadiaiies } 
but others assert that they were poor wretches, akeady 
condeniDed for otticr crimes, and now executed for stage 
effect, aod to strike terror among those who still harbour 
incendiary designs. Whatever may have been their real 
crime, they are exposed with a bundle of matches in <»ie 
hand and a bottle of some inHanimable material in tbe 
other. 

Returning home this evening at a late hour, I observed 
many persons asleep on mats, in tbe open air, before their 
respective shops, which were lit up, and apparently ready 
to receive customers. This affords a pleasing evidence of 
tbe good taith and honesty of tbe people. I have nodced a 
similar circumstance in the bazars and shops of the me- 
tropolis. In these places, during the day, if the shopman 
wishes to step out, or to indulge himself in a nap, he ties a 
string across the door, or throws a cloth over a few arti- 
cles near the street, and this signifies that the shop is sha^ 
a hint which is universally understood and respected. If 
you purchase an article, the seller of course endeavours 
to obtain the highest price ; but the Turkish dealer shoWB 
much more conscience than his Jewish or Christian neigh- 
bours. When a piece of money is put into his hands to 
change, be returns the whole amount, and leaves it to tbe 
purchaser to deduct the price of the article. When it 
is recollected that the money of this empire is counter- 
feited to B great extent* the honesty of this procedure is 
apparent ; be not only confides in your good &itli, but ex* 
hibits his own in no small degree. 

Great quantities of this counterfeit money are manu&c- 
tUred at Birmingham, in England, which, according to an 
English writer,* furnishes counterfeit coin for the whole 
world. There are branch-banks for tbe issue of this baw 

* SoDtliej's ." Etpiiella'i LetUn." 



8KBTGBXS OF TURKXT. 187 

coin at Syra and Hydra, and the agents cany on their 
business openly and above-board. They defend their pro- 
ceedings upon the ground of its being " a lawful business 
transaction." They aver that it is meritorious to injure " a 
natural enemy'' in any and every possible manner ; and 
aldiough they are no longer at war, yet a Turk is an infidel, 
and of course is everybody's enemy. Besides, if the Eng- 
lish government authorized or connived at the distribution 
of forged assignats during the French revolution, why 
should not the Greeks do the same towards the Turkish 
government These counterfeiters also maintain that the 
money which they fabricate actually contains more gold 
than that issued from the royal mint, consequently they 
commit no crime, and certainly less fraud than the sultan 
exercises upon his own subjects. We leave it to casu- 
ists to settle the relative quantum of morality in either 
instance. This business of passing counterfeit coin upon 
the unsuspecting Turk is of very ancient date. From 
1656, the French drove a brisk trade in five-sous piecest 
which they sold to the Turk for ten sous. After a gainful 
prosecution of this business for ten years, they began to 
alloy the five-sous pieces, and continued this until they 
were finally detected. Heavy impositions were put upon 
ikdoif and they were treated no better than counterfeiters* 
Sir John Chardin, from whom I derive this anecdote, says, 
**No people in the world have been more frequently 
cheated than the 'Turks ; being naturally very dull and 
thickskulled, and apt to believe any fair story, which is the 
reason why the Christians have imposed upon them a 
thousand cooey-catching tricks. But though ye may 
deceive them onc^ or twice, yet, when their eyes are open, 
they strike home and pay ye once for all. And those sort 
of impositions in that nature are called avdnies^ which are 
not always unjust impositions neither ; they being like the 
confiscations so firequent in custom-houses." 

T 



sKvrcHES or tdbkbt. 



CHAPTER XV. 



Tnitiah CdtlcKC— Ongin— Ee> 
TurliUh LuiguafF and Liii 
to uu Romui Leiten — AnncDO-Turkiih. 



Accompanied by my esteemed friend the Reverend Mr. 
Goodei, I visited a Turkish academy or coUege, one o( the 
fruits of the important changes which have taken place in 
this country during the Inst four years. It is established in 
the quarter called Hass Koui, some distance up the Golden 
Horn. The building is spacious, and its intcriw distribo- 
tion appears well calculated for the purposes to wluch it is 
dcdicaiod. It was originally founded by the wise but un- 
fortunate Selim, and after his death shared the fate of aB 
the benevolent and sairacious measures of his reign. Since 
tlic accession of tlie present monarch it has been restored, 
anil, if I am riphtly informed, has been liberaJly endowed, 
and sends forth annually a number of young men compe- 
tent to engaire in the active duties of life. The wbc^ 
course of studies requisile lo be completed, embraces a 
period of three years. It is under the directiiMi of Ees 
Hawk (Isaac) Etfendi, or gentleman Isaac, as we would 
translate it, a worthy Hebrew who has renounced the fu& 
of his forefathers. This change from Judaism to Islamisn 
is effected with small violence to their previous opinkn^ 
for both sects reverence the one true God, and their oer&- 
monials have a striking similarity. 

Upon asking for the principal, we were directed to a door 
throujh which (after stumblin:: over a huire pile of slippers) 
wi- were ushered into a spacious matted chamber, answer^ 
iug to one of our college recitati<m-rooins. His lu^mesi 



SKETCHES OF TURXET. 139 

Ees Hawk was lolling luxuriously upon an ample divan, 
smoking at intervals from a huge amber-headed pipe, and 
reading in a slow measured tone sentence by sentence from 
a large manuscript before him. Although he was an ac- 
quaintance of my companion, his reception of us was any 
thing but flattering, and he even forgot to offer the custom- 
ary pipe and coffee, which the poorest Turk never fails to 
present to fcis visiter. We had come too far, however, to 
be daunted by trifles, and accordingly took possession of 
the only two chairs in the room, upon a very slight invita- 
tion from the instructer. Ees Hawk is a man of much 
consideration among the Turks, and held for many years 
the post of drogoman to the Porte, a situation now filled 
by his son-in-law. We were unable to divine the cause of 
Ees Hawk's pointed incivility, but my companion suggested 
that our having neglected to apprize him of our intended 
visit was the most probable reason. Trifling as this incident 
may seem to our readers, it is mentioned for its singularity, 
ibr it was the only instance which occurred during our 
whole residence in Turkey of any incivility or dis- 
respect 

The s£ene around us was of an interesting character. 
There were some fifty or sixty young men in the room, 
some of whom were apparently from twenty to twenty- 
five, while others were mere lads of fifteen. Many, from 
their uniforms, were recognised as officers in different corps 
of the army. They were all seated in various positions 
on the floor, and had their papers before them, copying 
literally after the dictation of the lecturer. The oriental 
manner of writing differs so materially from ours, that a 
short notice of it may not be unacceptable. The paper is 
very stout, and is highly glazed, at least on one side. The 
pupil holds his paper (which, if a large sheet, is doubled) 
partly in the palm of his left hand, and this occasionally 
rests on the left knee. The pens are made of a species of 
reedf and are cut with a broad nib. The oriental mode 



140 8KBTCHK8 OF TUKKBT. 

<^ writing it is well known \e from right to left, and of 
course the reverse of our own. Notwithstanding the ap- 
parently awkward position of the writer, and the rude 
writing materials, the characters were evenly nnd distinctly 
traced by the pupils, and some of their notes might have 
been exhibited as fair specimens of calligraphy. An ink- 
stand of singular shape is attached to their belt, and god- 
tains such pens as are not in use. In several of their manu- 
scripts I remarked that the lines, althou^ parallel with 
each other, were not horizontal, but ascended in a slanting 
direction towards the left comer of the page. Tliis I take 
to be a mere fancy, although I have noticed the same oblique 
direction of the characters on some of their tombstooes. 

The principal was occupied when we entered in holding 
forth to his pupils upon 'the arrangement and dispositions of 
companies and battalions. He would occasionally single 
out an inattentive student, call upon him to repeat the last 
sentence given out, and scolded vehemently if the hicUesi 
wight was not able to answer in the most satisfactory maiK 
ner. Occasionally he would accompany his reproof with 
a significant gesture as if he were about to spit in his face. 
This is the vilest expression of contempt in use tfmong the 
Turks, and I took it for granted that the juvenile geniuses 
to whom it was addressed merited a correction of a more 
severe nature. The scholars in general were remarkably 
attentive and orderly, although the reproofs and threats of 
the teacher were received with as much hilarity as if he 
had retailed a stale college jest. He exhibited to us a work 
in four octavo volumes, written by himself, which had but 
just issued from the press at Constantinople. I afterward 
understood that it was a clever compilation from the French, 
embracing elementary introductions to the sciences ; a sort 
of Turkish Encyclopedia, which ser\'cd as a text-book to the 
students. During our stay in the school, two elderly Turk- 
ish officers entered the room. They were received with 
the most deferential respect by the teacher, and were piped 



■ SKBTCHES OF TUSKBT. 141 

and cofieed with all possible despatch. They appeared to 
take little interest in the lecture, and seemed rather to have 
come in as a sort of agreeable lounge. As nearly as I 
could decipher the teacher's barbarous Turko-Italian-French 
lingo, one of these officers was an inspector, and the other 
a general of bombardiers. 

At twelve the school was dismissed, and we took our 
leave, much gratified to find academical institutions of such 
a high order among a people who are considered as little 
better than barbarians by the rest of Europe. After leav- 
ing the school-room, one of the young men took us into the 
library, a spacious apartment on the same floor, containing 
from 800 to 1000 volumes. They were chiefly French ; 
indeed I saw none in any other European language. They 
were principally treatises upon engineering, and other sub- 
jects connected with the military art. With these were a 
number of manuscripts, and a few printed works on the 
mathematics in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish. We were 
informed by our young companion, that the number of 
students in this institution was 200; that most of them 
were destined for the army ; and that the term of study 
was three years. I inquired what text-books were used by 
the students, and he exhibited the four volumes of the prin- 
cipal, assuring us, with much simplicity, that when they 
had faithfully gone through these volumes, they would have 
acquired all the knowledge in the world. I have been 
much struck upon various occasions with the modest de- 
meanour and simplicity of character of the young Turks, 
and their eagerness to acquire information. Their national 
sfajmess and reserve are the only serious obstacles to their 
rapid acquisition of knowledge. French and Italian are 
now commonly taught in their higher schools, and the 
knowledge of a foreign language, so far from being as in 
former times a reproach, is now quite a distinction in 
Turkey. The library contained a pair of large globes, 
various models of useful machines, and several philosophical 



142 SKKTCHBS OF TUBKIT. 

instruments. The walb were covered with many paltry 
coloured English prints of the battle of Prague and other 
military engagements of that period. 

The Turks cannot be charged with inattention to public 
instruction. Each of the sixteen royal mosques has a 
maydresay or college attached to it, and the number of 
students in each varies from three to five hundred, betides 
firee-schools in the vicinity, which are partly supported out 
of the funds of the mosque. I need hardly remark that 
elementary schools may be found in every street of Stam- 
boul ; indeed their loud recitations compel your attention* 
and the see-saw motions and ^ing-song spelling of the little 
urchins remind one of our own village-schools. Fifty years 
ago the number of schools in Constantinople alone exceeded 
500, and it is asserted that there are more than 1000 at the 
present day. The children of the nobility and wealthier 
classes arc generally educated at home. 

Independent of these places of instruction, there are 
numerous public libraries, among which that of the seraglio 
is the most conspicuous. To every royal mosque, and to 
many of the tekkays, or chapels of the derviscs, is attached 
a library, and the largest is stated to contain 0000 volumes. 
This may be considered a small number ; but it must be 
remembered that oriental literature is circumscribed in 
comparison with ours, and that they contain but few foreign 
works. The library of Abdool Hamed is stated to be the 
best arranged and most accessible ; but facilities are readily 
given to examine all, upon making application in the proper 
quarter. 

With regard to the language and literature of the Turks 
my means of information are limited ; but from the little 
attention I have as yet paid to it, I am enabled to submit 
the following remarks. 

The Turkish is a Tatar dialect full of soft vowel sounds, 
and when well spoken falls very agreeably upon the ear. 
It is characterized by an accomplished scholar as being 



8KSTCHB8 OF TURKST. 143 

inferior to no ancient or modem tongue in softness, flexi- 
bility, or harmony ; and its rules are so admirably simple, 
that we should rather suppose them to have been framed 
by an academy of learned men, than by a society consisting 
of wandering and pastoral tribes. Its total dissimilarity 
from any European language renders its acquirement no 
easy task, and I have met with but four Europeans who 
had succeeded in mastering its difficulties. They had all, 
however, been bom and brought up in the country, and 
acquired the language in the natural way before they began 
to study the alphabet. There are thirty-three letters in 
this alphabet, of which twenty-nine are derived from the 
Arabic, three from the Persian, and one peculiar to the 
Turkish. Of these, thirty are always consonants, one alone 
is always a vowel, and four are occasionally vowels or 
consonants. It will be readily perceived that from the 
absence of vowels, one must have some idea of the word 
before he can pronounce it, and it is not until he has pro- 
nounced it that he can be certain of its meaning. These 
are, however, difficulties common to all the languages of 
the East, but there are others almost peculiar to the Turk- 
ish.* The thirty-three characters stand in the alphabet as 

* Of gramman I have aeen foar, the oldest of which is by a Fienchman 
named Ryer, who resided several years in Constantinople. His grammar is 
a thin quarto, printed at Paris in 1633. It is in Latin, and the Turkish 
forms of speech are made to bend to that language. Its most remarkable 
pecaliarities are an outrageous specimen of debasing flattery in his dedica- 
tion to Richelieu, and an attempt to print backwards in imitation of the 
orientals. 

Another grammar is by a French missionary, Pore Vigier. It is a ponder- 
ous quarto, printed at Constantinople in 1790. The worthy father has 
waded beyond his depth, and introduced artificial and arbitrary distinctions 
which do not belong to the Turkish, and has made confusion worse con- 
founded by the incorrectness of his oriental types. I have in my possession 
a Romaic grammar of the Turkish language, which is recommendable for its 
clearness and simplicity. It is written by a Greek physician, Demetrius, and 
its imprint at Vienna bears date of 1812. The best grammar is that of 
Jaubert, who was for many years a distinguished drogoman to the French 



144 8XBTCRSB €Sf TCWMXTa 

« 

they are to be written when not connected with any other; 
but the moment we commence writing a word, the form of 
each character is altered, and this change takes place in 
three different ways from its primitive form : 1, before and 
after another character; 2, after another character, but nol 
joined to it ; and 3, at the end of words. These changes 
are sometimes effected by simple dots or scratches, but are 
often so material as entirely to alter the form of the char* 
acter. In manuscripts these apparent minutis are often 
neglected, and amusing mistakes have crept even into doco- 
roents as important and carefully drawn up as public 
decrees. I was informed by one of our missionaries that 
a certain pacha in Syria once received a firmaun from tfie 
Porte, ordering him to take a census of all the Jews in hit 
pachalik. An unlucky fly-spot (sit venia verbo) had acci* 
dentally been deposited upon or above one of the charac- 
ters, and entirely altered the sense of a passage. The 
order thus changed, purported that the Jews were to submit 
to a severe operation allied in some degree to their custooH 
ary national rite, and several were operated upon, before 
the mistake was discovered. 

It results from these changes that the alphabet consists of 
109 distinct characters ;, to say nothing of divers fanciful 
ad libitum flourishes, depending upon the taste of the writer. 
And to these we may add, as obstacles in the way of the 
learner, that there are neither paragraphs nor any sort of 
punctuation ; and that their fine wrijters are in the habit of 
interlarding every sentence with pure Arabic and Persian 
words, which are difficult to reduce to the rules of Turkish 
syntax. The Persian poets and Arabic philosophers are 
quoted with the same facility that a well-educated European 



embassy, and is now a professor of oriental literature in the university of 
Paris. It leaves nothing to desire except that the author had been an Eog- 
lishman or American, for there are sounds in the Turkish language which «PS 
hold it to ba next to impossible for a Frenchman to imitate correctly. 



SKETCHES OF TURKBT. 145 

or American refers to the classical authorities of Greece or 
Rome. The best Turkish writers carry this afiectation so 
fiuTy that the language of their books is quite distinct from 
that of ordinary conversation. At the end of this work the 
reader will find an outline of the elements of the languaget 
with a brief vocabulary,* which, as it is the first attempt 
with which I am acquainted in our own language, will, I 
apprehend, be found of service to those who may have occa- 
sion to visit Turkey. 

The difficulties presented by the Turkish character have 
led to the proposition, that not only this but all other lan- 
guages should be written with Roman letters. Volney, a 
distinguished orientalist himself, was so much impressed 
with the utility of this plan, that he bequeathed a consider- 
able sum as a premium to those who should carry it into 
successful execution. In his work entitled ** Alfabet Euro* 
peen applique aux Langues Asiatiqucs," he passes in review 
til the sounds which occur in the languages of Europe, and 
finds that they amount to twenty vowels and thirty con- 
sonants. The Roman alphabet is incapable of representing 
all these : but, as it is already known, he takes it for the 
basis of his new alphabet, and by assigning different powers 
to the redundant letters, and adding marks to others, he 
succeeded in representing those sounds in which our ordi- 
nary alphabet is deficient. Our learned countryman Mr. 
Pickering has pursued, in the Memoirs of the American 
Academy of Sciences, the same idea, and his treatise may 
be advantageously consulted by those who take an interest 
in the subject He proposes to adopt the vowel sounds of 
the French and German, and to express the nasal sounds by 
a cedilla. Zh expresses the French and Portuguese j, and 
for others he employs component signs, such as ks, ksh, ts, 
tz, &c. In the vocabulary at the end, which is written ex- 
clusively for those who speak English, it will be perceived 

* See Appendix £. 
u 



146 BKWrCBEM OF 

that Ihave borrowed bottwo vowel soands from any other 
language. 

It is not probable that the orientalists themselves would 
readily adopt this innovation ; but this is a secondary object, 
as it is intended mainly for the instruction of Europeans. 
The Hindostanee has already been taught successfully on 
this plan, and this should encourage us to renew our eCTorts 
to extend by these means the diffusion of knowledge. The 
objections to it are thus summed up by Ruphy in the intio- 
duction to his Arabic Grammar. 

^ C'est changer inutilement la phy sionomie natureUe de 
cette langue ; les caracteres Arabes ne sont pas plus bizarrea 
que les notres; et la difficult^ dc I'ecriture de drcHte k 
gauche est plus imaginaire que reelle. On apprend la st6- 
nographie en une heure ; il ne faut guere plus de temps pour 
apprendre la figure et la valeur des caracteres. Aprte 
cela« que reste-t-il k etudier ? le corps de la langue. Eh 
bien i les caracteres Franc^ais diminueront-ils la difficult^ 
de cctto 6tude 7 L'experience m'a prouve le contraire.** 

The objection that it would change the natural physiog- 
nomy of the language appears to be a trivial one. The 
Germans have changed theirs almost within our own time, 
and find an advantage in approximating its ** natural phy- 
siognomy" to the other languages of Europe. The com- 
parison with stenography is equally unfortunate ; for who 
would in preference enter upon the study of a language 
written in stenographic characters, amounting to more than 
100 in number, written backwards, without punctuation or 
vowels, and interlarded with foreign words. Such is the 
actual appearance of the Turkish, and the same remark ap- 
pUes more or less to all the oriental languages. 

Printing was first introduced into Turkey, in 1727, by 
Achmet III. ; but not until every precaution had been taken, 
the ulemah carefully sounded, and a solenm decree published 
by the grand mufti. At this office fifteen works were pub- 
lished, viz. an Arabic and a Persian Dictionary, nine his- 



8XJBTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 147 

torical works, two of geography, one on the compass, and 
one, strange to say, on the various forms of government 
throughout the world. The death of its learned projector 
Basmahji Ibrahim, nineteen years afterward, put a stop to 
this establishment ; but another edition of the Arabic Dic- 
tionary was published in the course of eleven years. It was 
then suffered to slumber for twenty-seven years, when it 
was revived by Abdool Hamid L, and kept up by Selim, 
vho established several printing-presses about the capital ; 
but the blind and bigoted opposition of the ulemah pre- 
vented them from becoming extensively useful. It is 
related of this learned body, that they objected to the print- 
ing of the Koran because it was unlawful to squeeze the 
word of God, as must necessarily be done by the printer 
and bookbinder. Several elegant productions, however, 
appeared from the imperial printing-press at Scutari. 
Among these were two works, written by the celebrated 
Rayf Effendi ; one of which was entitled, ^ The Basis of 
Victory,*' and was designed to illustrate the necessity of 
reform in the civil and military departments. It afterward 
cost its learned and patriotic author his life : the other was 
entitled, ^ A Medical Guide to Mecca for the Use of Pil- 
grims.'* At the arsenal were six other presses, from which 
appeared several publications ; among them are mentioned 
a ^collection of Turkish songs, a magnificent atlas, and a 
large dictionary of the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish lan- 
guages. All these establishments perished with their illus- 
trious founder. The present monarch has successfully 
restored and carried into execution, further than the warmest 
well-wisher to Turkey could have anticijyitcd, all the im- 
provements connected with printing, so much desired by 
the unfortunate Selim. Works appear now almost daily 
from the presses of the capital, which would do honour to 
any city of Europe. Of these I have seen too few to enu- 
merate ; but I may be permitted to particularize the work 
already alluded to, as a text-book in the college at Hasskeni, 



148 SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 

and a treatise on human anatomy, written by Chani Zadeh, 
one of the ulemah. It is a folio of 300 pages, with fifty-six 
well-executed plates. It is divided into three parts: the 
first containing descriptive anatomy, the second physiology, 
and the third therapeutics. 

The difficulties presented by the Turkish characters have 
led many to write tlie language in the letters used by the 
Armenians, which form a very simple and elegant alphabet 
The great bulk of the Armenians are not acquainted with 
their own language, but all speak Turkish from their cradlci 
and are accustomed to read that language, written in their 
own characters, and this forms what is erroneously called 
Armeno-Turkish. Almost all the religious tracts hitherto 
published for distribution among the Turks, are printed in 
this way. I have seen Goldsmith's History of Rome, 
Young's Night Thoughts, the Sacrifice of Isaac, the Sale 
of Joseph, the Passion of Christ, and other similar works, 
translated into Turkish, with Armenian characters. These 
were chiefly printed at Venice, under the auspices of the 
Metacharistan Society. 

It may be added, that few Turks are acquainted with the 
Armenian characters, and hence the religious Armeno- 
Turkish tracts are of no use to them. Indeed, it is most 
probable that they are intended for the Armenians, who 
have more of a literary turn than the Turks, and who 
receive and read them with much pleasure. 



SKBTCHK8 OF TURKBT. 140 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Heights above Bayukdcry — Chaoueh Grapes — Geological SpeculatioDS — 
Tract on Cholera — Aquatic ExcunionB of the Sultan — Hia Habits. 

The high hills which overhang our marine villa have 
firequently tempted us to climb their summits, and to-day 
we determined to make the attempt. After threading 
several crooked lanes, occupied almost exclusively by 
Greeks, we gained the open grounds, and entered the vine- 
]rards which cover the breast of the mountain. They were 
in a healthful condition, and were loaded with fruit The 
grapes of this country are mostly of the variety termed 
chaoushj large, white, and sweet, and without exception the 
finest table grape I have ever tasted. They are offered 
for sale in bunches five or six feet long, and are so dis- 
posed as to resemble a single mammoth cluster. The 
usual price in the markets is from one to two cents the 
pound, and they form no inconsiderable portion of the food 
of the poor. They keep perfectly well all winter in this 
latitude, which is said to be owing to the lime or seawater 
in which they are occasionally immersed ; but others have 
assured me that no particular care is necessary. The soO 
which seems to prevail in these flourishing vineyards results 
from a friable greywacke, which decomposes into a reddish 
earth. From the soft structure of this rock, it is readily 
acted upon by the winter rains, which in many places have 
deeply indented the face of the mountain. Towards the 
summit the heaths {Erica arborea et vulgaris) begin to 
appear, and soon Jx^come the exclusive inhabitants of that 
region. This hill is a part of that mountain-chain which, 
conmiencing at the Black Sea, takes the direction of Con- 
stantinople, and forms the European bank of the Bos- 



150 8KBTCHS8 OV TUUUY. 

phorus. It varies in height from eight hundred to one 
thousand feet On the summit of the hill we noticed 
enormous masses of white quartz boulders, which recalled 
the long- vexed geological question as to the origin of these 
foreign bodies in such elevated regions. 

The passage from the Euxine to the Sea of MarmorSt 
which lay at our feet, has afforded a fertile iSeld to inqiuiy, 
and given ample scope to conjecture. It is certain that the 
physical conformation of the straits, the composition c^the 
rocks, and the strong volcanic traces to be met with at 
every step, lead one to adopt the opinion that this cele- 
brated passage has been opened by earthquakes and vol* 
eanocs. There is, in fact, an ancient tradition that such an 
event occurred about 3600 years ago, producing a delugv 
(commonly called Ogygian) which overwhelmed a portion 
of Greece. Such traditions do not, I apprehend, demand 
our fullest belief, and in fact are seldom swallowed entiret 
except by those who hang a theory upon their supposed 
authenticity. It may have happened that, even in the ear- 
liest ages of man, certain physical appearances attracted 
his attention and excited his speculations, and his crude 
conclusions passed in succeeding ages, through the medium 
of tradition, for undoubted facts. Let us take as an ex* 
ample the supposed disjunction of the Straits of Gibraltar. 
It is possible that, at a very early period, the appearance 
of those straits led to a general belief, among those who 
thought at all, that this passage was suddenly formed by 
some convulsion of nature. At that period, geograph- 
ical knowledge was necessarily confined within very nar- 
row limits; and all the world was thought to be com- 
prised within their neighbourhood. When this mighty rush 
of waters took place, it must have swept every thing before 
it ; but as there was nothing but water .beyond, the land* 
which according to their limited ideas previously existed, 
was totally washed away: and hence arose the fabled 



flXXTCHSS OF TUBXXT. 161 

Atlantis,* through the same respectable medium of tra- 
dition. 

These hints arc thrown out, not as militating against the 
opinions of the volcanic gentlemen, but as a caution against 
impressing vague traditionary evidence into the service 
when we are or should be engaged in the humbler but more 
useful business of collecting facts. 

The rocks on both sides of the straits, as far as my obser- 
vations have gone, are composed of argillaceous slate, and 
transition limestone. This formation extends from the 
Sea of Marmora for eighteen miles up the Bosphorus ; here 
the formation changes, and one uniform mass of volcanic 
rocks appears, and forms the entrance from the Black Sea. 
These are the prominent facts ; let us advert to the hy- 
potheses which have been framed to explain these appear- 
ances. 

The general opinion among geologists seems to be that 
at some remote period the Caspian, Aral, the Sea of Azof, 
and the Euxine formed one great inland sea ; that a sudden 
convulsion burst asunder the barriers of the Bosphorus, 
and* as a necessary consequence, those of the Dardanelles 
and the Mediterranean at Gibraltar. The outpouring of 
such a volume of water lowered the whole level of this great 
internal sea, and the inequalities of its bed produced a sepa- 
ration into distinct salt lakes. This theory would imply 
that its original level was much higher than at present, and 
hence we are called upon to suppose tliat tliis unusual 
elevation was created by another convulsion, which up- 
heaved the mountain -ranges of the Caucasus. To settle 
this point satisfactorily, it would seem to be necessary to 
examine simply the elevation of all the land between the 
Sea of Marmora and the Euxine ; and if a single line could 

* In that immenie tea which apftiulB before the PilUn of Hercules, there 
was formerly an isle, or rather a continent, like Asia or Africa, dec. dec 
Earthquakes and inundations arose, and this Atlantis, so rich and populoos, 
was suddenly submerged and disappeared. — Plato Dia. Tim. 



153 SKETCHES OF TUBKEIT. 

be drawn between those seas, lower than what may be sup- 
posed to have been the height of the land in the place of 
the present channel, the theory would of course fall to the 
ground. That such a place exists a few miles west I have 
some reason to believe, and I hope at some future day to 
have an opportunity to examine it. 

Another hypothesis is, that the Bosphorus was rent 
asunder by an earthquake, and the water thus poured out 
would produce tlie same separation of the supposed great 
inland sea as before alluded to. This theory is objection- 
able on two grounds. First, it is unphilosophical to call in 
the aid of a great cause to account for a phenomenon by 
the old rule, Nic intersit Deus, &c., when a smaller one 
will answer our purpose ; and, in the next place, we should 
find traces along the shores of the Euxine of its former 
elevation. As far as my observations have extended, 
nothing of this kind is to be found, at least for many miles, 
on each side of the entrance to the Bosphorus. 

May we not be permitted to suppose that what is n^ 
the bed of the Bosphorus was once filled with a deposite 
of softer materials, such as secondary limestone, with 
imbedded shells, of which I have already detected indica- 
tions in the neighbourhood. Is it unphilosophical to sup- 
pose that the waters have from the earliest ages passed 
over this bed, and, with the occasional aid of an earthquake 
at the mouth, have gradually denuded the bed to its present 
level ? 

But these and similar speculations were put to flight by 
the appearance of the magnificent scene which lay before 
us. At our feet was the Bosphorus, extending from the 
Euxine as far as Yenikeui, where it was shut ib by the high 
hills, with the picturesque villages of Buyukdery and 
Therapia extending along its placid shores. Beyond this 
ocean-stream were the mountainous heights of Asia, the 
Giant's grave, and here and there some cjrpress-crowned 
summit marking the last resting-place of the children of 



SKETCHES OF TUSKET. 158 

the Prophet. Our left embraced the boundless horizon of 
the Black Sea, while on our right, far across the high table- 
land adjoining the Bosphorus, we could distinguish the 
minarets and proudly-swelling domes of St. Sophia and 
Suleiman ; and beyond, the Prinkipos Isles, and the Sea of 
Marmora. Although my own experience is against climb- 
ing hills merely for the purpose of seeing prospects, which 
nine times in ten do not repay the trouble and fatigue, yet I 
would cheerfully ascend even a higher mountain to enjoy 
again such a lovely scene. 

On our way down, by a pathway which was almost 
choked up with a copious growth of underwood, we suddenly 
came upon an old Turk, who was occupied in rather an 
unusual manner. He was sitting in the ordinary posture on 
the ground, near a rustic marble fountain, and poring over 
the pages of a book with so much intentncss that our 
presence was unheeded until we were close by his side. 
The seH-possession of aTurk is under no circumstances ever 
disturbed, and accordingly, after the customary salutation 
had passed between us, he turned the conversation to the 
book which had occupied his meditations. He informed 
us that it was a treatise on cholera, drawn up by the medi- 
cal board of Constantinople, published by the sultan, and 
distributed gratuitously throughout the empire. The doc- 
trines of fatalism are generally represented to be carried so 
&r among the Turks that it is thought impious to endeavour, 
by human means, to avert any impending danger. This is 
probably true in all countries among the illiterate ; and 
where there is much constitutional apathy or stoicism, as 
among the Turks, it may possibly be carried tp its full- 
est extent To counteract this self-abandonment is one of 
the objects of the treatise,* and it is shown that this per- 
nicious belief is in no way connected with or dependent 
upon their religion* 

* In Appendix F, I have given the suhstance of this aingnlar pamphlet. 
The original ii deposited in the Library of the New-York Historical Society. 

X 



154 MEWrCBES OV TUSXCT. 

This is aoother of the numerous measures adopted hj 
the Sultan Mahmoud, for ^hich he will be repaid bj the 
present happiness of his subjects, and the approbation of 
posterity. When it is recollected that only a few years ago 
such a measure would have endangered the throne, and the 
life of its author, the enlightened views and singular firm- 
ness of the present sultan may be justly appreciated. 

Friday. We were sitting this evening in the court of 
our palace, inhaling the perfume of the orange and myr- 
tles around us, and watching the progress of the full-orbed 
moon as she threw her rays over the gently-roughened 
waves of the Bosphorus, when the regular plunge of many 
oars announced the approach of a barge belonging to some 
personage of distmction. We were not left long in doubt 
as to the personage in question ; for immediately a band of 
music struck up a spirit-stirring air, and from our little 
coterie the exclamation arose in various tongues^ ^ The 
sultan is coming.** The first boat, rowed by ten oars, con- 
tained, in fact, the sultan, accompanied by one or two of 
the officers of his court ; and the second, which was much 
larger, bore a full band of musicians, and was brilliantly lit 
up, in order to enable them to see their notes. I may take 
this occasion to remark that all the military bands are now 
nearly upon a footing with those of Europe. There is a 
very extensive school, under the direction of an Italian 
musician, where young lads arc carefully instructed, and 
from a natural aptitude become excellent performers. 
Sultan Mahmoud's Grand March is known throughout the 
empire, and as it is in fact a composition of much meritt 
will in a few years doubtless become as national an air as 
the Parisienne, or God save the King. 

As the gay cortege approached, the imperial caik sud- 
denly diverged from its course, and steered directly for the 
court in which our party were assembled. For a moment 
we imagined that we were to bo honoured by a royal visit — 
a circumstance of no unusual occurrence, — and great was 



8KBTCHE8 OF TUHKBY. 155 

the consequent bustle and flutter among the ladies of our 
party at the idea of such an unexpected honour. The 
imperial barge approached so near that we could readily 
discern the person of the sultan, half-reclined upon a sump- 
tuous cushion ; although the indistinctness of the moonlight 
prevented us from examining his features. As he ap- 
proached, a slight movement of the helm sent the calk 
almost grazing the marble steps of our court, and his 
majesty surveyed us, or, perhaps I should rather say, the 
ladies of our party, with apparently as much earnestness 
as we endeavoured to trace the features of the absolute 
monarch of so many millions of human beings. The pro- 
cession passed on, sweeping along the crowded quay 
of Buyukdery ; and the last seen of it was near Therapia, 
where for two or three weeks past the sultan has taken up 
his residence. In these excursions it is always understood 
that he is incognito, and it would be considered a great 
breach of decorum to recognise him by look or gesture. 

During the warm months he resides at dificrent times in 
the various palaces which are situated on the Bosphorus, 
and frequently spends his evenings in aquatic excursions 
like the one we have just noticed. His habits are described 
as of the simplest kind, and his amusements consist chiefly 
in riding, fishing, and exercising with the bow. He is said 
to be the most graceful and fearless rider in his dominions — 
an accomplishment which may fairly be weighed against 
those of some of his brother potentates, who are at the head 
of all the civilization of Europe ;— one of whom has been 
known to kill a wild boar, when securely tied up, at the 
distance of twenty paces, — and the chief merit of another, 
as awarded to him by his subjects, consisted in making the 
most perfectly graceful bow of any man in his kingdom. 

Like all his subjects, the sultan is extremely temperate in 
eating, and his establishment is far from being on that ex- 
pensive and magnificent scale which we are accustomed to 



196 SEBTCHES or TtlKXBT. 

attribute to oriental courts, i have been assured by an 
officer of his household, that the expenses of his table rarely 
exceed ten piastres, or about fifty cents, a d&y ; and from 
various anecdotes which I have elsewhere heard, I ^lould 
not be disposed to believe that his annual expenses exceed 
those of the President of the United States. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

— Probable Spot vhere Mohunmed II. d 
MuUffi— Bamck»— Rewrvoir— Tuifciah Cemeteij— Turbwi— AimeniMi 
Cometcij — Greek — Pligiie-ho«pitsl — Conitniction of Hooau — M t c hwa c 
AiU — Houie-Tent — A neiul — Fui v. 

Itr company with the learned and amiable aathor of 
Notes on Brazil, Journey from Constantinople, &c., T visited 
Dolmabatchi, about three miles above Galata, on the Euro- 
pean shore. I had previously examined the spot indicated by 
Gibbon, where it was supposed that Mohammed the Second, 
after besieging Constantinople for fifty days, finally carried 
his point by a masterly stroke of generalship. This spot 
ia called Balla Liman, and is about nine miles above the 
capital. The harbour of the Golden Horn was too well 
fortified to yield to the forces of Mohammed, even with the 
combined aid of catapults and gunpowder. In order to 
attack them in the rear, which was their most vulneraUs 
point, Mohammed caused eighty galleys ti? be transported 
across the country in one night, and the next morning found 
them afloat on the walers of the Golden Horn, and thunder- 
ing at the gates of the capital. Dr. Walsh, however, 
4iows with great probability that Gibbon was misled by tuB 
authorities, and that from the facilities aflbrded by the 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 157 

nature of the ground, the shortness of the distance, and the 
difficulty of accomplishing the other route in one night, 
the Turkish fleet must have been transported from Dol- 
mabatchi. 

A considerable portion of this valley is still laid out in 
gardens, where are raised great quantities of dolmas, or 
edible gourd {Cucurbita pipo), from whence the place de- 
rives its name.* This spot was formerly celebrated for 
animal combats, bull-baiting, and other barbarous amuse- 
ments of the Ottoman court, and at the present day is 
devoted to exercises somewhat analogous in their nature. 
The house was pointed out to me where a large and fierce 
breed of mastifls kre still maintained as a matter of state, 
although the sports are now discontinued. They are, 
indeed, exceedingly furious in their appearance, and more 
resemble wild, untamed beasts, than the humble and aflfec- 
tionate companion o{ man. So great is their strength that 
they have been known to break a man's leg at a single 
blow. When taken out for exercise they are secured by 
iron chains, and it requires the aid of two men, one on 
each side, to restrain a single dog within due bounds. This 
spot, as I have already hinted, is now devoted to martial 
exercises, and the sultan frequently reviews here the troops 
of the capital. Just at this time it has an arid, scorched 
appearance, owing to the long drought ; but the rains of 
October will soon clothe it with luxuriant verdure. 

Ascending the steep bank, wc reached the large barracks 
for troops in the vicinity of Pera. It is two stories high, 
and forms a square, of which the sides are about 500 feet. 
It is capable, as I was informed, of containing 7000 men, 
but this estimate appears to be too large. The Turkish 
soldier can scarcely be said to require all the conveniences 
and consequent space which are so necessary to other 
troops ; and hence, as they stow close, this number may pos- 

* DoUnop gooid ; btUekh garden. 



158 fKETCHBS OF TUBKIT. 

siblj be accommodated. There are eight of these InrgB 
barracks about the city, and they are computed to be capa* 
ble of containing altogether 70,000 men. The building 
before which we were now standing was at this time occu* 
pied by hundreds of families, which had been burnt out at 
Pera, the sultan having ordered it to be thrown open gra- 
tuitously to the sufferers by that extensive calamity. 

Near this is a large stone reservoir, about 200 feet square^ 
supplied with water by a particular system of pipes which 
will be hereafter described. It is elevated twelve feat 
above the ground, and is a substantial structure. Not fer 
from this we entered upon one of those vast buryiqg- 
grounds which form one of the most conspicuous features 
of every Turkish city. These have been so often deacribed» 
that I may be spared the trouble of repeating what has 
been said respecting them. In a few words, however, I 
may state that the cemetery upon which we are now enter- 
ing covers an area of more than 100 acres, and that a thick 
forest of cypresses (resembling in shape our poplar, but 
with a dark green foliage) overspreads it with a solemn 
shade, extremely appropriate to its ordinary uses. It is a 
common error that in none but Turkish cemeteries are 
cypresses permitted to grow. I have seen them introduced 
(sparingly, however) in other burying-grounds ; and the 
church-yard of St. Demetri at Tatavola, just occurs to me 
as one of the Greek cemeteries where they grow in great 
abundance. It is probable that the selection of a particular 
tree may have been originally a matter of accident or 
taste, and the distinction has been kept up by the foroa 
of custom, which we know to be often stronger than 
any law. 

At the head of each Turkish grave is a stone, with its 
upper part fashioned into a turban. On the more ancient 
tombstones these turbans assume a more varied and fantas- 
tic appearance, which has either been abandoned, or is 
now only known in the remotest parts of the empire. The 



8SZTCHE8 OF TUBKEY. 159 

fiiture antiquarian, perchance some learned Herrick, who 
may prosecute his inquiries concerning the antique and 
varying fashions of the Turkish empire, need not consult 
moth-eaten records for descriptions, nor puzzle himself to 
decipher decayed illuminated manuscripts, to ascertain the 
manifold mutations of the Turkish turban. His researches, 
indeed, will be among the dead ; but it is from the burying- 
ground that he will collect his facts, and all his authorities 
he will find in this novel magazin des modes, sculptured in 
imperishable marble. 

From the more recent gravestones even the turban, that 
hitherto invariable emblem of the Turk, has disappeared, 
and its place is occupied by the representation of a fez or 
red cap, which is now universally worn. I am aware that 
I am about to utter what may be considered as a heresy 
by the lovers of the picturesque ; but to my mind the fez is 
a more beautiful and becoming article than even the gor- 
geous and imposing turban. It is connected, too, with 
visions of the future prosperity of Turkey, while the turban 
carries us back to the savage times of the cut-throat cru- 
saders, when literature and true religion were trampled 
under foot, and robbery and murder were considered as 
the most honourable mode of subsistence. 

The graves of the Turkish women are designated by a 
stone of a different shape, and of course without a fez or 
turban. The general character of the monumental inscrip- 
tions, as they have been translated to me, is extremely 
simple. They consist of the name of the deceased, his 
occupation, or the offices which he filled, and conclude by 
recommending his soul to the only living and true God. 
Panegyric, or even a simple notice of the qualities of the 
deceased, is never dreamed of by these queer people, who 
would perhaps consider it as a mortal sin to tell a false- 
hood in conversation, much less to perpetuate one on 
marble. 

We crossed over to the Armenian burying-ground, which 



160 SKETCHES OF TUBXET. 

is of a much more light and cheerful character, as it 19 
shaded by the pretty turpentine-tree (P. terebinthus). This 
tree attains a considerable size, and the resin which exudes 
from its trunk has an agreeable odour, which may be per- 
ceived at some distance. Strange as it may appear, this 
burying-ground is, or at least was before the destruction of 
Pera, the fashionable lounge, and is now a common resort 
for all the idlers of both sexes among the Franks, Greeks* 
and Armenians. Its elevated and air}^ situation, the agree- 
able shade, and the convenicn<?e of comfortable seats, 
afforded by the flat tombstones, conspire to render it a 
pleasant promenade. I will not pretend to deny that the 
charms of the Armenian ladies who frequently come hither 
to visit the tombs of their relatives mav not add to its 
attractions. 

The tombstones are flat marble slabs, with the name 
and virtues of the deceased cut in Armenian characters, 
but generally in the Turkish language. Many of the 
decorations, such as flowers, foliage, A: c, are chiselled with 
rare delicacy and beauty, and the letters are carved with 
an elegance which I have never seen surpassed in Europe 
or America. 

The implements of the former trade or occupation of 
the deceased occupy a conspicuous place on the stone, and 
hence we see a sculptured inkstand denoting a lawj-er or 
scribe, an adze a carpenter, an anvil a blacksmith, and a 
lancet a barber or surgeon. In some instances, where the 
defunct has made his exit bv violence, the manner of his 
death is faithfully depicted on his tomb. Thus, on one stone, 
after mentioning the name and date of his death, the de- 
ceased is represented on his knees with his head in his 
hands, while jets of blood spout from his neck in stiff curves, 
like those issuing from a beer-bottle on a tavern sign. On 
another the deceased is represented as swinging gracefully 
from a tree, to denote tliat he had {H}rished by strangulation. 
I was at a loss at first to understand whv such unseemly 



SKETCHES OF TUBKET. 161 

mementoes should have been preserved, as they are usually 
regarded as records of infamy and crime. It was explained 
to me that the Armenians, in common with the Turks, 
have heretofore often been subjected to the application of 
*• the second section," whenever their wealth has been suffi- 
ciently great to excite the cupidity of the reigning power. 
To die by the sword or gibbet implies therefore the pos- 
session of wealth, and the surviving relations glorify them- 
selves in perpetuating this record of pecuniary standing 
and consideration. 

Should the Armenians ever adopt the European fashion 
of wearing coats-of-arms, we should perhaps see one dis- 
tinguished family sporting a halter pendent, another a gibbet 
displayed in a field azure; and these would be quite as 
much associated with historical recollections as the heron's 
crest or bloody hand of modern heraldry. While upon 
this subject, may we not indeed inquire if the " or and ar- 
gent** do not faintly adumbrate or shadow forth the means 
by which honorary distinctions were acquired in the middle 
ages. 

There is one little circumstance connected with these 
tombstones which displays an amiable trait of character. 
On the upper corner of each stone are two small cavities, 
which are usually filled with water. The intention of this 
IS to supply a drink to the thirsty birds, and indeed to 
invite them to take up their residence in the neighbourhood, 
and by their song to give additional cheerfulness to the 
spot. It is not, however, exclusively an Armenian prac- 
tice, for the Turks and other orientals have the same 
custom. 

Forming a sort of suburb to this city of the dead, are 
the Greek and Frank burj'ing-grounds. Tliere is nothing 
remarkable about them, except that the English and Dutch 
appeared to give a mar\-elIous preference to florid Latin 
inscriptions, which it is probable the panegyrized deceased 
knew as little about as the Turks, Greeks, Armenians, 



Jews, &C., above ground. The Greek cemetery is planted 
with mulbeny-treea, and would be a pleasant spot were it 
not for its proximity to ilie city, and at this moment it if 
filled with the tents of families who have been recently 
burnt out of Pera. It bag in fact become a maiket-place 
or fair, and the Greeks exhibit the usual poetiy and 
romance of their character, in driving their petty traffic 
among the tombs, and over the very bones of their 



Leaving this scene, we passed under the walls a! the 
plague hospital, built exclusively for Franks who may 
be affected with this disease. Over its melancholy walU 
we noticed the golden-berried ivy {H. chjytocarpon), the 
true ivy of the ancients, and this is the only locality aboQt 
Constantinople in which I have seen it flourishing. Tbe 
melancholy fate which has attended every patient admitted 
into this hospital gives some colour to the reports which 
the Franks circulate of its character. According to tb^ 
account, no patient has ever been known to leave this place 
alive, and the voi die entrale of Dante would seem to be 
the most appropriate inscription over its walls. They 
pointed out to me, with a superstitious air, tbe spot where 
the great fire was arrested, which happens to be precisely 
under the walls of this hospital. 

We now entered upon what will long be recollected aa 
the great conHagration of Pera. Houses were running up 
in all directions, the ashes and embers were shovelled away 
from the streets, the sound of the hammer and saw was 
continually heard, droves of asses laden with tiles were 
lumbering the streets, and horses were trailing along a stick 
of timber on each side, so admirably arranged as to trip up 
or fracture the legs of the unwary traveller. Hundreds of 
Turkish and Armenian blacksmiths might be seen among 
the heaps of ruins, sealed on the ground with an extempore 
anvil before them, and straightening the old nails and other 
iron fastenings for the new buildings. As fast as the c«r^ 



8KBTCHES OF TUKKET. 16S 

penter completed his work, the painter followed him up : 
with a brush, and in this way houses were completed with 
a celerity which would have outrivallcd even that of a' 
New- York job-builder. We should consider, however,' 
what a Turkish house really is, before we give way to 
astonishment at the quickness with which they are con-' 
structed. In tlie first place, they are entirely of wood, and 
have no fireplaces or cliimncys. The frame is of the ! 
smallest possible size ; tlie clapboards are of such thin stuff 
that they arc fastened with tenpenny nails, and the floors of 
rough broad planks, laid down without the least attention 
being paid to their joinings together. These seams are I 
frequently so wide that an acquaintance informed me ho • 
once dropped his walking-cane or umbrella through one of) 
them, while on a visit to a Periot nobleman ; and as he ; 
could not request the floor to be taken up for such a trifle, 
he was obliged to put up with its loss. Of course, the 
numerous stories related of children being lost through 
these crevices are to be treated as pleasant exaggerations ; 
for whenever they become wide enough to allow of such 
an accident, small slips of wood arc introduced to fill up the 
seams. 

The entire ignorance which prevails on all subjects con- 
nected with domestic architecture, or rather, the careless- 
ness which pervades every branch of the mechanic arts, is 
truly surprising. I do not think that I ever saw a straight 
wall, a level floor, or a true perpendicular, in any house 
during my residence in Turkey. The chief architects are 
Armenians, who build usually by contract, and employ 
chiefly the wretched Bulgarians as day-labourers. These 
simple-hearted and honest creatures arc said to labour 
under the same sort of confusion of ideas usually imputed 
to the Irish; and whatever blunders they may commit, 
their employers are too indolent or indulgent to rectify. 
While upon this subject, I may remark tliat house-rent at 
Constantinople is very low ; although just now, in conse- 



164 SKETCSBS OF TTKKKT* 

qoeDce di the recent fire,^ it Jias^socnewhat increased. A 
very comfortable house floay be obtatoed^ler #990 per 
annum ; although many merchants, who occupy large and 
costly buildings, [>ay more. In the z\\\ itself (where 
travellers, parrot-iike, have repeated the saine fidsehoodt 
that strangers are not allowed to reside), houses jnay be 
hired at ver>' low rates. In the environs house-rent is stiD 
cheaper, and scarcely exceeds $100. The palace of the 
American minister at Buyukdery, a spacious building, <Nr 
what wc would call a large double two-story house, with 
gardens, stables, &c. attached, does not exceed $250 a year. 
Cheap, however, as this rent may appear to be, yet, when 
we consider the small cost of the buildings, they no doubt 
aflbrd*a handsome interest to the proprietor. Even the 
risk of fire is generally in favour of the owner ; for the 
wliole year's rent is always paid in advance, and ihiy is 
generally enough to defray the expense of rebuilding. 

It is much to be regretted that more enlightened views 
have not been adopted in the reconstruction of Pera. Con- 
siderations of policy, drawn alike from the devastation of 
pestilence and fire, would be sufficient, one might imagine, 
to induce them to enlarge thnir strpots and ventilate their 
city. It is true, that this has been undertaken in Constan- 
tinople ; but in Pera, the blind and selfish opposition of the 
Franks themselves has defeated this salutary measure. 
The little ten feet lane, which by an exceeding stretch of 
courtesy is called la Grande rue de Pera, will be yet more 
curtailed in the vicinity of the English palace. The Eng- 
lish minister, Gordon, is reported to have remonstrated 
warmly to the Turkish authorities on this subject ; but 
received for answer, that when he could induce his diplo- 
matic brethren to yield a single inch of their ground on the 
CIrandc rue de Pera, they would cheerfully give him every 
assistance. In conse(iuence of this reply, it is said that the 
English palace will not be rebuilt ; but the more intelligent 
•df tlie English residents assert, that this question will depend 



SKBTCHE8 OF TlTlUnrP. 165 

entirely on the fate of the reform bill, now under discussion 
in their parliament. 

Turning out of the main street to the right, we passed by 
a rapid descent through another Turkish cemetery, known 
here under the name of the Petit Champ de Mort, A short 
distance brought us to the gates of the arsenal, through 
which we passed without being questioned by the guard on 
duty. Had this freedom of admission been allowed in the 
arsenal of any other nation, it might have been cited as an 
example of free-hearted liberality ; but in barbarian Turkey 
it passes without a comment from the European traveller. 

Stepping into a caik from the quay of the arsenal, we 
crossed the Golden Horn, and a few minutes brought us to 
the Fanar or Fanal, formerly the residence of the most en- 
lightened and polished of the modern Greeks. The Fanar 
has of late figured so much in the annals of revolution, that 
it may be deemed worthy of a separate chapter. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Faair — Populv.i-^n — Character of lh» Gttrk* — Lan^age — PopoUtioB of 
Cjnt(uitiii;)>le — W'tlU uf ih- t'iiy— PUfOe — lu honid Chuwtar. 

This spot derives its name from a. light which was, and 
still is suspemieti over tlii' prinoipal gate. It ia a distinct 
quarter oi" the city proper, ami is surrounded by walls, coo- 
slructed to restrain the tuniicr turbulence of its inhabitants. 
The walls are now ncj:lectod. and the gates are never doaed, 
so tliat it may fairly t>e }>resutned that the Greeks are more 
quiet ill tht.-ir tlenieanour, i-r that the Turks think it the 
wisest course to let thi'iri take their own way. It is not 
exchisivoly iultabilod by tln-'oks, for we observed many 
dwelliiii^i K^th of An;-.iMiian< ami Turks. The streets are 
narri'w :i!'.il crio'ked. and n>it to )>e compared in point of 
cic.iiiliiiess with the Turkish >|uartors of the city ; and the 
siroujj contrast l>ctwi'tn the tilthy narrow lanes, and the 
splendour and ma^iifii'erii:o of the habitations of the Greeks 
of the Fanar. has l-een dopi.-teii in a lively manner by the 
author of Anasiasius. The |'opuIatii>n of Uiis quarter in 
ISIS. aeoor.Hii:: to a census taken by the cicrg}-, amounted 
to nearly ;t(i.iHio 3i>uls. Tliia amount was much reduced 
duriiii^ tlie revolutio:: : but conlidenoe has again been es- 
tablished. Jin.1 it is siippusod by the most intelligent of tho 
Crei-ki ihenisclves tliat the )M>pul:iti<.>n has now regained 
its toriuer amount. It f-'riuerly contained the most wealthy 
nntl the Ivst educated of the Gnn'k nation; and at the 
|>rcsi'nt lime the I'anariot jH>sses.ses more intelligence, and 
mon' moral worth, tiian can bi' fimnd in any part of Greece. 

It is dillieult ti> siH'ak with impartiality of the Protean 
chamcter nf the modern Greek ; indeed, so opposite have 
been llic judguienls foniied ol' tlieir oharaclcr, that two sects 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. IW 

m 

have arisen among travellers, to which have been applied 
the names of Mishellenists and PhilhcUenists. The former 
class embraces, according to the Rev. Rufus Anderson, 
traders, naval officers, merchant-captains and supercar- 
goes, disappointed enthusiasts, and travellers who wish 
to show themselves exempt from the weakness of classical 
enthusiasm. This is a pretty copious list, and comprises, 
one would imagine, almost all sorts of persons from whom 
any information could possibly be derived. I have never 
seen an attempt to classify the Philhellenists : but they may 
be said to comprise raving enthusiasts, who are ready to 
explode at the name of liberty ; adventurers, tired of the 
dull pursuits of civil life, or desirous of earning bread and 
renown by cutting the throats of Turks ; dull, heavy l^irits, 
who are fearful of quitting the beaten track of panegyric, 
who, cuckoo-like, repeat the catchwords of Grecian glory, 
Grecian heroism, Grecian eloquence, the divine art, &c. &;c., 
and fancy raptures which they never knew. To these 
may be added well-meaning young clergymen, just out of 
college, who stare and wonder to hear Greek spoken " even 
by little boys," and imagine that they see in the bigoted 
and ignorant canaille around tlicm the legitimate descend- 
ants of Miltiades and Pericles. This latter class do not 
seem to recollect that the only spot in the Morea where 
their benevolent objects can be carried into effect is under 
the cannon and protection of the infidel Turk. They well 
know, or at least ought to know, that if Greece was inde- 
pendent of all foreign control, at this moment not a single 
foreign missionary from Protestant England or America 
would be allowed to remain in the country.* 

* Oar Bchoolboy raptures for the heroirai and the public spirit, not only 
of the Greeks, but of the Romans, would perhaps evaporate, if some historian 
should arise who would render a faithful account of their mingled ferocity 
and cowardice, of their unvarying duplicity towards friend and foe, of 
their profligacy, their total want of delicacy, and of their system of re- 
ligion, which was at once monstrous and contemptible. 

The systematic libellers of every nation with^riuch they came in contact, 



168 HKBTCHxs or TTSXSr. 

To whom then are we to look for an impartial e 
of the Greek character ? Shall we recur to the " Greca 
fide* of Piautus, which meant " ready money," — for the 
word of a Greek could not be taken T or to Cicero, who 
states* that they never made any conscience of obserring 
their oaths. But these were foreigners and rivals, and hence 
their testimony is suspicious, llrar, then, the opinion <^ 
one of their own countrymen, Euripides : " Greece never 
bad the least spark of honesty ;" ftnd Polybiua is even 
stronger in his expressions. Even the assertions of avowed ' 
Philhellcnists confirm the reputation which they have 
acquired during more than twenty centuries. The reverend 
gentleman already alluded to, who has attempted their 
defeniie, acknowledges thuir lamentable disregard of truth ; 
and Oyron, one of the most cntliusiastic in their cause, and 
who died in Greece a martyr to his own egregious vanity, 
says, " I am of St. Paul's opinion, that there is no difference 
between Jews and Greeks, — the character of both being 
equally vile." Even the character which the modem 
Greeks give of themselves, although intended to display 
their various accomplishments, is silent as to the qualities 
of their beads or hearts. The mere vernacular scholar 
will require to be informed that the following national puff" 
upon themselves cannot be translated into decent EngUsb. 

IMilwoc '»ni' r^n Jar, 
MaMotfar ml ffwprd^lh 



Ihej bavp, liy Ihe inriilpntnl intliirncf of letter* alonr, been enabled to 
truiimit theniMkei to pnatrrily n> nulioiM nonhy of immortal honour*. It 
ia time that ihia cant o( refFTiiii^ all excellence to Grreki and Romaoawaia 
at an end. MmJerii nalioni, unJei the benien nnd humanizing inAurrtce of 
ChTiitianiiy, can rxliibil more in*tancca of private Jftntion, of public ipirit, 
of heroiim, and eiery excellence in aili or arm*, than car 
together from all the boartful and Ijiog annala of Greece and Roma. 
' OraL pfo Flacc. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 169 

But I turn with pleasure from this unpleasing subject, to 
the consideration of their harmonious, expressive, and flex* 
ible language. The Romaic, or modern Greek, is, accord- 
ing to Christopoulos (the Greek Tom Moore, and an accu- 
rate philologist besides), a compound of the Eolic and 
Doric dialects of the ancient langujige. To those who have 
spent years in acquiring a superficial knowledge of ancient 
Greek, the modern will present many novelties. As I have 
already hinted, the student fresh from college, and bloom- 
ing with academic honours, will be shocked and grieved to 
find that, Grecian though he be, the Romaic is to him an 
unknown tongue. Thus he will find that 91, and v, and the 
diphthongs n, «f, and vi have all the same sound with the 
Italian e, or the English e in these ; t and the diphthong «i 
are identical with our a in hate ; and •v is sounded like our u. 
The consonants partake of similar changes : /3 has the sound 
of t? ; ^ is pronounced like th in thisy while ^ is scarcely dis- 
tinguishable, except by the thicker sound of th in that The 
English h is expressed by the letters ftor, and d by tr. In- 
dependent of these diiTerences, they employ accents as a 
guide to pronunciation, and reject the aspirates in reading, 
althojigh they are still used in print. They have, besides, 
introduced an indefinite article, oap^ which was much 
wanted in the ancient Greek ; they prefix the pronoun to 
the verb, and in their conjugations have adopted the use of 
auxiliaries, and thus assimilate it more to the modem lan- 
guages of Europe. Finally, their language has received 
many new words, arising out of new circumstances, and 
its acknowledged ductility has been frequently tested of 
late years. Thus, for steamboat they have not only ^rvf9i%m/p 
(fire-boat), but also KTfLOKnnrof (moved by vapour). 

Many corruptions have been introduced which some may 
regard as foul blots, tending to mar the purity of the lan- 
guage, but which at some future period will be perhaps con- 
sidered as evidences of its wonderful copiousness. These 
have been watched and noted with the mousing keenness of 



170 

phiMc^cal criticism by Korai and by Bcntlielos of Adwofl. 
They have originated according to the proximity of their 
European or oriental masters, and of this the word Itfm, a 
door, presents a striking example. In the remote islands 
where the intercourse with foreigners has been rare, the 
antique original word maintains its ground ; while iu the 
Morea it has been Italianized into vifro, and in the Fanar it 
takes the form of •anri from the Turkish. 

We have said enough to satisfy the reader that the yoong 
man who comes to this country charged with andent 
Greek will find that he must not only acquire a new alfdia* 
bet, but a new vocabulary, and that his spurious pFODm^ 
ciation will prove a serious obstacle to the acquisitioa of 
modem Greek. The history of the origin of the present 
outlandish system of pronouncing Greek as tnught in our 
colleges, and which has made it an unintelligible gibberish, 
is very curious, but' it would be trespassing too far on the 
reader's patience to repeat it here. It gave rise to furious 
contentions, and a solemn edict or decree of the chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge, in 1542, upon this subject, 
is so amusing that I cannot refrain from inserting a part <^ 
it in this place. It is nut quoted fur its classical elegance, 
although it proceeds from a scholar, nor for its mild and 
temperate character, although it is written by a divitie ; but 
as a specimen of the scholastic conceit and haughty tone 
which characterized the literary controversies of that day. 
"Every man," says the reverend chancellor, "whatever 
may be his literary pretensions, who adopts the reforms^ 
or Erasmian pronunciation, is to he considered a blockbaad ; 
if a member of the academic senate (a professor), he ia to 
be expelled ; if a candidate, he is to be denied all honoun ; 
if preparing for college, to be refused admission ; and finally, 
if a lad commencing his studies, he is to be soundly whipped 
and sent home I" 

As we threaded our way through the dark and crooked 
streets of the Fanar, we were struck with their i 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 171 

and deserted aspect, and we were frequently compelled to 
go the whole length of a street before we could meet with 
an individual to direct us on our way. We were at first 
disposed to attribute this to the late revolution, which had 
thinned the Greek population of the Fanar, but in our sub- 
sequent rambles over the whole city, we remarked the 
same solitary appearance in the Turkish quarter. Much 
of this deserted appearance is no doubt to be attributed to 
the hour, for at this time all are engaged in despatching 
their midday meal, and the male portion of the families are 
engaged in the bazar, or other trading parts of the city. 
Independent of these considerations, there is great reason 
to believe that the population of Constantinople has been 
much exaggerated. It is not uncommon to traverse exten- 
sive districts in the heart of the city which have been 
devastated by fire, and are left in their primitive desolation; 
and the number and extent of these abandoned quarters 
should be well known before a stranger can form even a 
conjecture respecting the actual population. In the usual 
statements are comprised the thirty or forty villages lining 
the Bosphorus, which give a very exaggerated idea of tlie 
population of the capital, and would be as erroneous as to 
include a circuit of thirty miles around New- York, or the 
villages along the Delaware as far as Bristol, in recording 
the population of Philadelphia. 

The difficulty of procuring any accurate statistical inform- 
ation in Turkey has already been alluded to, and in the 
absence of facts we are compelled to resort to data often 
at wild as those employed by the celebrated statician Ela- 
gabalus, who endeavoured to discover from the quantity of 
spiders' webs the population of Rome.* General Andreossi 
assumed as data the daily consumption of bread and water, 
which seems scarcely more satisfactory than the spiders' 
webs of Elagabalus ; for the only limit to the consumption 

* Gibbon, ▼. 284. 



lis •KKTCHaS OF TVBKXT. 

of wstrr among the Turks is the supply, which raries st 

dideieat ieajL>as. and if its present quantity was doubled 
or Cnbieii ;C would still be consumed. The amount of food 
evasaaxti would afford surer data, but I am at a loss to 
Uiuiier$cui*l how any authentic docunnents of this kind could 
be pnxwvd. At any rate, Andrcossi estimated from then 
data the population of the city, including Galata, Pera, Scu- 
tari, and the villages along the Bosphorus, at 700,000 bouU. 
This estimate was made llflccn years ago, and from my 
own observations far exceeds its amount at the present 
day. To the city proper I siiould be disposed to attribute 
a population of 250,000, and of these nearly 100,000 ue 
Gn.-cks, Armenians, and Jews. An intelligent Helnew 
gentleman informs me that there are l*-2,000 Jewish families 
in and about Constantinople, which gives a population of 
70,000. This statement may be depended upon, as it was 
taken from the books of his nation, and of this number 
30,000 reside in the capital. The number of ArmcniaM is 
alM>ul the same, so that the population of Constantinople 
alone may be thus estimated : 

Turks 160,000 

Greeks 30,000 

Armenian 30,000 

Jews 30,000 



250,000 
It was our intention to visit tiie walla of the city, but it 
cost us many a weary step, and as many turnings and 
dtmhliiigs as a hunted hare, before we reached the Aigrjr 
Ku|>oosi, or crooked gate. There are, in feet, two gates ; 
and from tlic oblique direction in which they are placed 
with rrgard to each other, it has received this name. It is 
licru tliiit the triple line of wall commences, and extends to 
tlio iSca of Marmora. There are five of tlicse gates in the 
wall on the land side, of which the most interesting is the 
Tope Kapoosi, or caonoD gate, next but one to the Aigry 



SKBTCHES OF TURKEY. 178 

Kapoosi, and remarkable as the gate through which Moham- 
med II. made his public and victorious entry into the city. 

Immediately upon issuing from the walls we found our- 
selves in a dreary solitude ; and as we followed the direc- 
tion of the walls along an old road, apparently contempora- 
neous with the Greek empire, we did not meet a single 
human being, nor scarcely the vestige of a human habita- 
tion. Nearly as far as the eye could reach, nothing was 
presented to our view but extensive and now abandoned 
cemeteries. The total absence of trees lent an additional 
gloom to this dismal *' marble waste ;" and after toiling for 
some time under a burning sun, we were reminded by the 
lateness of the hour of the necessity of returning to the city. 

The walls of Constantinople are built of alternate ranges 
of stone and brick, are of immense thickness, and still retain 
their ancient battlements and towers. The outer ditch is 
twenty-five or thirty feet wide. We had no means of 
ascertaining their height ; but from the road we could not 
see any of the buildings of the city. As military defences 
they are utterly worthless ; for the very first discharge of 
Russian artillery will shake these tottering and earthquake- 
riven walls to their very foundations. 

Thursday. Plague ! Plague I This morning our Greek 
servant Demetri came into the room, and exclaimed, in 
accents of horror, *' Yoilk, monsieur, deux accidens de plus T 
We have, indeed, had rumours of plague and cholera in the 
place for several days, but from the timid and gossiping 
character of the village, I considered them as unworthy of 
attention. Our worthy princess has been the image of 
despair ; and a lamp, which is kept burning night and day 
before a paltry daub of the Virgin Mary, attests the sin- 
cerity of her fears. The indifference with- which I treated 
her dolorous stories of plague had at first lowered me in her 
estimation, and she had expressed an opinion that I was 
worse than a Turk ; but when I gravely recommended her 
to redouble her supplications to the Panagia, and that she 



174 

inig^t then bid defiance to plague and cholera, Ae obaerred, 
with great simplicity, that I was not more than half a here- 
tic after all, 

To^ay, however, we have undoubted evidence cX the 
existence of plague. A house next to us is shut up, and the 
Franks who are obliged to pass it cross over cautiously to 
the other side of the street. Two perscms have already 
died, and three others are said to be at the point of death. 
An Armenian physician, who is known here under the name 
of the plague doctor, and is in the service of govemmeDt, 
has made an official visit, and his declaration that it ia 
plague in its worst form leaves no room for skepticism. 
From my window, this day, I noticed a man in the street 
struggling between two others who were endeavouring to 
drag him along. In this they were assisted by a Turkish 
officer of police, who quickened his pace by the occasional 
application of a horsewhip over his head and shoulders. It 
was one of the persons who had been employed in bury- 
ing the plague corpses ; and in consequence of his servicea 
on that occasion, they were thus unceremoniously thrusting 
him out of the village. This reminds me of a similar cir- 
cumstance which occurred at Kadikeui, when the plague 
broke out there a few weeks ago. The persons attacked 
were forcibly removed out of the village into the adjoining 
fields, the house was carefully fumigated and drenched with 
water,' and all the contagious or infectible articles of furni- 
ture or dress were destroyed by fire. When' this opera- 
tion had been performed, the persons employed in it were 
driven pell-mell into the sea, and there compelled to remain 
until it was supposed that they were sufficiently purified. 
But in sober seriousness, it is .scarcely possible to conceive a 
more appalling visitation than that of the epidemic plague. 
Other diseases, however severe and malignant, such as 
yellow fever, or however hopeless, may receive some alle- 
Tiatioo from the skill of physicians, the attention and sym- 
pathy of friends, and the consolations of religion afforded by 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 175 

ministers of the gospel ; but with this loathsome disease, the 
poor wretch, whatever may be his rank or station in life, 
is instantly deserted by his medical attendants, and by his 
nearest and dearest relatives. In the eloquent language of 
my friend Dr, Walsh, the ravages of this distemper have 
been so great that it is still looked upon with the same help- 
less terror as in the darkest ages of ignorance and super- 
stition. When any person is seized with it, he is imme- 
diately abandoned to his fate. No medical man veill dare 
approach him, on pain of being himself ruined ; all rational 
mode of cure is neglected as useless, and the aid of medicine 
is given up in despair. That sympathy which our common 
nature yields to the sick is here denied. The sick of the 
plague is put out of the pale of pity, and only looked upon 
as some noxious being, whom it ought to be not only allow- 
able, but meritorious, to destroy ; and so the disease pro- 
ceeds, rending asunder the ties of families, extinguishing 
the common charities of life, eradicating the best feelings of 
our nature, till at length it has become one of the most 
dreadful moral as well as physical evils — at once the scourge 
and the scorn of humanity. 

This dreaded plague is a species of typhus fever, which 
is accompanied by glandular swellings ; and is not more 
dangerous than the ordinary typhus, which I have, seen pre- 
vailing in Scotland, and which left, in the winter of 1818, a 
corpse in almost every cabin in Ireland. It has been observed 
to be checked in Turkey by cold weather ; while in Egypt 
extreme heat has effected the same thing. A few cases 
ocour every year; but occasionally it assumes the epi- 
demic form, and its ravages are then of an awful character. 
In 1812 it carried off, in and about Constantinople, 220,000, 
of which 120,000 were Turks. In conformity with the laws 
which govern typhus, this disease is observed to break out 
with peculiar violence in times of famine, and it rarely 
attacks the rich and well-fed part of the population. I was 



176 noTCHaa or torkht. 

cautioned against dieting myself to ward <^ this diaeaw, 
and indeed the use of spirits was warmly recommended. 
It is supposed that the rigid temperance of the Turks rea- 
ders them more obnoxious to its attacks ; but whether that 
be the case or not, it is certain that the Franks, who lire 
upon the fat of the land, and wash it down with copiooa 
draughts o( wioe, are rarely aflected by this disease. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Eicardon to the GUnl'i Grave — D^rvisei — Cliuiir&t Supcratilion — Tek- 
ka;, OT Chapel— Gealagjr—Grnarw Cnille — Gucbfce— Maionrf— Ka- 
lawki — Raki — Aqaariwii — Baaton Pirticulu — Tutkuh Doctor. 

Tempted by a lovely morning, we crossed the Bosphonis 
to-day to the Asiatic side, to visit a lofty mountain known 
as the Giant's grave, and which forms a conspicuous land- 
mark as you approach Constantinople from the Euxine. 
After a toilsome struggle against the steep sides of the hill^ 
varied by stopping occasionally to gather the numerous 
wild flowers which sprang up in our path, we gained the 
summit. Here we found a level verdant lawn, shaded by 
a grove of large chcstnut<treea, and a tekkay or chapel oS 
a troop of dervlsea bounded one side of this natural plat- 
fonn. On the other side was a slight kiosk or summer- 
bouse for the occasional use of the sultan ; and this with a 
row of low cottages constituted the village, which from its 
isolated situation depends solely for its support upon the 
generosity of those who visit it from motives of curiosity 
or devotion. Seated upon the grass under these lofty 
trees, and looking over the wide expanse of the Euxine 



8KSTGUE8 OF TURKEY. 177 

now covered with innumerable sails,* our coffee was served 
up by a stout, ferocious-looking dervis, whose high conical 
white hat was not the least grotesque part of his dress. 
His bare legs were swelled up to a frightful size by 
some disease analogous to elcpliantiasis, doubtless the 
eiiect of intemperance. These der vises correspond in 
some measure to the monks of Catholic countries, except 
that they do not take tlie vow of celibacy. Like their Eu- 
ropean brethren, they have in general but ragged reputa- 
tionsy with the exception here and there of one of superior 
sanctity, who is much caressed and idolized by the old 
ladies of both sexes. Upon expressing a wish to see the 
grave, which was the chief object of our visit, the dervise 
unlocked a door behind the chapel, and with sundry mys- 
terious signs and gesticulations invited us to enter. The 
enclosure is about sixty feet by thirty, and is surrounded 
by a high stone wall. Occupying the greatest part of this 
enclosure is a flower-bed fifty feet in length, with a turbaned 
stone at each end, and this is generally believed to be the 
grave of a giant. A narrow path permitted us to walk 
entirely round the raised central part, and to marvel at the 
size of this wonderful saint. We remarked a small laurel 
tree covered with little rags of cotton, silk, or woollen, the 
votive offerings of ignorance and credulity. This is a 
very ancient and classical superstition, perpetuated to the 
present day alike by Christian and Mussulman. We 
remember when very young being struck with the image of 
some fine old Greek or Roman, suspending his votive offer* 



* *^ The winds swept down the Euxinc, and the wiiTe 
Broke foaming o*er the blue Symplegades ; 
*Tii a grand sight from off the Giant^s grave 
To watch the progress of these rolling seas. 
Between the Bospliorus as they lash and lave 
Europe and Asia — ^you being quite at ease. 
There's not a sea the passenger e'er pukes in 
Turns up more dangerous breakers than the Euxine.*' 

A A 



178 8XBTCHE8 OF TUBKXT. 

ings at the shrine of his tutelar deity ; to our youthful ima- 
ginationsy it appeared as if the piety was almost merged in 
the poetry of the act, and we were disposed to regard as a 
superior race the beings who could thus throw a grace over 
the simple act of devotion. The same thing is here enacted 
before our eyes, and the reality leaves one in doubt whether 
laughter, contempt, or pity should predominate. Strip the 
action of the graceful veil with which poetry has invested 
it, and it amounts to this : an old woman has a toothache, 
or a young one a lover ; they hasten to the nearest saint, 
and hang a dirty rag upon a bush, with the confident hope 
that both plagues may be mollified. Old men in want of 
heirs, young ones in want of wives, the poor panting after 
money, and the rich gasping for health, all resort to a shrine 
like this, to obtain, by the simple process of a votive offer- 
ing, the consummation of their wishes. 

Our filthy friend the dervise had the kindness to en- 
lighten our ignorance on the subject of the huge man- 
monster whose remains are supposed to have mouldered 
beneath this spot. His name was Hooshah, or Yooshah, 
corresponding to Joshua or Jesus. He was a nephew of 
Moses, or, in other words, a son of Aaron, a mighty prophet, 
and second only to Mohammed himself, for all prayers or 
supplications passed through him directly to the Deity. 
The dervise further instructed us that a part only, namely 
the head and shoulders, of the prophet reposed here, but 
with all the discretion of a person who is in possession of 
an important secret, he evaded our inquiries as to what 
disposition had been made of the remainder of the prophet's 
body. A favourite recreation of this prophet was to sit 
down on this mountain and wash his feet in the Bosphorus, 
which flows at its base a mile distant. Another of his 
amusements was to sit down in the Bosphorus, block up 
the water from the Euxine with his back, and when it had 
reached up to his shoulders he would suddenly jump up, 
and the now freed waters would produce sad deluges. 



mOBTCHES OF TURKEY. 170 

which modern geologists have thought proper to attribute 
to volcanic agencies. From the appearance of a mortise 
in the marble at one end of the grave, one of our com- 
panions suggested that a cross may have once been erected 
here, and that in fact the Turks have only taken at second 
hand a pscudo Christian superstition. In point of fact, 
however, the origin of this monstrous fable goes back to a 
more remote period than the Turkish, or even Greek empire, 
and is simply a pagan idolatry under a new name. The 
earliest, and of course the most authentic accounts, make it 
to be the grave of Amycus, a sachem or king of Bithynia, 
who was in the habit of levying a toll upon every canoe 
which passed up the Bosphorus ; and being a man of great 
personal prowess, he was enabled to enforce his demands, 
like one of Hom'cr's heroes, with his ponderous fists. He 
met finally with his death in a boxing-match with one of 
the lucida sidcra of those days, the celebrated Pollux. The 
whole story is detailed at length in the Argonautica of 
Apollonius, and is one of those amusing and instructive 
incidents which are so requisite to be learned by the finished 
scholar. Other authorities, among whom we may mention 
Dionysius of Byzantium, a familiar author to most of our 
readers, has given another version of the story. Honest 
Dionysius solemnly avers that this spot is the true and 
genuine bed of Hercules. '* Herculis kainh hoc est lectus.** 
We are satisfied. 

Near the headstone of this respectable demigod, a piece 
of money was ostentatiously displayed as a hint to the 
curious traveller that the smallest donation would be thank- 
fully received. We were then invited to enter the tckkay 
or chapel, so called to distinguish it from the djammi^ or 
mosque proj)cr. The word mosque is unknown to the 
Turks, and it is diflicult to account for its general currency 
in all the European languages, when it is not even an 
oriental term. The Arabic mesjid^ or assembly, approaches 
nearest to it, but this seems a forced construction. This 



chapel difiers in no respect frcMn the ordinaiy motqafls^ 
being totally devoid of furniture or ornament, even plainer 
than a Quaker meeting-house, for it has not a nngle seat or 
pew. The floor was covered with straw mattii^ ; on the 
walls were suspended boards with sentences frcnii the Koran, 
resembling a L.ancasterian school ; and a small circular 
niche in the east wall, with a lai^ wax candle on each 
side, completed the whole inventory of this oriental chapd. 
Our curiosity was soon satisfied, and we resumed our boots 
and shoes at the door, after bestowing the expected badc- 
tkisK We took our leave of these dirty devotees, who in 
the selection of this airy abode have evinced more taste 
and judgment than one would be disposed to ^ve them 
credit for, who noticed their filthy appearance, and was 
acquainted with their infamous practices. 

Before parting, let me attempt to convey an idea of their 
appearance, in order that the reader may, in reading the 
Arabian Nights, figure to himself that delightful grotesque 
animal an Eastern dcrvisc. Imagine, then, a stout-lo<^ing 
heathen, without a vestige of linen about him, a coarse 
woollen robe envelopes his whole body, his feet and lega 
bare, his face almost concealed by a (ilthy, matted beard, 
and a high conical cap without a brim, completes the picture 
of the external man. To this must be added the most 
brutal ignorance, the grossest superstition, and a life olieo 
stained with the foulest vices. 

This is only the description of a single species, but it 
may serve to identify the whole family. If you meet a 
maniacal vagabond wrapped up in a leopard's skin, swing- 
ing a box suspended before him by chains, another wilh a 
large club thickly studded with spikes, another with a box 
of vipers, or a fourth screaming aloud to the detriment of 
his own throat and of all the ears in his neighbourhood, 
you may safely set them down as dervises. They are ht 
&ct all jugglers of different degrees, some dealing in tricks 
of legerdemain, while others impose upon the ignorant by 



SKETCHES OF TURRET. 181 

sanctimonious grimaces, and loudly-rcpeated prayers in 
the streets and market-places. The well educated Turks 
consider and treat them as regular rogues ; but their influ- 
ence among the poorer classes is considerable, although it 
has diminished greatly of late years. They formerly pos- 
sessed great power, and rendered themselves formidable 
even to the throne. The present sultan has taken them in 
hand, and by dint of strangling some scores and exihng a 
few hundreds, the remainder, bating their idleness and 
roguery, are as submissive and orderly as any class of sub- 
jects in his dominions. There was formerly a sect called 
the howling derviscs, whose peculiar worship consisted in 
yelling and screaming like so many incarnate devils. They 
are usually visited by strangers, and most books of travels 
in these countries are embellished with an account of their 
odd practices. I inquired after them from our worthy 
friends of the Giant's grave, but the only answer was an 
expressive shrug. They might, as we afterward learned, 
have been permitted to howl to the present day, had they 
not undertaken to meddle with the acts of the government. 
Their apparent sanctity gave them no protection, their 
voices are no longer heard, and the story is that they were 
all exiled. In one point of view these Eastern dervises 
may be considered with interest. They are in all proba- 
bility the last remnants of the idolatrous priests of Baal, 
alluded to in the Scriptures, and the ministers of that 
Arabian idolatrv which Mohammed declared himself to be 
sent as a messenger to destroy. 

The geological structure of the mountain which we have 
just ascended is very simple. The base near the seashore 
where we landed is composed of an argillaceous schist, ex- 
hibiting peculiarly contorted strata. A few yards higher 
up we met with a dark gray transition limestone, which is 
extensively quarried, and converted on the spot into build- 
ing lime for the use of the public works in the capital. In 
one of these quarries we noticed a large vertical vein or 



l&U anrcms of tuskbt. 

dike derived from the underlying rock, which in the pn> 
gress of blasting and quarrying had been left untouched, 
and presented the appearance of an artificial wall with 
irregular turrets and battlements. The fact that veins of 
one rock penetrate the substance of another is well known 
to geologists, although the inferences deduced from these 
phenomena are not yet in accordance with each other, or 
at least they have not thrown the strong light upon the 
relative ages of rocks, or the various epochs of their form- 
ation, which has been perhaps too confidently anticipated. 
For instance, in this place the limestone has been traversed 
by veins of an older rock, while in the island of Arran we 
have seen the primitive granite traversed by veins of 
basalt As we continued to ascend the hill, a soft friable 
wacke, like that of the opposite hill on the European side 
of the Bosphorus, made its appearance, and continued to 
the top of the mountain. The resemblance was further 
heightened by the numerous quartz boulders scattered about 
on the surface. 

Upon quitting the Giant's grave we directed our steps by a 
circuitous route around the head of a ravine, to the ruins of an 
old castle, which forms one of tlie most conspicuous and pic- 
turesque features on the shores of the Bosphorus. The fields 
here were uncultivated, and covered with a species of cistus 
(C. crispus)j many of which, even at this late season, were 
still in bloom. The massy ruin is commonly known as the 
Genoese castle, and its construction, I am not aware upon 
what authority, is attributed to that enterprising people. It 
is situated upon an isolated hill, sloping down to the water's 
edge, and, before the introduction of " villanous saltpetre,** 
must have been impregnable. The walls are of colossal 
magnitude, forty feet in height, and enclose an area of 
several acres. The towers were supposed to be one hun- 
dred feet high, and the ruins of a wall, with a series of 
towers, may be still traced to the water's edge. The 
stones employed in its constructiail.«r9 of great size, chiefly 



SKBTCHB8 OF TURKBT. 183 

a white vesicular limestone, which must have been trans- 
ported from a distance, as I do not recollect to have seen it 
in any place about the Bosphorus. These stones are laid 
in courses six feet in depth, alternating with courses, three 
feet deep, of thin Roman bricks ; with these were mingled 
other rocks of volcanic origin from the vicinity, and por- 
tions of columns, and even Turkish gravestones, had been 
put in requisition. 

We entered a low arch, and found ourselves in the court, 
which was occupied' by a few deserted houses, and overrun 
with weeds. On one of ihe towers a Greek inscription, sur- 
rounding a cross, was noticed, but I am unable to ofier any 
explanation concerning it. It seems, however, to contro- 
vert the notion that the castle was built by the Genoese. In 
this dreary court the olive and fig-tree appeared to thrive 
remarkably well, protected from the piercing blasts from 
the Euxine by its high walls. They grow, indeed, about 
Constantinople in the open air; but, except in sheltered 
situations, their fruit cannot be said to be either of a good 
size or well flavoured. 

There is a tradition, that, some fifty or a hundred years 
ago, a sultan established in this castle a colony, which he 
had caused to be brought from the interior of Asia. They 
are said to have been intended as a counterpoise to 
the formidable power of the Janizaries. In some recent 
works upon Turkey, it is stated that this colony still exists 
within the walls of this castle, refusing to intermarry except 
among themselves, and speaking a language unknown to 
the people around them. Some have asserted that they 
were the ancient Guebres, or fire- worshippers ; and we 
had made up our minds that, at any rate, we should fall 
in with a troop of oriental gipsies. The result of our visit 
enabled us to arrange the whole tradition under the class of 
travellers' stories. The barking of a solitary cur brought 
out a decent-looking Turk, who, ai\er inquiring our business, 
ofiered to show us the«ipuriosities of the place. Our first 



184 aEg i t ' HM OP 

question was, of course, about the Guebres, and, after a 
compassioDate smile at our credulity, he gave us this brief 
account of the little clan of which he was the head. Their 
ancestors came originally from that part of the coast of Asia, 
bordering upon the Black Sea, which includes the ancient 
Greek settlement of Sinope, and is now designated as the 
pachalik of OsmanlL His language was purely Turkish, 
and he spoke no other. His own name, Ibrahim, and thoae 
of his numerous family, were also purely Turkish. They 
cultivated the vine in the deep and luxuriant valley at the 
foot of the castle, aud married (please God) whenever and 
wherever they could find wives. His friends had all mi- 
grated to other regions, and his was the last &mily remain- 
ing. The great well in the court of the castle had fallen in* 
and he was not rich enough to repair it. The want of 
water was driving him away too, and he was then making 
preparations for the removal of his family. Such was hia 
plain unvarnished account, upon which a marvellous super- 
structure has been raised by idle or ignorant travellers. 

The walls of this castle are, as we have before remarked, 
of great solidity, and it would seem that nothing short of an 
earthquake could rend them asunder. This, however, has 
actually happened in several places ; and the fallen masses 
are eo large, that until you approach quite near they have 
the appearance of small towers. This effect is increased 
by their being covered with the ivy, which gives a verdant 
appearance to the greater part of the castle. The cement 
must have been excellent to have kept together such large 
masses in their fall. U{K)n examining the mortar, it was 
found that pieces of broken tiles, or bricks, and charcoal 
were mixed up with it, and probably added to its cohesive- 
ness. 

Ailer rambling about the castle, and making many haa* 
ardous attempts to scale the walls, we took our leave of 
Ibrahim, and prepared to return home. We descended by 
. p,»,pi„». p.,h u. d» pre.,, ,ato.f K.«,ld (popUr 



8SSTCHES OF TURKEY. 185 

village), pleasantly lying on the Asiatic shore of the Bos- 
phorus, and sheltered from the winds of the Euxine by the 
promontory of Fil Boornoo. Its situation renders it a de* 
sirable haven for the smaller Turkish vessels navigating 
the Black Sea, who lie here until a southerly wind gives 
assurance that they may trust themselves out of the Bos- 
phorus. Exliausted by our long walk under a broiling sun, 
we naturally endeavoured, upon entering the village, to 
procure some refreshments. There could have been no 
stronger proof of the village being exclusively a Turkish 
one than the fact that we were nearly an hour before we 
could procure a glass of wine or of rakee. After many 
inquiries, we were directed to an obscure lane on the out- 
skirts of the village, where, in the miserable shed of a dirty 
Greek, we found the object of our search* Rakee is a light, 
pleasant cordial, distilled from the pulp of grapes after the 
wine has been pressed out. It is flavoured with angelica, 
or aniseed, with the addition of mastic. As this last resin 
is only soluble in alcohol, the addition of a little water pre- 
cipitates the mastic, and the mixture has a milky hue. 
The best is said to come from Scio. The difficulty of pro- 
curing even a glass of light wine was a pleasing evidence 
of the temperance of the Turks, although they have been 
exposed, to the contagious neighbourhood of more polished 
nations for four hundred years. It excited a feeling of re- 
gret, that, in despite of the example of our temperance 
associations, millions of gallons of New-England rum are 
sent out from our country to corrupt and demoralize the 
most temperate people on the face of the globe. The 
Turks may indeed be said to hold the same tenets with the 
Christian sect of Aquarians, who flourished 200 years afler 
Christ, and whose principles, after a slumber of sixteen 
centuries, are attempted to be revived among the Chris- 
tians of the present day. According to Epiphanius, those 
ancient prototypes of our temperance societies abstained 

B B 



188 mrcHn or TDaxsr. 

whoUy from wine, and forbade the use of it even in the 
sacrament. 

From inibimation upon which I can rely, it appears that 
in six months alone of the year 1830, there were shipped 
from the United States to Turkey twelve million gallons of 
rum. There is reason, however, to beliere that this was 
an unusual quantity, owing to peculiar drcumstances ; but 
stilt the annual supply is very great. To the honour of Ae 
Turks we should state, that little of this is consumed in their 
own country. It is intended for the Black Sea, where it is 
distributed over Georgia, Armenia, and Persia. In tbess 
countries we regret to add that " Boston particulai" is 
much relished, notwithstnnding the praiseworthy efforts of 
our pious and zealous missionaries. 

It is, however, well known that the use of wine, altbou^ 
forbidden by the Koran, depends very much upon the exam- 
ple of the reigning sultan. Some of these have given them- 
selves up to it, and their characters have accordingly been 
handled with much severity by their national historians. 
Of this number were Bajazet I. and II. Sulieman L, on the 
contrary, repressed it, by punishing drunkards with great 
severity. His son and successor, Selim II., revoked these 
edicts, gave himself up to ever}' excess, and has descended 
to posterity with the title of mesth, or drunkard, ellached 
to his name. Under his successors the prohibition against 
wine was again enforced ; but it was reser\'ed for Murad IV. 
to abolish it entirely: he even included coffee, tobacco, 
and opium in the same sweeping clause ; and punished 
the least infraction with death. His chief physician was 
suspected of taking opium ; and upon one occasion was 
dietected, in the presence of the sultan, with a large quantity 
about his person. He assured the sultan that it was a 
weak and harmless compound, in which there was little 
opium. " In that case," said the sultan, " no harm can 
result to you from swallowing the whole, which you must 
do immediately." The poor doctor was compelled to com- 



8KBTCHE8 OF*TU]lKBT, 187 

ply with the barbarous mandate, and died a few hours 
afterward. At the present day, no notice is taken by the 
police of an intoxicated Christian, unless he should be 
riotous, or dead drunk in the street ; but if they detect a 
Mussulman, the bastinado and imprisonmeot follow as a 
matter of course. 

But let us not leave the pretty village of Kavawki without 
noticing its principal street, which faces the pebbly margin 
of the Bosphorus. A row of arbours extends along in front 
of the houses, shaded by the wide-spreading platanus, while 
over the arbours hangs the luxuriant vine, loaded with the 
finest grapes. While taking our coffee and pipes under one 
of these arbours, the total absence of Greeks around us 
enabled us to comprehend the general quietude and repose 
of the Turkish character. Although the port and every 
arbour was filled with Turks, some engaged in selling 
watermelons from huge piles upon the beach, others in play- 
ing a sort of game of draughts with pebbles, and others enjoy- 
ing a dreamy existence over their pipes, yet scarcely a sound 
was heard to interrupt the tinkling of several fountains 
which poured forth their grateful streams around us. While 
enjoying this novel scene, and looking out upon the now 
placid bosom of the Bosphorus, over the curiously shaped 
and rigged vessels from the Asiatic shores of the Black Sea, 
with their bows resting upon the sandy beach, we were 
much amused with a village-doctor who entered our arbour, 
and commenced, with becoming gravity, a part of the 
labours of his profession. As this was the first specimen 
of a Turkish M.D. that we had seen, his avocations natu- 
rally attracted our notice. He first extracted from a small 
bag, which he carried in his girdle, a white powder re- 
sembling magnesia, but which may possibly have been 
an equally valuable article — wheat-flour. With this he 
commenced making pills, occasionally dipping it into a 
little shell containing some coloured water, and then rolling 
it out upon the bench. Like Abemethy, be seemed to 



188 

depend upon the efficacy of a single pill, and, in all proba- 
bility, his cures were aa frequent as those of that unp<4iihed 
physician. The satisfied air and manner of this Tillage 
Esculapius entertained ug exceedingly aa he proceeded to 
wrap up the pills, in papers containing a half-d<nen each ; 
and then, drawing forth his long brass inkstand, he marked 
each paper with some cabalistic characters, which of course 
enhanced the value of its contents. A troop of Turkiih 
hoys were turveyii^ bis operations with much interest, 
and whenever one of the pills happened to drop out of his 
hands, there was a general rush for it among the fitti* 
urchins, end the lucky dog who seized it swallowed it im* 
mediately and ran off with all speed beyond the ujdifted 
staff of the doctor. It would seem that if his pills did no 
good, they could do little harm, which is more than can be 
laid of many articles of the materia medica. 



8KBTCHSS OF TUBKBT. 189 



CHAPTER XX. 

Panic of Plague — Domestic Quarantines — Contagion — ^American Cottons — 

Commerce. 

Thb inhabitants are putting themselves into quarantine 
in all directions, and dismay is depicted upon every face. 
Our next-door neighbour Dr. Visconti, a young Italian phy- 
sician of great promise, attended the family before alluded 
to, and seven of its members have died within the last three 
days. The doctor stoutly maintained that the disease was 
not plague ; but he was taken ill himself yesterday morning. 
I endeavoured to learn his symptoms, but without success. 
The fatal bubo has, however, appeared, with excruciating 
pain in the bowels, and last evening 150 leeches were 
applied, but without producing any relief. It may serve to 
convey some idea of the panic occasioned by this disease, 
when it is stated that the poor doctor was obliged to ofier 
a thousand piastres before he could induce any one to bring 
him the leeches, and then he was compelled to apply them 
himself. At twelve o'clock to-day his corpse was carried 
past our house in a common deal box, with a black cross 
painted upon it, borne by three Greeks, who seemed to have 
taken the precautionary measure of getting most conspicu- 
ously drunk. It is said, that shortly after death his body 
became perfectly black, marking the highest stage of pu- 
tridity and malignancy. The municipal authorities have 
ordered the inhabitants of this and the adjoining houses to 
leave the premises, the furniture to be burnt, and the build- 
ing to be thoroughly drenched and fumigated. 

Domestic quarantines are becoming more rigorous, and 
are only to be equalled in absurdity by those public qoaran- 



190 8KSTCBU or TUBKMT. 

tines established by lew in other countries, vhtere more 
enlightened views of disease, and where comnxHi sense 
with regard to tbe nature of contagion, might be supposed 
to prerai]. As these domestic quarantines present some 
peculiarities, it may not be amiss to describe them in detail, 
Whenever their necessity is supposed to be obvious, the 
doors of the bouse are carefully locked and bolted, and all 
provisions and other necessaries are passed through a ten>- 
porary wooden barrier. The servants and children are not 
permitted to leave the house, and no friend is allowed to 
enter, unless his family have adopted the same quazantiiie. 
Even if admitted, all avoid him a* if the mortal symptoms 
had already appeared upon him, and a chair with a wooden 
seat is placed for his reception in the middle of the room. 
Tablecloths and curtains are discarded, and a brasier of 
hot coals is placed in the hall, upon which branches of heath 
are occasionally thrown to fumigate the apartments. Every 
article for the use of the family is brought by a person et^ 
gaged for that purpose. These, if bulky, such as cotton- 
stuSs, vegetables, or meat, are thrown into a large tub of 
fresh or salt-water, where they remain until supposed to be 
sufficiently purified. Even linen from the wasberwoman's 
hands is again compelled to pass this watery ordeal ; let- 
ters, or similar small articles, are dipped into hot vinegar, 
and then smoked in a box prepared for that purpose, with 
which all the Frank houses arc furnished. The list of con- 
tagious and non-contagious articles would be too ample to 
enumerate, but a few may be mentioned, to exhibit their 
absurdity. 

Cotton, woollen, paper, and leatlier are declared to be 
highly contagious ; while wood, iron, and the metals gene- 
rally, are not so. Sornc things are capable of transmitting 
infection in a higher degree tlian others ; thus, cats and rats 
convey infection with great certainty ; but d<^ only in a 
moderate degree. Even among dogs there is a great diA 
ference ; for those with a curled woolly coat are almost as 



8XBTCHES OF TURKBT. 191 

dangerous as cats or rats. Some articles are dangerous 
according to their temperature : thus, bread, cakes, pud- 
dings, and pies, when hot, will communicate the plague; 
but if allowed to cool, they are perfectly harmless. Others 
again are contagious in one form, but not in another : for 
instance, straw in a bed or cushion is very dangerous ; but 
the same article manufactured into mats or hats becomes 
a non-conductor of plague. In the same way a silver tea- 
spoon will not convey contagion, but a silver dollar is only 
to be handled after due purification. There are no limits 
to the articles which may extend the plague ; and birds, and 
even flies, have been known to carry it from one place to 
another. In Tuscany, they date a plague firom the killing a 
crow that came from Corsica, where the plague then raged ; 
even flies are accused of having transmitted plague firom 
one chamber to another. We might enlarge upon this sub- 
ject, but enough has been said to show how completely an 
ignorant and puerile terror is capable of obscuring the last 
glimmerings of reason and common sense. It is far from 
our wish to deny the existence of contagion in toto ; but 
the ordinary precautions used with regard to the malignant 
tyj^us of Europe have been proved by experience amply 
sufijcient to protect the medical attendants. 

Sunday. A Jew pedlar is shouting under my window, 
with a villanous nasal twang, and in a mongrel Turko- 
Hispano dialect, '* Amelikani pagno,** or American cotton. 
The reputation of our domestic manufactures, I was aware, 
had extended over our own vast southern continent; 
but I was not prepared to find that it had penetrated the 
regions of the grand seignior. They are in great request 
here ; but it was difficult to ascertain the quantity annually 
consumed. The article termed sheetings usually sells at 
ten cents per yard, all charges paid. Our chief trade with 
Turkey consists in what are termed colonial produce ; to 
wit, sugar, coflfee, and rum ; but there is great room for the 
introduction of our home manufactures. Cheap furniture 



IBt aarrcHu or TtnoaET. 

of all kiods, such u are shipped to South AmericSt would 
find a ready sale here ; cut-nails would also, after a certain 
period, be a valuable article of commerce. The credit of 
our cotton 8luf& is much impaired by the immense quan- 
tities of a counterfeit article with which the English mani^ 
&cturers have deluged the market ; they are put up pre- 
cisely like our own, and bear the stamp of tome well-known 
American establishment. 

Our imports are opium and other drugs, raw and maim- 
fectured silks, and latterly considerable quantities of wool 
The amount of opium annually raised in Turkey is esti* 
mated at 352,000 lbs.; of this, 1500 cases or bags of 140 Ibc 
each are purchased by government, and about 300 bagi 
more are smuggled. It is unfortunate for the true interests 
of Turkey that her silk is also a government monopoly, 
which, of course, renders it a precarious article of com- 
merce.* The quantity annually taken ofT by us we have 
no means of ascertaining, but wc learn that it is upon the 
increase. Wool is becoming an article of great importance; 
and when more attention is paid to the sorting and clean- 
ing, the demand will doubtless increase. Shipments of this 
article have become very extensive to the United Statet 
within the present year. The port of Constantinople is ex- 
ceedingly safe for shipping, and the charges are very low, 
not exceeding forty «* fifty dollars for a vessel of 200 lorn. 
The greatest drawback upon ils trade is caused by the de- 
lays incident to passing the Hellespont and Bosphorus: 
these might be obviated by a line of lug steamboats, man- 
aged by individuals or the government. The duties apon 
foreign articles are mere trillcs, and have been so managed 

■ Tarkith V/'righli and Mcamrci. — Th«M vary lO much in diffetmt parti 
of Um empire thai it isdilficull lo ablain arcuratr infonnalion. Tba (tdlmr- 
ing, howefer, ii bcli«v«il lo be Ihc corrtnimntling value irt ConBtuilJiiiipU >— 
Thecriie, 3|lbi. ; kinlal, ISSIIi). ; U flra if silk, 4i1b>.; chekn of o[riaB, 
IJOm.; inf. goat'* wool, 6^ ib«. ; da. prDTJiiona, 44 okei ; do. wooi), 180 okM; 
BMieal, ) oi. ; peak, 27 inchn. 



ncarcHEs of tubkey. 193 

that it will be almost impossible to raise them« In all their 
transactions with the powers of Europe the Turkish gov- 
ernment have been most egregiously duped ; for their trea- 
ties have been so framed that the Turks are unable to raise 
the duties on foreign imports, either to protect their own 
manufactures, or for the purposes of revenue. We do not 
profess to be versed in the metaphysics of commerce, and 
indeed have given up the idea of ever being made to com- 
prehend its intricacies, when we were instructed that it was 
fiur more beneficial to pay a foreigner six cents for an 
mrticle, than to purchase it from a neighbour and fellow- 
countryman at the same price, or who will take something 
from us which will be an equivalent. The advocates for 
fre^'trade will find a beautiful example of its operation in 
Turkey. The duties, as we have said, are almost nominal ; 
and, as a consequence, domestic industry is at a stand. 
England furnishes them with cloths, rat-traps, and pen- 
knives; France with caps, confectionaries, and shoes; 
while Russia obligingly suppUes them with bread. 

There is a slight difference between the duties laid upon 
the goods of foreign nations : Russia pays the least, and in 
return taxes the products of Turkey the highest ; besides ex- 
cluding her entirely from the recently captured province of 
Mingrelia,* except at two ports — Redout Kalay and 
Anapa. Our goods pay at present, until the treaty shall be 

* The mention of Mingrcliii leads as to notice an inland commerea which is 
carried in part through this province, and which (ar exceeds our traffic acroM 
the continent to the shores of the Pacific ocean. An article, mannfactured in 
Prussia, and called Prussian cloth, is sent to Moscow, whcfe it pays an entiy* 
duty of 8 per cent., from whence it is sent hy land to Kiakhta, the moot 
westerly province of CMna. A distance of more than 6000 miles is thus 
travarsed by land, and the profits are so considerable that a million of doUmni 
is annually invested. The time consumed is about two hundred days. 

The Russian occupation of this province must be viewed with some on- 
easiness by England, for in two months, at least, a Russian army can be 
transported from the Black Sea to the Persian Gulf; from whence an attadi 
npon the English possessions could be made with great ease. 

CC 



IM 81XTCBX8 OV TVBXSTr 

ratified, a duty of 8 per cent, and 15 per cent besides upom 
the whole amount of the 8 per cent duty. By the new 
treaty the duty on cofllee is about one mill the lb., on sugars 
4} cents per cwt, on cottons per piece 3^ cents. 

Although our present trade with Turkey does not take 
off a great amount of our own products, yet there is little 
doubt but that a great increase must ultimately take plaoeir 
Since by our treaty, the navigation of the Black Sea is laid 
open, a new field for enterprise is before us, and new 
sources of wealth displayed. The commerce with Persia, 
for instance, will at some future day be a matter of much 
consequence. Our enterprising rivals the English have 
already entered upon this new career, and are now prose- 
cuting a successful trade through the seaport of Trebizood* 
Goods sent in this direction to Persia should be put up in 
small bales, weighing 150 lbs. each ; four of these make a 
camel's load. The direct trade with Russia through tbe 
Black Sea has not yet proved a source of much profit, but 
it can hardly fail of being extensively carried on in future. 
An intercourse in this direction will not be subject to inter- 
ruptions from the winter season, but may be carried on at 
all periods of the year. 

There is another and more important point of view in 
which this trade is to be regarded. We allude to the car- 
r}'ing-trade between the ports of Turkey, Russia, and 
Italy, which is now chiefly in the hands of the Greeks and 
Austrians, and is said to give continual emplo}rment to 3000 
vessels. Some French, English, and Italian vessels are 
engaged in this trade, but their number is inconsiderable.. 
The French trade with the Levant at one time exceeded 
that of any other nation, but has been gradually on the 
decline.* It is said even to be less at present than our own. 



* Chenier states that previous to the revolution the French employed 
▼essels between France and Turkey, and SOO more in freighting for th* 
Turks, forming a nuisery for 8000 sailors, and supporting S5,000 fimiKfifc 



0KBTCHK8 OF TUKKET. 19S 

Her exports to Smyrna alone amount only to 8150,000, 
«nd last year she imported from that place only 8900,000. 
This falling off is attributed by all intelligent merchants to 
her severe quarantine, which of course must also operate 
to the prejudice of her carrying-trade. The Greeks, and 
the Russian vessels manned by Greeks, will of course be 
formidable rivals ; but however active they may be, it is 
generally acknowledged that they are but indifferent 
sailors, and their voyages are consequently much pro- 
tracted. 

The English have not yet engaged in this trade to any 
great extent, their vessels being chiefly employed in the 
transportation of their own manufactures. For a long time 
aU their intercourse with the Levant was conducted under 
Ibe auspices of th(' Levant Company. This company was 
established about 300 years ago, and was the prototype of 
ibe now gigantic East India monopoly. It appointed and 
paid its own ambassadors, consuls, and chaplains, possessed 
twenty-five or thirty armed ships, and built palaces,h jspi- 
tals, &c all over the Mediterranean. It has frequently 
been cited as an honourable specimen of English integrity 
and fair dealing: but, according to Hobhouse, every English 
agent, whether minister, consul, or drogoman, except at 
Constantinople and Smyrna, was either a Greek or Jew ; 
and this, too, in the very teeth of one of its very liberal 
legulations, by which Jews were positively prohibited from 
being employed. There is one fact which is highly credit- 
able to the company, and is, I believe, without a parallel in 
the history of moi eyed monopolies. In 1825, the English 
government called upon them to relinquish tlicir charter. 
They complied with this requisition; and, astonishing to 
relate, after all their disbursements and enormous expenses 
were paid, they were still enabled to ofier to the govem- 

flcrofrni itates that at one time Fiance had a capital of |6,000,000 employed 
an this way, giving a profit of fifty per cent. 



IM 8KXTCHB9 OP 

ment a sum amounting to 8800,000.* The Atutiians are 
and will continue to be our most active rivals. An Ameri- 
can is surprised upon entering the Mediterranean to find 
that a flag unknown to him is flying at the masthead of 
almost every third vessel he may happen to fidl in with. 
He is told it is the Austrian flag; and the key to the 
wonder is the extent of her Italian possessions. Under 
her flag the ancient enterprise of Venice has received new 
life, and her canvass whitens every sea. The carrying- 
trade is chiefly in their hands, and is considered as exceed- 
ingly profitable. They have been on thorns ever since our 
treaty has been in agitation, as Ibey seemed to anticipate 
that American vessels would monopolize the whole bosi^ 
ness. Although the cost of navigating an Austrian vessel 
is less than one of our own, yet this would, we apprehend, 
be more than counterbalanced by our superior sailing and 
quicker despatch. The Austrian vessels are usually po- 
lacre brigs of firom 150 to 400 tons. Desirous of informing 

^ This curiouf phenomenon was for a long time a matter of astonishment, 
ontil a perusal of the by-laws and regulations of this paragon of monopolies 
unravelled the mystery. It was not a partnership for the purpose of trade, 
but an association for the regulation of commerce. Their eole business wee 
to collect duties upon every article of commerce passing between EngliBi 
and Turkey. Those who were not members paid a duty of twenty per cent. 
to the company. By another law no member could consign his goods to 
any one but a member residing in Turkey or Egypt, unless he paid a doty 
of twenty per cent. The chief advantage seems to have been that of 
mutual protection against the avanias, or arbitrary exactions of the Turkkk 
local authorities. The injured party in those days, if declared innocent bj 
the company, was reimbursed to the full extent of his losses. This was a 
laudable association, and in fact was a species of mutual assurance company 
for specific purposes. It cannot he^ considered as a national establishment, 
for an Englishman might be oppressed and ruined if he did not happen to 
belong to this company. By another regulation, the consuls were allowed 
to protect strangers and their property, " provided that it can be done without 
prejudice to English interests ; and provided, moreover, that they pay all the 
company's dues.** Until its dissolution, American property was under the 
protection of this company, at an expense of firom four to five thrnitsnd 
dollars annually. 



SKETCHES OF TUKKET. 197 

myself personally of the advantages which they are sup- 
posed to possess over our own ships, I visited one which had 
recently been built at Trieste, and said to be the finest that 
had ever been launched from that port She was of the 
burthen of 400 tons, had cost when complete $20,000, and 
was navigated by eighteen men. In the summer months 
she only requires sixteen men. Their wages vary from 
98 to 810 per month, and her annual insurance is $1000. 
The men are furnished with excellent provisions, and the 
captain informed me that he could get no sailors, unless he 
furnished them with as good food as he required for him- 
self. This vessel makes two voyages annually between 
Odessa and Trieste, which is considered about the 
average, although three and even four have been made ; 
but this is acknowledged to be of very rare occurrence. 
Much of the length of these voyages must depend on the 
facilities afibrded for making up a cargo, but we have been 
informed by competent authority, that even allowing for the 
unavoidable delays at the Dardanelles and Bosphorus, forty 
days would be an ample allowance for the passage between 
Trieste and Odessa. This would give four complete voy- 
ages, but as the Austrians commonly make but two, each 
trip must consume more than ninety days. Our own ves- 
sels, we are inclined to believe, taking the whole year round, 
would make a complete voyage every two months, pro- 
vided there was no unusual detention on account of the 
cargo. From these facts our ship-owners may judge for 
themselves of the rivalry to be anticipated from Austrian 
vessels. 

The commerce of the Black Sea is perhaps the most 
ancient in the world. Polybius, writing nearly 2000 years 
ago, described the exports as consisting of hides, honey, 
slaves, wax, and salt-fish : corn was alternately exported 
and imported. Its present extent and value may be readily 
conceived, when we take into consideration the amount of 
the products raised in Poland, Moldavia, Wallachia, and 



198 raXTCHES ov turkst. 

the southern parts of Russia. Odessa, which in 1796 was 
founded upon the site of a Tatar village, in 1803 had a 
population of 8000, and eight years afterward numbered 
25,000 souls. Its chief exports are grain, tallow, cordage, 
iron, leather, and salt provisions. Much of the wheat is 
derived from Podolia, Volhynia, and Kerson, but some of 
it traverses the Dneiper 1800 versts before it reaches 
Odessa. The wheat is distinguished into two kinds, the 
Boft and hard, the latter of which is principally used in the 
fiibrication of macaroni and vermicelli. The usual price 
of wheat is about seventy cents per bushel, and it may give 
some idea of the value of this article when we learn that 
M,000,000 of bushels were exported from Odessa alone 
during the year ending September, 1830. It is a curious 
feet that Spain requires annually 3,000,000 bushels from 
this source, although she exports annually a large amount 
to Cuba and Porto Rico. The price of Indian com is 
about hfty cents per bushel. The grain market is subject 
to considerable fluctuations from unfavourable seasons, long 
droughts, and more than all, from the depredations of mice, 
which in some seasons have nearly cut off the crops. 
Wheat flour usually sells at 81 44 the bushel of seventy 
pounds. Of tallow 7000 tons are annually exported. The 
ordinary freight between Odessa and Constantinople is 
about 8100 for a vessel of 200 tons. The usual charge 
for wheat is twelve and a half cents per bushel ; freights 
to England are 815 50 per ton at present 

The first American vessel that ever penetrated the Black 
Sea was the brig Calumet of Boston, in 1810; and since 
our treaty has been concluded, only two others have ven- 
tured to undertake this voyage ; of these, the brig Smyrna 
was, we believe, the first , 

In concluding this brief, and, as we are sensible, impierfect 
account of the commerce with Turkey, and the means of 
extending our trade in this direction, we may mention that 
there are three insurance companies in Constantinople. 



8KSTCHBS OF TUKKSY. 109 

The capitals are small, in no instance exceeding 8100,000. 
The dividends, as we wq^ informed by one of the stock- 
holders, have been fifty per cent, per annum on the amount 
actually paid in, or, in other words, equivalent to five per 
cent, on the nominal capital. They are exclusively owned 
and managed by Franks. No one as yet has been found 
hardy enough to propose the formation of a company to 
insure against fire in Constantinople. 

It is asserted that Russia would view with much jealousy 
any participation in the commerce of the Black Sea, and 
that if she held Constantinople, all nations would be ex- 
cluded. This, howevcTt would be at variance with the 
general policy of Russia, and certainly opposed to the 
helping hand which she gave us in arranging our treaty. 
Indeed, we have been informed that one of the most diffi- 
cult points to arrange in our treaty, was that clause which 
enabled us to navigate the Euxine. It was only by a hint 
of appealing to Russia, that the negotiation was brought to 
a successful close. It is true that about two years ago an 
English frigate sailed into the Black Sea, and touched at 
Sebastapol, Odessa, Varna, and Bourgas. The jealousy of 
the Russian authorities, under quarantine pretexts, did not 
allow her to land, and after a cruise of eighteen days she 
was compelled to return. This, however, it will be recol- 
lected, was an armed ship of a rival nation, on a voyage of 
discovery. 

It may be alleged that ship-owners would be unwilling 
to permit their vessels to be engaged for any length of time 
in a business over which they could have no control, and 
where so much must necessarily depend upon the intelli- 
gence and good faith of the captain. This, however, ap- 
plies with equal force to many other distant and equally 
complicated voyages in which our merchants are actually 
engaged. We hazard little in saying that as soon as this 
business is properly understood, our vessels will obtain a 
full share of this profitable trade. From various sources 



900 

we are enabled to state, that this commerce of the Black 
Sea and the Miediterranean gave employment during the 
year past to 3,500 \*csscls, belonging to the following flags, 
and we have arranged them in the order of their numerical 
strength : Russian, Austrian, Sardinian, Ionian, English, 
French, American, Tuscan, Neapolitan, and Dutch. Greek 
vessels usually sail under the Russian, French, EngliA, 
Sardinian, or Ionian flags. No mention is made of Danish 
or Swedish vessels ; and, stranger still, not a vestige is aeeo 
of those once proud flags which first fluttered in the gales 
off Cape Horn, or gently waved to the breezes of die 
Indian Ocean. 

In the Appendix, the reader will find a paper drawn t^ 
by the American agent at Salonica, which is a very 
instructive document, and to the commercial man full of 



KKKTUUE!> la' TUBKliY 201 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Yallo Kiosk — Zerpanay — Coins — Debt — Crown llevonue — Resouxccs— 
Revolt of Satalia — Extortions of Pacha — ^Haratch, or Capitation*tax — 
Ketrencbmcnt. 

We crossed over the Golden Horn a few days since to 
visit some of the lions of StambooL We landed just above 
Seraglio Point, near a green building resembling a large 
tent, and which is known under the name of the Yallo 
Kiosk. The sides of this building are of painted canvass, 
which is rolled up during the feast of Bairam, when the 
sultan takes his stand here to enjoy the festivities of the sea- 
son. The open space around it is the scene of various 
gynmastic exercises and sports among the lower orders, for 
the entertainment of the sidtan and court A short distance 
from this we attempted to pass the outer gate of the seraglio, 
leading to the zerpanay, or royal mint ; but not being pos- 
sessed of the requisite permission, we were civilly requested 
to make a retrograde movement. Instead then of attempt* 
ing to describe what we did not see, a short notice of the 
operations of the mint must be taken in its stead. 

The coins of the Turkish empire are of copper, silver, 

and gold. The purse is an imaginary standard of value of 

500 piastres, equivalent at present to 25 dollars. The only 

popper coins now in use arc paras^ forty of which make a 

piastre, or, as the Turks call them, groosh. The para is so 

small and thin as to be exceedingly troublesome, getting in 

under the nails, in tlie liandle of your penknife, among 

papers, ^S&c. At the present moment 800 paras equal a 

dollar ; and it was long before we ('.oulJ ascertain tltat for 

one of them wo could purcliasc a single article : one paiu, 

D i> 



302 bKBTCHea op TCBEE¥. 

however, will purchase a pipcfutl uf lobacco, a glass of 
water, or of sherbet, a few grapes, or even a small loaf erf" 
bread. Let no one, therefore, despise this iq>paiently 
insignificant coin, although eight of them only equal an 
American cent. The asjicr, which was a coin of still 
smaller value (three equalling a para), lias now totally dis- 
appeared. The silver coins are piastres, with their aubdi- 
visioDB into halves and quarters. There are also 3}, 5, and 
10 piastre pieces of silver. Of gold coins, they have now 
jiecxsB cf three piastres, termed rubiehs, and others of the 
value of 10 and 30 piastres. All these coins bear the 
attributes of the sultan, and the year of his reign ; the 
workmonatiip is very indifFcrent, but quite good enough for 
the material of whicli all tlie Turkish coins arc composed. 

The system of issuing adulterated coin liaa been pursued 
irf'late years to a prodigious extent. The gold and silver is 
usually purchased at Vienna ; although the former is said 
to be obtained from the miucs of Ergalmi and Guayban, iu 
the pachalik of Diarbckir, and from Goomosh Kliannay, 
near Trcbisond. The mines of Kooray, in tlie pacliaJik of 
Trebisond, furnish a considerable quantity of copper. I am 
not aware that thcTo is any silver mine in the country. 
Whenever a supply is wanted for ordinary purposes, sucli 
as paying off the troops, tlie mint is |)Ul in operation, ami 
tlie requisite ([uaiitily is turned out at a short notice. Tliis 
may I>c a good aclicme of fmance ; but altliough sanclioiicd 
by the practice of Austria and Uussia, it seems hardly 
reconcilable with ordinary notions of honesty. 

The business of tlie mint is conducted by an Armenian, 
who, by the simplicity of his life and tlie uprightness of his 
conduct, has acquired the confidence of the government. 
Tiie falo of liis predecessor Tinghir Oglou was a melan- 
choly one, and might serve as a warning to aJI future 
officers of tlie mint. He was sent for one momii^ to 
the I'orte, and liis head taken olf witliout asking liim a 
single question. As this case has frequently been cited 



SKBTCHES OF TURKEY. 208 

OS an instance of the horrid cruelty and barbarity of the 
Turkish government, we took some pains to learn the par- 
ticulars. It appears that the style in which he lived, and 
his immense expenditures, induced the government to sus- 
pect that his revenues were improperly derived from the 
mint. Upon being more closely watched, it was discovered 
that whenever a given quantity of gold was placed in his 
hands he doubled the alloy, and, of course, coined as 
much for himself as for the sultan. His death was the im- 
mediate consequence of this discovery. 

Of the operations of banking the Turks are profoundly 
ignorant ; they have no public stock, and, I need hardly 
add, no national debt. We are in the habit of regarding 
our own small national incumbrance with much compla- 
cency, as unparalleled in the history of nations ; but we are 
excelled in this particular by the Turks, who not only have 
no debt whatever, but, as far as we could ascertain, never 
have had a national debt at any period of their history. 
Nor, indeed, do they seem at all anxious to learn any of 
those important truths in political economy by which pos- 
terity are made to feel in a tangible pecuniary shape the 
follies and blunders of their predecessors. The ordinary 
revenue is about 814,000,000, and is more than sufficient 
for the ordinary expenses of government, which rarely ex- 
ceed two mfliions. Whenever there happens to be an 
extra demand for unforeseen emergencies, the sum is ob- 
tained by levying a general contribution upon the pachas 
and other great olRcers of the government 

An attempt was recently made to endoctrinate the Turks 
with some of the modem notions of stocks and public 
securities, but without success. By the terms of the treaty 
of Adrianople, the Turkish government were compelled to 
pay large sums to Russia, and it was generally supposed 
that tlieir previous heavy war-expenses would prevent 
them from paying it at the stijnilated time. The liberal and 
disinterested race of inonf;y-bn»kers were immediately on 



2M 8KBTCHK8 OF TUBKET. 

the alert, and an ag6nt of Rothschild appeared at Constan- 
tinople in the spring of 1630, with an offer to loan the gov- 
ernment any amount of money which they mighl require. 
The council deliberated upon the proposal, and finally 
declined it. The terms of this proposed loan were never 
Viade public ; but it is said that the entire monopoly of the 
opium and silk-trade was only one of the items required 
under the head of collateral security. Notwithstanding this 
refusal to accept the loan,, the various instalments of the 
Russian contribution were punctually and promptly paid 
as they became due. 

One of the most cogent arguments used by the Turks 
against incurring this debt was, that the stock would be 
owned by foreigners, who would, of course, exercise an 
undue influence over the government This subject appears 
to have been regarded in the same li^t by some of our 
awn statesmen in the discussions connected with our 
natiimal bank. To form a correct estimate of the dangers 
to be apprehended firom foreign ownership we should un- 
doubtedly take inta consideration the character of the 
people, and the circumstances and political condition of the 
country to which it is to be applied. 

Aside firom this public revenue, or mtrt, the sultan has a 
fund of his own, which is termed ibh hanay. It is impos- 
sible to form any correct estimate of the amount of this 
fund, which if considered sacred, and transmitted unim- 
paired firom oiie sultan to another ; each one endeavouring 
to exceed, if possible, the add-ons made by his predeces- 
sor. It is increased by royal revenues derived firom his 
domains, firom presents, fines, and forfeitures. We could 
obtain no positive informiefion respecting it, and are rather 
disposed to class it with those marvellous inventions which 
lead the rabble to attribute the possession of unbounded 
wealth to their royal masters. The tale is improbable on 
other accoontii Exigencies have occurred in the history 
of this country when a fund like this must certainly have 



SKBTCHSB OF TURKBT. 205 

been wanted ; and it would argue great stupidity on the 
part of the Turks not to have so applied it ; to say nothing 
of the absurdity of retaining such an amount of idle capital, 
and thereby exciting the cupidity of their hostile neighbours. 
Notwithstanding this absence of a national burthen and 
the undoubted resources of the country, its finances are 
fiir from being in a flourishing condition. This is justly 
attributed to the imperfect and often iniquitous manner in 
wUch the revenues are collected, and to the finequent rebel- 
lions of large districts against thagovemment ; by which, 
not only the revenues of these districts are lost, but large 
rams are ex^nded in reducing them to submission. The 
tifl^th of all produce is granted by the Koran to the sultan : 
the pacha of each district is responsible for the collection, 
ana, like the proconsuls of ancient Rome, he farms it out to 
various inferior officers. Formerly every village had its 
governor, whose duty it was to collect the tithes and main- 
tain the police ; and a judge to determine civil causes. 
The governor, however, soon began by deciding upon po- 
lice cases, and then upon all others, whatever might be theur 
nature. Those who hq^l been oppressed in the collection 
of taxes had formerly a shadow of recfaress byTappealing to 
the judge ; but the same individual is now the Collector and 
the judge. In the larger towns there was formerly a mu- 
nicipal body, of which the diief was chosen annually like 
our mayors^ — ^thus presenting the singular qpectacle of a 
republican institution in the heart of a despotic gov- 
ernment It is not meant, however, to convey the idea that 
this dioice was made by formal vote, or that they h^ hand- 
bills, tickets, inspectors, and all the apparatus of a demo- 
cratic poll. Public opinion designated beforehttid the most 
worthy, who accordingly took possession of an office which 
was neither to be '^ sou^t nor declined.'' Every vestige 
of these institutions has disappeared, and the pacha, mns- 
selim, or aga, according to the extent of his jurisdiction, 
appoints and dismisses all officers at his pleasure. The 



306 sKrrcHH of tdbket, 

pacfaa pays a certain sum to the govenuncnt for his 
office, and in cue of his death, ali his property, like that 
of erezy other officer of the crown, reverts to tbe sultan. 
An anecdote is related by a modem traveller,* which 
demoDstntes the miserable policy of this govcnuneat in the 
coQectioD of its rereaue. In 1 813 the Bey of Satalia having 
died, a icquisitioo was made for his property. His son 
replied, that it consisted of 800 purses, at that time equirsi- 
kat to 940^000, which he was ready to give up immft- 
itbtdy. Whether this ^tement was true or false, it did 
not satisfy tbe sultan ; and an expedition was sent agaiost 
Satalia under the captain pacha. Satalia is a little iosig* 
nificnnt place, without any cannon ; but nevertheless it dfr 
fended itself with so much vigour that it required an army 
of et),000 men, and the whole Turki!<h fleet of 34 vess^ 
among which were nine ships of the line, for the space of two 
years, before it was finally reduced. " Despotism," as the 
author from whom I lx}rrow this anecdote observes, "is a 
kid calculator." The whole of the revenue of this district 
was uiijKiid for two years ; the expenses of the siege were 
t-utumtous ; ontl the islands of Cyprus nnd Rhodes, and aU 
iho (Hirta near Satalia, were ruincil by the merciless eiac- 
(k«is for tlie siipjiort of the ticct and army ; and al^er bQ, 
lU> «wly satisfaction which tlic {^vernmcnt obtained was 
ttM ht-AtI of the i;:illftnt young bey ; for not a vestige of the 
S^W {•urwi coutil l<o fi>und, and all the money within the 
vUy was huridd under its ruins. 

Thti ruvi'niie collectors ore paid exceedingly small sala- 
(Krii, wtui'li llwy contrive to enlarge by the rankest extor- 
lu4k Kvcry one tliroii;:;h whose hands tlie revenue p«sses 
«vM\«viatM A [K>rtion for his own use, and in aur way 
v-tti.4«K>ui wi-nllh is freijuently amassed by the odfvrs. U 
w t«n\ iImI wl their death this money reverts to ix s-^in- 
m.'VA - Ihh ill llh' moan time tlic people a:^ iwniajiy 



SK£TCU£8 OF TURKEV. 207 

oppressed. To illustrate the oppressive operation of this 
mode of collecting the revenue, we will suppose that a cer- 
tain pachalik, or district, is rated on ttie government books 
as yielding 960,000 annually; the pacha must live in a 
certain style, must reimburse himself for what the office has 
cost him, and amass as much as he can besides. We 
will suppose tliat he requires 820,000^ — ^he therefore com- 
mences by the declaration that 880,000 will be required. 
The inferior officers act upon the same plan, and enlarge 
it still more to suit their wants, until the original sum is 
swelled up to 8 1 50,000 and even 8200,000. Other extortions 
of the pachas arc practised, like tlie following ; — ^the taxes 
are usually paid in kind, and after it is all secured, the pacha 
issues a decree tliat no produce shall bo sold except to him- 
self: of course, he gets it at his own price, for who would 
dare to cliallbr with a pacha. As he is tlie only dealer in tlie 
market, he of course regulates it, and in this way makes his 
own profits. One pacha has been known to buy up all the 
wheat in the district at 75 cents, and to sell it out again at 
a profit of one hundred jwr cent. The Governor of Bey- 
root, only two years ago, purchased up all the soap at his 
own price, and tlicn compelled the inliabitants, whether they 
required it or not, to buy it from him again at an enormous 
advance. This system goes on until the people, reduced 
to abject misery, or maddened by extortion, rise up against 
their oppressors, and in their fury hew them to pieces. 

The frequent insurrections in Asia Minor, which are 
always represented as political disturbances, are, in fact, 
not directed so much against the government as against 
their local oppressors. The best evidence of this is, that 
upon the banishment, recal, or death of an obnoxious pacha, 
and the appointment of a successor in his stead, the public 
tranquillity is immediately restored. In these disturbances, 
the women (bless their hearts) always take the lead, and 
boldly beard tlie lion in his den. Perhaps the very first 
notice wliich the governor, or pacha, receives is a sere- 



908 suETCuss OP tubkby. 

nade under his vindows by female pcifoimen, is whicli 
bia cruelty and extortioa are proclaimed in alto, with occa- 
nonal ciuiet obligata What is the poor mas to do 1 la- 
dependent of the general respect with which women arc 
treated in Turkey, eren if he should be so ferodous as to 
Older bii sddieri to fire upon them, he might, as tbey all 
dress alike, kill his own wife, niter, or mother, nay, a vngW 
ToUey might depopulate his hareuL If the pacha happens 
to be a wise and prudent man, he relaxes in his extortions, 
and public tranquilliQr is restored ; but if be obstinately 
persists in his career of oppression, the men, like dutifiil 
husbands, take up the matter, and, after the effuuon of more 
or less blood, the pacha is either behc&ded or diigiaced. 
It is impossible to avoid being struck with the profound 
respect which the Turks universally pay to the female aex. 
During the bloody reign of the Janizaries, tbe citizens of 
Constantinople w«re peaceable witnesacs of their proceed- 
ings until tbey began to abuse and maltreat tbe women of 
a harem belonging to some obnoxious individual. Then, 
indeed, their constitutional apathy deserted them, and a 
long and bloody contest ensued between tbe citizens and 
the Janizaries. 

Independent of the above-mentioned sources of revenue, 
the government derives no inconsiderable sum iroia the 
bcratch, or capitatioo-tox, which is levied upon all its 
rayahs, or subjects, not musgulmans. This includes Arme- 
nians, Greclcs, Jews, and, if we are not mbinformed, Bulga- 
rians. They pay an annual sum, varying from <Hie to three 
dollars per head. IT, as Hosscl intimates, there are six 
milli ftn« of rayahs in European Turkey alone, the revenue 
from this source must be very great Independent of this 
tax, which is said to bo one of protection, the rayahs, on 
account of their being exempted from the ojxjration of llie 
Turkish law with regard to tithes, pay a sort of inoMoe- 
tax, which is very onerous, and must, from its nature, be 
very arbitrary. It amounts to nearly tea per cent, upon 



HIOITCIIES OF TURKEV. 209 

their earnings, or v^hat is supposed to be the amount of their 
earnings, in trade or conunerce. In one of the pachalika 
I was informed, by a Jew, that his nation alone, in a single 
town, paid 100,000 piastres annually for this tax, besides 
other exactions dependent upon the whim and caprice of 
the local authorities. For instance, upon the arrival of a 
new merigce, or governor, his nation were admitted to the 
high honour of feasting and entertaining, for three days, 
his excellency, and this usually cost them about 25,000 
piastres. The Greeks and Armenians take theur turn in 
entertaining and paying, in the same manner. I was 
told, by a person who had the best right to be informed 
OD the subject, that in one of the provincial towns permission 
had been granted by the governor to a rayah to dock out and 
build upon the water, exacting, of course, a valuable con- 
sideration for this permission. Shortly after the captain 
pacha, or his agent, entered the port, and inquired by what 
authority encroachments were made on his domain^ — for he 
is understood to exercise all dominion and power over every 
spot washed by the sea^ — when the unfortunate rayah, to 
save his property, was again compelled to pay a handsome 
fee to tlic captain. pacha. These are not solitary cases of 
oppression exercised over the rayahs, and it is really mar- 
vellous that they can exist under it ; but exist they do, and 
appear to be quite as prosperous as their torpid Turkish 
masters. I have frequently asked these Greeks, Armenians, 
and Jews why they would persist in remaining in a country 
where the fruits of their industry were so severely, and 
often capriciously, taxed. The ilsual answer was, that 
they would be compelled to pay taxes anywhere, and that, 
after all, there was no such country on the face of the 
globe as tlicir own. They are, it seems, willing slaves, 
and it is only when smarting under the recent infliction of 
a tax that they tliink of miumuring against their masters. 
It was stated thai the government have lalioured zeal- 
ously, for the last few years, to lighten the burdens upon 



SIO ubtchbb or tosuv. 

the layabs, and to correct the maay ctron which arise 
from the unjuat and impc^tic mode of collecting the 
reveaue. This measure is, c^ course, vehetneotly opposed 
by the pachas and other high t^cers, and it requires the 
most -vigorous and decided measures to carry it into exe- 
cution. Refonn, indeed, seems to be the order of the day, 
and a recent decree of the sultan, aimed at the faig^ officers 
of his court, has given very general satiBfaction. One of 
the weak poinU of the ori^tal character is a fondness fiw 
show and parade, for brilliant dresses and a numerous 
retinue. This, of course, entails much expena^ wfaidi, 
when th» individual is invested with office, nuvt be pro- 
vided for by official exactions. The sultan has directed 
the grandees of his court to dismiss the "lazy vennin of their 
hall," and to retrench the number of their chokadan, or 
running footmen. These are now, by an imperial decree, 
limited to four, and so powerful has been the impression 
produced, that I have seen the highest dignitaries of the 
empire passing through the streets on horseback attended 
only by a single footman. The sultan himself sets an ex- 
ample of becoming simplicity, and, except upon state occa* 
sions, is scarcely to be distinguished from his attendants. 
It is said that, like Ilaroun cl Raschid, he often perambu- 
lates the streets inc^^ito ; but the disguise must be very 
complete tlmt would conceal his remarkable features. 



OF TURKEY. 311 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Khau — Cashmere Shawls — Baysesteeo — ^Boint Colimm — Egyptian Obe- 
lisk — Brazen Tripod — Column of Porphyrogenitos — ^Mosque of Achmet 
— Tooibay of Abdulhamid—Aneedote— Humanity to the Brate 



Thb khans in Constantinople form a conspicuous fea- 
ture in this oriental capital. These massy buildings origi- 
nated in the benevolence of wealthy individuals, who raised 
them for the accommodation of travelling merchants. The 
difliculty of procuring lodgings, or a suitable place to dis- 
play and vend their wares, formerly rendered such buildings 
peculiarly necessary, and a trifling bakshish, or present, 
to the porter was all the compensation required. In the 
course of events, trade was managed in a different manner, 
and these khans became individual or corporate property. 
Merchants now rent apartments in them, and many become 
permanent residents. I stepped into one of them this 
rooming to execute a commission with which I had been 
charged upon leaving home. It is a noble building of stone, 
and fireproof^ 300 feet long, and 100 broad, built round a 
court, three stories in height, with open galleries in the 
interior. There arc said to be no less than 180 of these 
khans in the city of various sizes. 

The ground-floor of the khan which we entered was oc- 
cupied by a row of cofiee-shops. In the second floor was 
a rich display of jewelry, while the third contained an 
endless variety of Cashmere shawls. The demand for 
these articles veas formerly greater among the Turks than 
at present ; for no one of any consideration could be seen 
in public without an expensive turban of Cashmere, and 
another to be used as a girdle. Unfortunately for the 
lovers of the picturesque, these expensive fooleries arc now 



813 ESETCnSS OF TEREET. 

generally laid aside by good society, anrl of course their 
value is much diminished. We were shown superb shawls 
at the price of 9300, which five years ago would have readily 
sold for 6800 or 91000. The most valuable, perhaps we 
should say the most costly, of these shawls are twelve 
feet by four feet wide, and of so fine a texture as to pan 
through the compass of a iinger-ring. They are constantly 
kept in screw presses, which preserves their gloss, and 
gives them a new and fresh appearance. This khan is oa 
ground so uneven that we passed out of its third stoiy 
immediately into the street. 

Not fiir from this is a baysesteen, which term originally 
designated a cloth market, but the building is now devoted 
to other purposes. It seems to be occupied chiefly by dmg- 
gists, and diiTers from other bazars only in being of a more 
lofty and solid construction. These, together with the ba- 
zars, arc under the guard of kayhaiyas, or officers appointed 
by government, and are considered, particularly the bay- 
sesteen, to be places of such safe dcpositc, that the Turks 
are in the habit of entrusting there their most valuable 
eflccts. The property of widows and orphans is likewise 
frequently placed there for safe keeping. 

Our course next led us past an unsightly monument, 
called, very appropriately, the Burnt Column.* It is said 
to have been originally 130 feet high, and was surmounted 
by a statue of the Trojan Apollo, which represented the 
Emperor Constantinc himself. The (Irecks have a tradi* 
tion that Constantine deposited under its base a nail of the 
true cross, and a bit of bread which formerly belonged to 
one of the five miraculous barley loaves ; hence it was 
formerly considered as a sacred spot, and every one 
who rode past, not even excepting the emperor liimscif, 
alighted to pay it homage. The iiase is of while mar- 
ble, eighteen feet high, and apparently rircnlar : but 

■ l>r, in TiiTkis)i, Dnykililnnli. tlic niiml StotiP. 



SKETCnE8 OF TURKEY. 213 

this wc could not determine, as it has been walled up 
ever since tlie great fire of 1779 in this neighbourhood. 
The column itself is composed of solid blocks of red por- 
I^yry or jasper, each about ten feet high, and twelve feet in 
diameter, and, when perfect, must have been one of the 
most imposing structures of its kind in the world. It is now 
a ruined, tottering mass, kept together by several iron 
bands, and blackened and defaced by frequent conflagra- 
tions. On the summit is a marble capital, carved above, 
with an inscription which, upon the authority of Wheeler, 
is said to purport that it was repaired by one of the Com- 
neni. This worthy traveller must have been endowed with 
extraordinary powers of vision, for none of us could deci- 
pher a single letter of the inscription from any spot in its 
vicinity. Having satisfied our curiosity hf examining this 
remarkable monument, which has withstood repeated con- 
flagrations, and the corroding influence of fifteen centuries, 
we hastened to the chief object of our visit 

The vivid description of the Hippodrome in the pages of 
Gibbon had left such an impression, that, when my com- 
panion exclaimed ** This is the Atmcidan," I could scarcely 
credit the evidence of my senses ; and yet here was the Egyp- 
tian obelisk, and its miserable rival the column of Porphyro- 
genitus, and between them the remnant of the brazen tripod 
from which were once delivered the oracles of DelphL There 
could be no mistake, for these were the monuments which 
established its identity. Wo were in a small unpaved 
and sandy area, 350 paces long, and nearly 100 paces broad, 
and surrounded by high buildings, which had the eflcct of 
making its actual dimensions appear still less. Under the 
Greek emperors it was termed the Hippodrome, and was 
tlien much larger, for the burnt column was contained 
within its precincts. Careless travellers have given it 
various names, such as Ocmeidan, or the place of arrows, 
and Etmcidan, or the place of meat ; but its true appel- 
lation is Atr/ieidanj or place for horses, a translation of 



214 SKETCUMB or TVKKET. 

its Grecian name.* On its south side it is bounded by the 
peristyle, or screen of Achmet Djammissi* or the magnifi- 
cent mosque of Achmet, and on the opposite side by large 
buildings, of which the most oonspicuous are the menagerie 
and the palace of Ibrahim Fkudm, now the head-quarters of 
the cavalry stafil Towards the eastern e xtr e mit y of the 
Atmeidan is the JSgyptian obelisk, said to have been 
brought from Rome byConstantinewhenhelaid the founda- 
tion of the Eastern Empire. This superb monolith is said 
to be sixty feet high, and, at its base, is twehe feet 
in diameter ; it is of the red Eigyptian granite, and the 
carved hieroglyphs look as fresh and as sharp as if they 
were cut but yesterday. The specific gravity of this 
granite is 2.65, and hence its approximative weight must 
be 100 tons. Oib is naturally led to inquire how such an 
enormous mass could have been transported in the first 
place to Rome, and subsequently to Constantinople. The 
small size of the vessels of that era, and the imperiect ac- 
quaintance of the ancients with navigation, would seem to 
preclude the idea of its having been transported in a single 
vessel, and the union of two or more vessels appears scarcely 
more probable. Chamock, in his History of Naval Archi- 
tecture, seems, however, to loan towards the idea of a large 
vessel having been employed for this purpose. He men- 
tions tliat Constantino had caused an immense obelisk, 115 
feet high, and weighing 1500 tons, to be floated down the 
hill from Heliopolis to Alexandria, intending to adorn with it 
liis new seat of empire. Death, however, frustrated his in- 
tentions, and his son caused it to be transported to Rome. 
** It is to be regretted," adds Chamock, ** that no particulars 
have been given of this vessel, which in size must have 
exceeded any ship of the line now in existence.** We 
might add, that if such a vessel had been constructed, 

* The Ocmeidan U on the other side of the Golden Hom behind Tatavola, 
and » still used for the exercises of the bow. The Etmeidan is in the centrs 
of the capntal, where the Janizaries formerly received their rations. 



8XBTCI1B8 OF TURKEY. 215 

an account of such an Herculean task would undoubtedly 
have been transmitted to posterity. The immense rafts of 
timber from the Black Sea floating down the Bosphorus, 
under the guidance of several ships, and capable of sustain- 
ing thousands of tons, suggested the idea that a similar con- 
trivance had been adopted in the transportation of this and 
other oSelisks. 

The supposed labour of quarrying and preparing these 
gigantic monuments has been much overrated. The me- 
chanical skill required was inconsiderable^ and the manner of 
operating, in all probability, has for ages been the same. 
In our own day we have an opportunity of ascertaining the 
amount of labour expended upon a similar monument in 
Russia. The monolith erected in honour of the Emperor 
Alexander is twelve feet in diameter, and eighty-four feet 
high. This required the labour of six hnndrod men for 
two years. 

In the work of Champollion it is remarked, that a transla- 
tion of an Egyptian obelisk by Hermapion has been handed 
down to us in the text of Ammius MarccUinus, which was 
supposed to relate to some obelisk at Rome.* Thifl text 
has been applied in several ingenious ways to the obelisks 
at Rome, by various persons who have attempted from it 
to form a system of Egyptian writing. Champollion was 
the first to prove that this translation could not apply to 
any obelisk now in Rome. With a view of ascertaining 
whether this mi^t not be the very obelisk alluded to by 
Hermapiony I copied the various cartouches on its sides, in 
order to compare them with the hieroglyphics of Cham- 
pollion. The cartouche on the south side agrees nearly 
with the royal title of the first king of the twenty-second 
djmasty of the Pharaohs. There is also the royal title of 
Sesoitris, the first king of the nineteenth dynasty of the 

* Thtfe obeliftlui w«re plaoed netf the portal* of tbe ancient Egyptian 
temples. Their inscriptiona mention b/ what kingi they had been con- 
structed, and sometimes a detail of the execution of the gbettaka Ihemsetres. 



216 



sKrrciu& or TtruKE^'. 



cr^. 




E. 



W. 



N. 



S. 



Cnwoctas •• ibe UbelHk oT Che 

flianuihs, who flourished as a conqueror 1500 years R.C. 
This latter title agrees with tlie translation of Hermapioii. 
It is reasonable, then, to infer that this obelisk may have 
fjeen erected by Sesonchis in honour of Scsostris. Tliis 
Sesonchis was a warlike prince, and high-priest of the sun, 
nnd his name has cr>mc down to us under various aliases. 
He has F)een called Sesak, Sheschack, Shischak, Shoushac, 
and Shishak, under which last nanic he is mentioned in tlic 
Holy Scriptures : 1 Kings xiv. 25 ; 2 Chron. xii. 3. With 
an army rx^m posed of 1200 chariots, CO,(X)0 horse, and an 
innumcndjle infantry of Lybians (Lubbims), Troglodytes 
(Sukkijms), and Ethiopians, he sacked Jerusalem, then 
ruled by Kehoboam, a son of Solomon. As a contemporary 
with Rehoboam, Sesonchis flourished 1000 years before the 
Christian era, and therefore this obelisk is more than 2800 
years old. An additional evidence of its antiquity, if one 
can be desired, is, that it contains in the cartouche on the 
eastern side two signs which I do not find alluded to by 
(jhampollion. 

The obelisk rests upon four pieces of bronze, which, in 
their turn, rest upon an enormous block of marble, wliosc 
clumsily-sculptured sides contrast strangely with the severe 
iiirn|»licity of tlie shaft which it supports. The sculptures 
re[ire8cnt the various games which were formerly exhibitixl 
on this sfiot ; and ttie Greek aiid Latin inscriptions purport 



nvrcHss ov tuskxt. 217 

that this huge monolith was raised from the ground and 
placed in its present position, in the space of thirty-two days, 
by Proclus, prefect of the Pretorium, by command of the 
mighty and invincible Theodosius. Beneath this pedestal, 
and almost buried in the earth, it is attempted to be ex- 
plained, by several rude drawings, how this obelisk was 
elevated, but it is far from being clear and satisfactory ; 
and it may be doubted whether such drawings, even if ac- 
companied by a specification, would be received at our 
patent-office. Lady Montagu, who has frequently been 
our delightful cicerone through Stamboul, first called our 
attention to these sculptures, and it was not until after re- 
peated visits to this place that we were enabled to detect 
them. The mention of this lady's name leads me to allude 
to her conjecture with regard to the hieroglyphics on the 
Egyptian obelisks. She says that they were most probably 
learned puns, and the discoveries of Champollion show that 
her ladyship was not wide of the mark. The marble 
pedestal, when compared with the obelisk which it sup- 
ports, is but an affair of yesterday, for it is scarcely more 
than 1500 years of age. 

At a short distance from the obelisk stands the twisted 
brazen column, which in the neighbourhood of gigantic 
monuments appears to be comparatively insignificant ; and 
yet its histor}^ teems with interest. It is a hollow casting 
of bronze, now twelve feet high. It represents three 
twisted columns, and is for its age and as a specimen of the 
arts the most authentic monument of antiquity in existence. 
There is some doubt expressed by travellers whether its 
original position has not been reversed, but its gradual taper 
upwards as it now stands, disproves this idea. It formerly 
terminated at the top in three serpents' heads, and Gibbon 
relates that when the victorious Mohammed entered the 
city, either flushed with the excitement of victory, or desir- 
ous of exhibiting liis personal strength, he struck off one of 
the serpent's heads at a single blow. 



S18 8KETCHS8 OF TUUCKT. 

This brazen column once belonged to the PenianBv who 
assigned to it the highest antiquity. It was captured firom 
them, with many other trophies, at the battle of Plataea, and 
formed for centuries the celebrated tripod from whence the 
priestess delivered her oracles at Delphi. Some have sup- 
posed it to be one of the brazen serpents alluded to in Ex- 
odus, but without going so far back it may be reasonably 
supposed to have been at least 500 years in the possession 
of Uie Persians. Upon this h3rpothesis, we are now lodui^ 
upon a specimen of human art which has lasted for neazly 
thirty centuries.* 

At the farther extremity of the Hippodrome is an obelisk 
of coarse limestone, now in a very dilapidated condition* 
It was erected by Constantinc Forphyrogenitus, and prob- 
ably intended as a rival of its Eg}'ptian neighbour ; if so, 
it has been a miserable failure, and from present appear- 
ances it must soon tumble to pieces. It was formerly cov- 
ered with bronze plates, similar to the column in the Place 
Vendome at Paris. These, however, have long since dis- 
appeared, and a heap of rubbish around the base nearly 
conceals a long Latin inscription, which was intended to 
confer immortality upon its founder. 

Near this column are two trees which possess a modem 
historic interest. Mustapha, suniamed the Bairactar or 
standard-bearer, a man of singular daring, had stormed the 
seraglio in 1807, deposed the usurper, and placed the pres- 
ent sultan on the throne. He was made grand vizier, and 
attempted to suppress the influence and insolence of the 
Janizaries. In the bloody contest which ensued he was 
overpowered, and retreated to a powder magazine, where 

* In the church of St. Ambroi^io at Milan is a similar column, which ii 
contended by the local historians to be the identical serpent of Moses ; but, 
as Forsyth observes, the sole authority is a bishop, who travelled in the bladi- 
est age of legend, and as the prelate contradicts Scripture itself, we may 
furty question whether he really brought the column from Conftan- 
tinople. 



8KBTCBS8 OF TURKST. 210 

he blew himself and his colleagues into the air. After the 
massacre, his body was recognised, and the Janizaries^ in 
their blind rage, suspended by the feet, with the head down- 
wards, between these two trees, the disfigured and mutilated 
corpse of the brave and faithful Bairactar. 

It has already been mentioned that one of the sides of 
the Hippodrome is bounded by the peristyle of the royal 
mosque of Achmed. This peristyle forms a vaulted galleryi 
the arcades of which are supported by granite and porphy-* 
ritic columns of large dimensions. In the centre of the 
court are fountains, for the ablutions which precede every 
act of worship among the Mohammedans. We did not 
attempt to enter, but through the windows we were enabled 
to perceive a vast matted h^lly and from the ceiling depended 
thousands of little coloured glass lamps and ostriches' eggs 
to within seven or eight feet of the floor. With the general 
form of the mosques, the Turks have also borrowed from 
the Greeks these puerile decorations, which greatly impair 
the otherwise splendid interior. These childish ornaments 
may be seen in the oldest Greek ciiurches of Asia at the 
present day. When the mosques are open upon public 
occasions for evening prayers, the glare from these myriads 
of lamps is said to be aliiiust overpowering, nnd to exhibit 
the whole of the interior in its most imposing form. 

Near this mosque is the toorbay, or mausoleum, of its 
illustrious founder. There are several of these distributed 
over various parts of the city, and one which belongs to 
the present reigning family merits a particular description. 
It is a marble edifice, built in the oriental style, with gilded 
gratings across the windows. In the interior are a number 
of coffins, surmounted by turbans and covered by Cashmere 
shawls, which are said to be of immense value. From the 
ceiling were suspended costly silver and gold lamps, which 
are kept continually burning, while a lad on his knees was 
whining through his nose a dismal canticle, analogous prob- 
ably to the service in other countries for the repose of the 



aw IKITCB» (Mr TintKBT. 

dcsd. Unlike most moDUmeots of royal Tanity or osteD< 
tation, these mausolea are of some utility to the living, for 
to each of them is attached a public fouotain for the benefit 
of the poor. 

In approaching Constantinople from the Sea of Maimora* 
the Mosque of Achmcd, with its six long and slender mina- 
rets piercing the akies, is one of the first objects whicb 
designates the imperial city. It is said that to the court of 
this mosque a number of cats are supported by a bequest 
of Mie of the sultans. Tliis, however, lilte many othec 
travellers' stories, although frequently repeated. Is entirely 
destitute of foundation. The story, nevertheless, is loo 
good to be lost, and reminds us of another which is equolfy 
well attested. In a large building devoted to religious pur- 
poses, we were once shown two plump, well-fed crowi, 
upon w hose healtli deiicndod, according to our reverend 
guide, the welfare aiid safety of the city. He related, with 
the most scriuus and sincere air in the world, a tremendous 
cock-and-bull story, too tedious and too stupid to be re- 
peated, how closely the safety of the city was associated with 
the health of these two crows. It was, in fact, the last rem- 
nant of the ancient augur}' derived from birds. The reader 
will nntnrally feel much compassion for the gross ignorance 
and superstition of the Turks, — but the anecdote belongs to 
another countnr'. It occurrc<l in a passably enlightened 
community of Christian Europe, namely, among the Pop- 
luguese, and in the great church of San Domingo in 
Lisbon. We saw the crows, heard the story from the 
lips of tiie priest, and for aught wc know to the con- 
trary, they are still the tutelary deities of the metropolis of 
Portugal. 

It is probable, however, that the story of the cat hospital 
ori^nated in the well-known humanity csercised by the 
Turks towards all the brute creation. We have already 
alluded to the myriads of sea-gulls and other aquatic birds 
which cover the Bosphorus, so tame and fearless that they 



SKETCHES OF TUBXET. 221 

"will scarcely move out of the way of an oar. Even the 
most prejudiced Frank will admit, while he scoffs at this 
ultra humane feeling, that the storks are capable of distin- 
guishing the Turk from the Greek or Jew; for they unhesi- 
tatingly build their nests upon the houses of the former, 
while they cautiously avoid approaching the dwellings of 
the latter. 

But we have wandered from the Hippodrome. Under 
the Greek emperors it was devoted to athletic sports and 
exercises ; under the French monarchy, to jousts, and tilts, 
add tournaments ; and in the hands of the Turks to the 
exercise of the short spear or jeered. Alas for the progress 
of reform ! tlie Hippodrome is now deserted, and the only 
remnant of Ottoman chivalry we saw, was a ragged lad 
kicking and whipping a sorry nag over the parched and 
solitary arena. 



222 SKETcms or tubkbt. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Lea Eaux Uouces — Engineer Barracks — Eyuub— Ancient Galleys — ^Brkki 
— Mounting Guard — Description of a Turkish Soldier — Power of the Sul- 
tan — Divan — The Olficers composing it — Excursion to the Black Sea — 
Cyanea or Symplcgades. 

We took a boat this morning in order to explore the 
upper part of the Golden Horn. The river Lycus, which 
is formed by the united streams of the Cydaris and Bar- 
byses, runs through a lovely valley, called by the Turks 
Kiat Hannay, on account of a paper manufactory which 
once existed there. The Frcn(!h residents term it la vallee 
des eaux douces, which the English Uamsbottums of Pera 
have traduced into the valley of sweet waters. We passed, 
on our right, the Koombcradjce Kooshlahsin, or the en- 
gineer barracks, and, on our left, the mosque of Eyoub, 
or Job, a disciple of the pn)phct, and whose bones were 
miraculously found here, and who is revered as the patron 
of Constantinople. It is the only mos(iue which strangers 
are not permitted to enter. The walls are said to be en- 
crusted with the rarest marbles, and the lloor covered with 
the richest carpets. There is prcscTved here a piece of 
striped brown and white marble, bearing the print of the 
prophet's foot. The tomb of the saint is surrounded by a 
balustrade of silver, and near it a well of miraculous 
water, which is drawn up in silver buckets, and presented 
to the faithful in vases of the same metal. In this 
mosque is preserved the sacred banner of the prophet, 
which we are informed is onlv unfurled on crreat occasions. 
On the distant heights above are the infantry barracks of 
the Ramuschitlek, where the sultan tor.»k up his residence 
during the recent war with Russia. 



lilt '^»-^>-i^r Wr Tossfii L j.xc i:"f ^oiimc* ^f^*"* 

« ^ ^ 

IDDK hLTt ':e»i l: }f;&«; :c IijnSi tcq5 bcribc!^ 43i v:k$ cvtt- 

Mraand 'b-:± 3:rn" ii.-.nsw !: », r*fjtttr«;^ :i? its Trarcsiess 

of Skr s^j^ifT.: It:G:::£:: ihz«sxML. Tbc >uii oq ^Kii 

titTicii wcT? OTcTtti wii Jewish aad ArnXMiian 
A* we prcoeev»i i>? nver I-veus Jwisviksi 
Id z leiTT creeL tAS^efiiilv aia^^iNi ajocu: it* b*nk* with 
picizresi/je briciyarisw These were ixM cxaciir xhe jvxM* 
ial i3:.i.rr« which 'iie pompixis dosc^ripiJoos of iraveih^w 
had k>i .15 : ;• anilciroTe. aad wo acconiindv eudcAr^Hin^i 
topkrk ur a linle isfonx^iivo nv*m 0*1^- cAili^x\by asking a 
few £>xi:elv o'jesiions xvsi^xrnxu: xhe d\HiK^$tio m;u)uinc^ 
tores. The r rlck5 are much s:r.al]er than ours. aiKi in tact 
RseiDbie in shiipe and sbe small ibt tiles. Thoy A^il at trom 
93 S7 10 #4 50 per thousand. In our £irthor pT\>4nvs$ up 
the stream the marshes disappear^, the vaiioy Ixx^aiiu^ nar* 
rower, and various dumps of majestic tives ga\-c a aMivsli* 
ing cooLoess and shade to this secluded $pot« which is pent up 
between barren hills. A summer-lnnise of the sultan, and 
the building which irives its name to tlw vallev, wore the onlv 
objects worthy attention, and we saw notliing to warrant 
the ecstacies of tourists, who have drawn largely u|H>n 
their imaginations in their descriptions of this place. Ttieir 
raptures would have been far l>etter bestowed upiHi Hix^n^ 
cair iscalessee, Bujnikdery, and a dozen other delis;htful val- 
leys which steal up from both shores of the Ri^sphonis. 

At a small wooden building, near tlH> water's odgt\ wlioro 
we stopped to take pipes and cotFco, wo witnessed a scene 
which, to veterans like ourselves in the New- York militia. 



12M 8XBTCBB8 

was exceedingly diverting. Two soldiers were stationed 
on guard at this spot, and, as their duty was not particu- 
larly burdensome, they were quickly kicking their heels 
over the bank, and endeavouring to inveigle some smaU 
fish (smaris), about the size of our killifish, out of the water. 
They could not, however, be accused of deserting their 
post, for their muskets were stuck up in the grass some two 
or three hundred yards off, doing duty for their masters. 
As the reports are very general that discontents exist 
among the soldiers, we requested our guide to sound these 
amateur fishermen on this subject They acknowledged 
that they were dissatisfied, but not on account of their pay^ 
which they considered handsome enough — ^whenever they 
were so lucky as to obtain it. But what they did grumble 
at, was to be compelled to mount guard with no other pro- 
vision than their ration of bread, and thev were then en- 
deavouring to supply the deficiency by fishing. Their tour 
of duty, however, they said, would expire in a few days, 
and upon their return to barracks they would be perfectly 
happy, for they would then receive their full ration both of 
bread and meat. These soldiers must have been luxurious 
dogs, to complain about the want of meat, for the labour- 
ing class, whose t(»il would seem to require a very sub- 
stantial fare, are satisfied with one meal a day, consisting 
of a small loaf of bread, and a piece of watermelon, or a 
few black and hitter olives. Upon examining the muskets 
of these soldiers, which they permitted us to do freely, we 
found them to be of Turkish manufacture. There was 
little to criticise, except that the stock of one musket was 
broken directly across, and held together by the extem- 
porary aid of a piece of rope, while the other was perfect 
in every respect, except tliat it wanted a trigger. Neither 
had Hints, but, as the countr}' is now in a state of profound 
repose and peace, these would be quite superfluous. 

One of the greatest difficulties to be overcome under 
the new army regulations, was to con<}uer the aversion of 



SKtTCRIB OF TDBKCT. 385 

the soldiery to mounting guard. Nothing appeared to 
them more ridiculous than to be compelled to walk, back- 
vards and forwards for several hours with a gun on their 
shoulders, just like the restless Franks ; and what to them 
Kemed to be the climax of absurdity, was, to keep up the 
same farce during the night In the good old times of the 
Janizaries, such puerilities as mounting guard were never 
dreamed of. Indeed, guards could then have been of do 
earthly use, for all the plundcrings and murders were mo- 
nopolized by those cul-throats themselves. The dress of 
the modern Turkish soldier has partaken of the general 
change which has occurred within the last ten years, and 
whatever it may have lost in picturesque efiect, it has cer- 
tainly gained in clTectiveness for military duty. Instead 
of loose slipshod slippers, he now wears stout serviceable 
shoes, securely fastened by leather strings. The huge 
balloon chaskkeers, wliich impeded his every movement, 
have given place to woollen trowscrs, still rather ample 
about the nctlier man, but not so targe as to prevent him 
from making a rapid charge upon the enemy, or from run- 




ning away. The glittering and flowing jubbec and bay- 
neesh arc wvll exchanged for a smart tight-bodied blue 
jacket, closely hooked in front, and allowing perfect free- 
dom to the limbs; while the turban, infinitely varied in 



226 0KETCHX8 OF TUIULKIT. 

shape and colour, often ragged, and frequently dirty, sug- 
gesting the idea of walking toadstools, has for ever disap- 
peared. In its place the soldier sports a tidy red cap, with 
a blue tassel gracefully depending from its crown. . With 
the exception of the cap, and the still lingering amplitude 
of trowsers, the Turkish soldiers could scarcely be distin- 
guished from the regulars of any European nation. The 
topegees, or artillery, wear a cylindrical military cap, and 
it was the wish of the sultan to have furnished it with a 
small rim in front, to protect the eye from the glare of the 
sun. This daring inn jvation was opposed, and success- 
fully too, by the ulemah, that learned corps from whence 
emanate all the law, physic, and religion of the country. 
It was argued that no true Mussulman could perform his 
devotions without touching his forehead to the ground, and 
the proposed leather projection would render this imprac- 
ticable. As no one happened to hit upon the idea that the 
cap might be turned around while at prayers, the sultan 
was compelled to give up the point, as he had previously 
done when it was attempted to induce the ulemah them- 
selves to abandon the turban. They replied that they 
were not boys, nor would they wear boys* caps, and ac- 
cordingly stuck manfully to the turban, in despite of the 
supposed absolute power of the Padir shah. Such anec- 
dotes would lead one to believe that the sultan is far from 
being a perfect despot, whose word is law, and who takes 
no other counsel than his own caprice. The learned Ali 
Bey, himself a Mussulman, and of course better acquamted 
than we can pretend to be with the interior affairs of this 
government, wrote in the following manner twenty-five 
years ago, during the reign of Mustapha^ the predecessor of 
the present sultan : •* There is no greater slave in the world 
than the grand seignior. His steps, his movements, his 
words, throughout the whole of tlie year, and in all the events 
of his life, are measured and determined by the code of the 
court. He can do neither more nor less than is prescribed 



8KBTCHX8 OF TURKBT. 287 

for him. Reduced to the condition of an automaton, his 
actions are determined, like the result of mechanical im- 
pulse, by the code, the divan, the ulemah, and the Janiza- 
ries." Circumstances have, however, entirely changed 
since that period. The sultan now on the throne has dis- 
played a resolution and energy of character totally different 
from the timid and irresolute policy pursued by his prede- 
cessors. The Janizaries have been exterminated. The 
code, the divan, and the ulemah still remain ; but the latter 
occupy, as if ominous of their future destiny, the ancient 
palace of the agha of the Janizaries, and, except upon 
unimportant points, the sultan has made them understand 
that he is not to be trifled witL The divan has likewise 
undergone some modifications, and, under the name of 
council of state, assbts in determining and arranging the 
affairs of the empire. The composition of the council is 
variously stated ; but the following, for which we were in- 
debted to a Turkish ofiicer, may be depended upon as 
mainly correct The number varies from fifteen to twenty- 
five, according to the pleasure of the sultan, and the exi- 
gences of the moment Thus, the Beylichi Effendi has 
been recently taken into the council by a special order, and 
when information is wanted on particular points, the Esnaffs, 
or heads of the different corporations, ape summoned to 
attend. The council at present consists of, 

1. The Grand Vizier, now at Adrianople. 

2. The Kaimakan Pacha, deputy of the Vizier in his 
absence. 

3. The Seraiskier Pacha, generalissimo of the troops. 

4. The Capudan Pacha, lord high admiral. 

5. The Reis Effendi, minister of the interior and of 
foreign affairs. 

6. The Katib Effendi, secretary. 

7. The Beylichi Effendi, minister of commerce. 

8. Beylichi Keischedar, secretary to minister of com- 
merce. 



338 8K8TCHS8 OV TUBXSr* 

9. Terse Ammani Bey, secretary of the navy. 

10. DefterdarEffendi,secretary of the treasury orchancellor. 

11. Achmedjee EfTendi, keeper of the signet. 

12. Mektubjee Eflfendi. 

13. Teschrefdjee Efiendi, master of ceremonies. 

14. Selictar Aga, sword-bearer (office now abolished). 

15. Reis Keischedar, chief purse-bearer. 

16. Kayar Bey, assistant to the kaimakan. 

17. Sirkatib EiTendi, private secretary of the sultan. 

Of this council the most influential members at present 
are the minister of the interior and the private secretary of 
the sultan. From the diflcrent stories in circulation it ap- 
pears that the Turkish cabinet is the scene of various con* 
tending interests, and is far from being the "unit,** M 
anxiously desired in other governments. For instance, the 
present Reis Effendi Pertef went out of office in February, 
1830. Ill health was the public explanation ; although 
others asserted that he gave deep oflence by allowing the 
favourable moment of treaty with the Russians to pass 
away, and permitting himself to be made the instrument of 
the schismatic Armenians against their brethren. He is also 
accused of being in the English interest ; but charges of 
this nature must necessarily be extremely vague. He is, 
however, termed, by the more enlightened Osmanlis, a 
bigoted fanatic, a real Turk, who opposes secretly every 
measure which is proposed for the best interests of the 
country. There are rumours that he will soon be com- 
pelled again to resign. 

The secretary of the sultan, or as he is generally better 
known, Mustapha, is a man of singular activity and per- 
severance. He is the chief favourite, and, fortunately for 
the country, his views are directed to the advancement of 
its prosperity and welfare. He is said to possess immense 
wealth, and to be actively engaged in commerce. Others, 
however, assert that in his transactions he employs the 
funds of the sultan, and acts solely as his agent. He has 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 229 

already distinguished himself in his various efforts to im- 
prove the agriculture and manufactures of Turkey by the 
introduction of foreign farmers and mechanics, and is a 
worthy coadjutor of the sultan in his several plans for ame- 
liorating the condition of the poor.* 

Tuesday. Tempted by the appearance of quails in the 
market, and the exaggerated report of their abundance^ 
we were induced to go in search of them on the shores of the 
Black Sea. The day was very unfavourable. The wind 
came down in heavy blasts from the Euxine, accompanied 
by such frequent and copious showers of rain that we were 
thoroughly drenched ; and upon our arrival were compelled 
to take refuge several hours in a stone hut, which had been 
abandoned by its former inhabitants. The season has just 
begun for quail shooting ; as these birds have commenced 
their annual migrations from Russia to Anatolia, Syria, and 
Egypt. After crossing the Black Sea, they arrive so much 
exhausted by their long flight that they are scarcely able 
to move, and are then easily taken. Repose for one night, 
or a part of a day, seems sufficient to restore their ex- 
hausted strength, and they immediately resume their flight. 

Although this region is much elevated and exposed to 
the damp and piercing north winds, the vineyards were in 
the most flourishing condition: the vines were literally 
breaking down under the weight of the most delicious 
grapes ever tasted. The vineyards were cultivated with 
the greatest care ; every weed had been carefully extir- 
pated, and the loose rich soil had been worked to a great 
depth. The soil results from the decomposition of the 
argillaceous rock already alluded to, which forms the 
substratum of this region. On some of the eminences, it 
was remarked that this rock appeared to pass into a com- 
pact bluish mass, resembling trap ; but it is probable that 

* Mustapha has since been dismissed from Constantinople, and honoured 
with a pachalik. 



these were unconfonnable masses of basah, and dus is 
strengthened by the general volcanic character (rf* the mij^ 
cent rocks. A few miserable birds, soch as a species of 
sazicola and a couple of shrikes (L. nt/ia and cofficrjo) were 
the only trophies of our day's sport ; and we bent our steps 
to Phanerakiy the ancient Panium, a miserable, but pic- 
turesque village at the mouth oiibe Bosphorus. Here wo 
endeavoured to procure some refreshments, but were eoni* 
pelled to restrict ourselves to bread and water, both eK« 
ceDent, it must be acknowledged ; althbu^ in our wet wai 
jaded condition a more stimulating diet would hav« 
highly acceptable* The rock here is a black volcanic 



phjrry, often containing imbedded masses of other vokuil^ 
rocks, and in many places assuming the appearance orlT 
black slag recently from the furnace. This rock extends 
on both sides of the Bosphorus for several miles down, and 
also forms the small island Cyanea, or Symplegades. This 
lies about 400 yards from the European shore, with whidi 
it was formerly connected, as we could plainly percdve 
from the heights of Phaneraki. From our elevated positioD 
we could distinctly trace the reef, or sandbar, over which 
the sea was now breaking with great fury. This island, 
lying near the mouth of the Bosphorus, was formerly much 
dreaded by seamen, and may possibly be an object of terror 
at the present day. It is mentioned by the earliest writen^ 
and is memorable as the spot where Jason was ship- 
wrecked on his return voyage with the golden fleece. This 
splendid tradition, we may be allowed to insinuate, was 
nothing more nor less than a solemn attempt to commemo- 
rate the daring enterprise of the first speculator in the wool- 
trade, and history confirms this conjecture, for the shores 
of the Black Sea furnished this important article of trade 
from the earliest times. 

The island itself is one irregular mass of black rock, 
transmuted by modem poets into the '' Blue Symplegades,** 
and copied from the ancient name Cyanea. Upon its sum- 



^*y. 



aXBTCHBB OF TTBSBT. ftSl 

mil there stood about 100 years ago a Corinthian column, 
■with an inscription dedicated to the Emperor Augustus. 
The column has disappeared, and tlie inscription has been 
defaced by idle visiters. Nothing more remains but the 
pedestal, wliich is of white marble, about five leet high and 
ten in circumference. Festoons of laurel leaves with rams* 
heads arc still to be seen on tlic pedestal, which is supposed, 
and with great probability, to be of remote antiquity. It 
is conjectured to have been an altar, or sacred spot, where 
the seaman either deposited propitiatory offerings for a for- 
tunate voyage, or offered up grateful sacrilices to the " un- 
known god" for his safe return. 

The wind, which had blown with great violence during 
the whole day, increased towards Rvening to a perfect gale, 
and gavo ua an ojiportunity of testing the properties of our 
■ix-oared caik. Almost every wave threatened to over- 
whelm UB ; but she floated on the surface like an egg-sliell, 
and we reached home late in the evening, almost famished, 
and quite drenched to the skin. 



r^ 



StS 8K>rCHE8 OF TUBMJiy. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Sultan Mahmoad — Deposition of his Predecessor — Narrow Escape of Mah- 
moud — ^His Personal Appearance — Final extinction of the Janizarifl*— 
Waltzing Denrises — Bonneval — His eventful History. 

Learnino that the sultan would perform his deTOtions 
this day at the mosque of Beshiktash, we proceeded 15 that 
village, in order to have a view of the Commander of Ihft 
Faithful. Like his royal cousins in other countries, hft^P 
exemplary in his attention to the externals of religion, af 
an example to his subjects. He scarcely ever visits the^ 
same mosque twice in succession, but it is always easy to 
ascertain the day beforehand at what mosque he will pay 
his devotions. On our arrival at the village we found the 
street crowded. One side was occupied by a line of sol- 
diers, while the other was filled with a promiscuous crowd 
of men, women, and children. We took our station in the 
shop- window of an Armenian cabinet-maker — and while we 
are waiting for his majesty, let us while away the time in 
sketching his history. 

Mahmoud is the son of the Sultan Abdulhamid, and there 
is a vague report that his mother was a French-woman, 
who by some odd casualty found her way into the royal 
harem. It is probable, however, that this story originated 
in the fondness which Mahmoud has always displayed for 
foreign improvements. It is fair to infer that there is no 
foundation for this story, from the simple fact that the sultan 
was unacquainted with the French languairc, when he 
undertook to learn it thoroughly a few years ago. Upon 
the death of his father in 1789, according to the Turkish 
law of succession, his cousin Selirn, as tlie oldest surviving 



8KSTCI1E8 OF TUEKBY. 288 

male heir, ascended the throne. In the various attempts 
made by this able and virtuous prince to improve the 
condition of his people, he was continually thwarted by 
the turbulent and ferocious Janizaries ; and at length, in 
1807, was compelled to resign. His place was filled by 
his cousin Mustapha the Fourth, the brother of the present 
sultan. The character of Mustapha was marked by feeble- 
oe^ and indecision, and his reign was short and bloody. 
The events which led to his downfall are so- distinctly and 
gnphically related by Hobhouse, that no apology will be 
necQMBry for transferring his account to our own pages. 
^ mustapha, Pacha of Rudshuk, retained in the surname 

«rfiairactar (the ensign) a memorial of the humble rank 
lich he had held in the Turkish armies, and carried about 
with him, affixed as it were to his person, a visible instance 
of that exaltation of merit of which Turkish history can 
furnish so many and such extraordinary examples. He 
was rude and illiterate, but of a vigorous genius, which 
supplied the expedients as well as the suggestions of ambi- 
tion, and rising with every exigency, proved equal to the 
creation and the accomplishment of the most daring pro- 
jects. After repeatedly distinguishing himself in the armies 
of the empire, he attracted the notice of Selim, and was 
hcmoured with a pachalik. It was the boast of Bairactar 
that he owed every thing to the personal regard of the 
iultan, and his subsequent conduct proved that he respected 
Selim as his patron and his friend. From the moment he 
was informed of the deposition of Selim, it appears that 
he formed the bold design of seizing upon the government, 
and convinced of the pernicious measures of the Janizaries, 
or seeing no other way of raising himself than by depress- 
ing that lawless body, he determined upon opposing the 
hardy troops of the provinces to the enervated militia of 
Constantinople. Accordingly, ho collected a force of nearly 
40,000 men, composed chiefly of Albanians irom the garri- 
sons of Roumelia, and marching to Constantinople, he en- 

n n 




284 SKBTCHKS OF TUBKBY. 

camped on the plains of Davoot Pacha, four miles from the 
walls of the city. He convoked the chief men of the em- 
pire, and depositing the banner of Mohammed, which he 
had unfurled to give sanction and support to his enterprise, 
made them swear to the gradual abolition of the Janizaries, 
and a restoration of the good order and tranquillity of the 
state. Even the semblance of power was transferred firom 
the seraglio to the camp at Davoot Pacha, for the minister 
of the Porte and the foreign missions at Pera, directed their 
visits of ceremony to the camp of the victorious general, 
who, without any acknowledged title or specific offiig was 
thus for several mondis in the full possession of the inqperial 
power. But the pacha, aware that the Mussulmans, a< 
tomed to revere the representative of their prophet, mi| 
experience a renewal of pity for tlieir degraded sovereign, 
resolved upon the elevation of a sultan who, in return for a 
crown, might render his authority legitimate, and give a 
sanction to his ambition. 

" The 28th of July, 1808, was fixed upon by Mustapba 
for a hunting expedition to the forests of Belgrade, and it 
was determined by Bairactar to enter tlie seraglio on the 
same day, during the absence of the Grand Seignior, and» 
preventing his return to tlie palace, finally to exclude him 
from the throne. Selim was yet alive in those apartments 
of the seraglio which the crimes and misfortunes of the 
Ottomans have set apart for the confmement of their de- 
throned princes ; and it was the preservation of the sultan, 
whom he resolved to restore, that prompted him to attempt 
by stratagem tliat which he might have accomplished by 
force. Unfortunately the secret of his intentions was not 
confined to his own breast, but was intrusted to several 
ministers of the divan, and the grand vizier, though a friend, 
was suspected of having betrayed him to the sultan ; for 
on the appointed day, when Bairactar marched into the 
city, he found the gates of the seraglio closed, tlie pages 



SKBTCHES OF TURKEY. 285 

and body-guard under arms, and every preparation for a 
determined resistance. 

'* The victorious rebel, disappointed, but not intimidated, 
gave orders for an immediate assault The contest lasted 
only a short time, but the interval was fatal to Selim* On 
the sound of the first shot, the emissaries of the sultan 
were despatched to his apartment, where they found, as is 
reported, the dethroned monarch at his devotions, and 
attempted to surprise him while in the attitude of prayer. 
He discerned tlieir purpose, and before the bowstring could 
be fitted to his neck wounded one of the mutes with his 
handjiar ; but being thrown upon his back was overpowered 
and instantly strangled. From the murder of Selim, the 
executioners proceeded to the apartments of Mahmoud, 
the youngest son of Abdulhamid, and the only remaining 
prince of tlic blood royal. There was still some hopes for 
the sultan in the eventual deatli of his brother. Selim was 
no more ; the rebels, even the audacious Bairactar himself, 
uwould respect the last of the Ottoman race. The mutes 
rushed into the chamber of the confined prince, but Mah- 
noud was nowhere to be found; the fond fidelity of a 
slave had concealed him in the furnace of a bath. The 
feeble contest continued under the walk, and the assailants 
thundered at the gate, while the search for the prince was 
prosecuted with redoubled eagerness and anxiety. The 
place of his concealment had alone escaped the scrutiny, 
and the fate of the monarchy depended ufon whether or 
not the gates should be forced before the royal prisoner was 
discovered. What must have been the feelings of Mah- 
moud, what the sensations of his faithful slave, when the 
shout of the Albanians proclaimed that Bairactar had forced 
his way into the seraglio ? The insurgents rushed to the 
interior of the palace, headed by their leader and by the 
intrepid Seid Ali, the capudan pacha. Advancing to the 
third gate, they called aloud for the instant appearance of 
Selim, and the eunuchs of Mustapha, casting the body of 



8XBTCHBS OP TUBKSY. 

the murdered monarch before them, exclaimed, * BeinAd the 
sultan whom ye seek.' Bairactar, overpowered at the 
sight, threw himself on the ccnrpse and wept bitterly ; but 
at length, roused by the exhortations of Seid Ali, who told 
hhd that this was not a time for grief, but for revenge, he 
proceeded hastily to the presence-chamber. Mustapha 
never showed himself worthy of the crown until compelled 
to resign it He did not despair of awing the rebels into 
submission by the Ottoman majesty ; at least he was deter* 
mined to fall with dignity. On the entrance of Bairactar* 
he was found seated on his throne in his usual stale, and 
surrounded by the officers of the imperial household. The 
'indignant chief was not moved by this august spectacle^^ 
but advancing towards the sultan drew him from his seatt 
saying to him in a bold and angry tone, ' What dost thou 
there ? Yield that place to a worthier !* The accounts 
of his conduct are variously related in the different reports 
of this last transaction of his reign ; but whatever was the 
measure of his resistance it proved ineffectual ; for cm the. 
same night the cannon of the seraglio announced lo the 
people the dethronement of Mustapha the Fourth, and the 
elevation of his brother, Mahmoud the Second.** 

In a contest subsequent to this period with the Janiza* 
ries, Bairactar perished in the manner we have related in 
the preceding pages ; and to avert their wrath, the counsel- 
lors of Mahmoud thought fit to secure him the throne by 
murdering his imprisoned brother Mustapha. In these 
bloody scenes more than 10,000 perished in Constantinople 
and its suburbs, and the power of the Janizaries was more 
firmly fixed than ever. 

We had not occupied our station more than half an 
hour, when the military band struck up Stiltan Mahmoud's 
March, which announced his approach. As tliis was an 
ordinary occasion, there was little of that pomp and parade 
which commonly attends his appearance in public. First 
came some of the upper oflficers of his household ; then 



SKBTCnBS OF TI7RKXT. 287 

lour or five led horses richly caparisoned ; and last of all, 
the great man himself. No rude huzza, no boisterous 
shouts, announced his approach. The men cast their eyes 
to the ground, the women looked up to him with eyes most 
dutifully beaming with loyalty, and the general silence was 
only interrupted by the order to present armfl, and the 
accompanying clang of muskets. The sultan wore on his 
head the ordinary red fez of the country, and his person 
was enveloped in a fawn-coloured silk cloak, fastened round 
his neck by a brilliant diamond clasp. His majesty rides 
on a European saddle with long stirrups, and has the repu- 
tation of being the most fearless rider in his dominions. 
He was much aided in the great reform which he in- 
troduced into his cavalry regiments by an Italian named 
Calosso, who as a riding-master has introduced the Euro- 
pean equipments, and succeeded in abolishing the former 
awkward and ungainly Turkish mode of managing their 
korses. Calosso's services have been highly appreciated, 
ttid the sultan has given him the rank of bey, and of an 
efficer in his royal household, without asking him to change 
Ut religion. This is said to bie the first instance of the 
. kind that has occurred. As the sultan approached, those 
who had petitions to present for redress of grievances held 
them over their heads, and upon a given ingnal handed 
them to an attendant, by whom they were laid before the 
•ultan on his return from the mosque. In these cases we 
are informed speedy justice is obtained ; if fiiTourable, the 
applicant is immediately gratified; if uniavouFable, be 
receives his petition torn in two, and firom this tbere is no 
appeal. 

We took off our hats as the sultan approached, and be 
did us the honour of examining us with much attention. 
Agreeably to the homely adage that a cat may look upon a 
king, we returned the royal stare with equal freedom and 
minuteness. Sultan Mahmoud is now forty-four years old, 
and has reigned twenty-four years. A regular but strongly- 



I 






288 sKwrcHMB op nnuur. 



marked cast of features, large black and piercing eyes, « 
complexion rendered somewhat pale by its proximity to a 
long coal-black beard, and a mouth strongly indicative of 
finnnesSy formed the ensemble of his countenance. We 
Hive had the honour of doffing our beaver to most of the 
crowned heads of Europe, but in all that constitutes a 
superb-lodking man, we give the pabn to the Sultan Mah- 
moud. His fece indicates indomitable firmness and decisioQ 
of character, and at the same time displays a mild and 
amiable disposition. As we gazed upon him we could not 
avoid recalling his eventful history, and speculating upon 
his future destiny. Schooled in adversity, and a fellow- 
prisoner with his royal cousin Selim (from whom, indeedi 
it is said, he received all his ideas of reform), he seems to 
form a proper estimate of his exalted station, by using all 
its influence advantageously for his country. In this he is 
often thwarted by the venality and rapacity of his subor- 
dinates, and by the indolence of his people, but he returns . 
to the charge with renewed ardour, and seems determined ^ 
to pursue his patriotic course even at the expense <rf per- *|. 
sonal popularity. Temperate and even abstcmioua in hit 
mode of living, he may yet reign for twenty years over 
Turkey, and in that time his wise and temperate measure^ 
of reform will be so firmly seated as to bid defiance to 
another revolution. Every friend of humanity must hope 
that his life may long be spared for this good work. From 
his people be has nothing personally to fear. As the suc- 
cessor of the caliphs, the true descendants of their great 
lawgiver and prophet, he bears about him a charmed life, 
which sets at defiance the poisoned chalice of tlie secret 
enemy, or the pistol of the open foe. In the eyes of every 
true Mussuknan he is emphatically, ^ By the grace of God 
a king.** 

It is impossible to behold the Sultan M ahmoud without 
recurring to those scenes of blood through which he has 
been compelled to wade, not only for his own personal 



V 



SKETCUES UF TURKEY. 230 

safety, but to secure" the welfare of his country. The msti- 
tution of the Janizaries under Murad or Amurath I. was 
in its commencement highly advantageous to the Ottoman 
empire. In the course of events they lost their once proud 
superiority over their European enemies, and became more 
dangerous to the state than to the foreign foe. As far back 
as 1620, Osmon IL, after his disastrous campaigns against 
the Poles, in which their cruelty and cowardice were alike 
conspicuous, endeavoured to rid himself of this corps, 
which had even then rendered the monarch a mere auto- 
maton in their hands. To carry his purpose into execution, 
be gave out that he proposed to make the pilgrimage to 
Mecca. His real intention was to reach Cairo, there to 
raise up an army among the Egyptians, with which he 
proposed to destroy every vestige of the Janizaries. Un- 
fortunately his views were penetrated, and cost him his 
throne and life. It was probably with reference to any 
fimilar attempts in future that subsequent sultans were not 
permitted to leave the capital The repeated reverses of 
the Ottoman arms clearly exhibited to each reigning sultan 
Ibe necessity of abolishing this corps ; but every attempt 
even to^ introduce the slightest change in its oiganizatioD, 
^pras the precursor of a stormy revolution, which only ter- 
minated with the death of the sultan. We have already 
seen that the present sultan had been twice foiled in his 
attempt to curb this lawless soldiery. Events, however, 
were pressing upon him with such fearful rapidity, that 
nothing was left for him between the loss of life and the 
destruction of his empire, or the total extinction of the 
Janizaries. He saw his best and his bravest troops con- 
quered by a half-armed rabble in Greece, while the same 
rabble fled panic-struck before the disciplined legions of 
his Egyptian viceroy. To have hesitated longer would 
have been madness, and he accordingly, early in 1820, com* 
menced his preparations for a conilict which; however it 
might terminate, would be ierocious and bloody. He began 



by increasing the number of his artillerists or topegees to 
thirty thotuand men. These had been necessarily trained 
to the European exercise of guns, and their officers were 
the best educated and most enlightened in the service. 
The men themselves being aware that they were peculiar 
objects of detestation to the Janizaries, repaid their hate 
with interest, and entered warmly into the views of the 
sultan. Having thus secured a substantial support, Mab- 
moud began bis reform of the Janizaries. He ordered that 
a certain number should be selected from each raiment to 
be drilled, armed, and equipped in the European manner. 
He had previously gained over the most influential and 
resolute of tbeir officers, and caused them to swear to 
defend the new system. The men were at first leased 
wiUi the idea of increased pay, but the new discipline, 
arms, and tactics, soon aroused all their ancient bigotry, 
and they began in their usual way to murder all who were 
considered to be inimical to their interests, and burned their 
dwellings to the ground. Although such ferocious acts had 
been successful for nearly four centuries, yet they had now 
a man to deal with who, combining consummate prudence 
with bold determination, was resolved, afler trying mild 
moBSurcs, to extirpate the whole body, or perish himadf 
amid the flames of his capital. Superintending all the 
preparations in person, he assembled his faithful artillerists 
in the gardens of the seraglio, and unfurling the sacred 
standard of the prophet, called upon all his subjects to rally 
around him, for the safety, not only of the throne, but of the 
empire itself. They promptly answered to this appeal, 
end Mahmoud now, for the first time, felt assured of suc- 
cess in the approacliiog conflict. He then summoned the 
mutinous Janizaries to appear before the sacred banner in 
token of submission ; but they refused obedience, although 
fonnolly summoned three times, and put to death, with 
every circumstance of cold<bloodud barbarity, the grand 
vizier and two other high officers of the crown, who bad 



SKXTCHES OP TURXST. 241 

been sent as messengers by the sultan. Finding it in vain 
to treat upon any terms with these savage cut-throats, and 
fortified with the formal consent of the ulemah, he ordered 
his troops to march upon them, and after a severe struggle 
drove them into their barracks. Here they were assailed 
by cannon-shot and bomb-shells, and such as escaped the 
flames of the barracks were shot or cut down without 
mercy. Not a single Janizary escaped ; and throughout 
the provinces the same bloody scenes took place wherever 
they attempted the least resistance. A few weak attempts 
were made in their favour during the following month; but 
by the merciless severity which it had been found necessary 
to adopt towards them, the whole body was destroyed and 
their name abolished for ever. 

We retired from the scene highly gratified, and perhaps 
onr pleasure was enhanced by the almost total absence of 
Billy state pageantry. There was, in fact, but little of that 
oriental pomp and magnificence, which, perhaps, would 
have diverted our attention from the main object of our 
curiosity. We have still in our mind the complaint of a 
traveller during the reign of Mustapha, whowas prevented 
from seeing the sultan by the towering featliers of his pages 
and guards. 

The transition firom kings to jugglers is not very abrupt, 
and we therefore make no apology for introducing the 
reader to another oriental lion, which is one of the curiosi- 
ties of " the well-defended city." In visiting the dancing, 
or rather the waltzing, derviscs, we were prepared to see 
some solemn mockeries of religion, or some unmeaning 
mummeries, like those practised by our own Shakers, and 
in this we were not disappointed. The tekkay, or chapel, 
of these derviscs stands in the main street of Pcra, and is a 
beautiful and tasteful building. On tlie left, as we entered 
the main gate, is a small cemetcr}' for those saints whose 
lives have been such perfect models here below, that their 

1 1 



1^ 



242 8KBTCHE8 OF TUSXST. 

influence and intercession with Mohammed is thought to be 
considerable in the regions above. 

Among these patterns of piety who would expect to find 
a French soldier with a highly sculptured turbaned stone, 
announcing that a pacha reposes beneath 7 And yet such 
is the case. It is the tomb of Bonneval, a spirited and 
highly accomplished French officer, who rose to the nukcf 
general in the French service. Disgusted with some treat- 
ment he received, he resigned his commission and entered 
the Austrian service, where his talents and bravery elevated 
him to the rank of field-marshal. Upon some quarrel with 
Prince Eugene, he challenged him, and by the severe regu- 
lations of that service was condemned to death by a couih 
cil of war. He made his escape to Venice, but his enemies 
were upon the point of seizing him there, when he fled to 
Constantinople. Even here he was not safe, for the Austrian 
minister made a formal demand for him of the Turkish 
government. To avoid this he became a Mussulman and 
a Turkish subject, or as he expressed it, " exchanged his 
nightcap for a turban." He was the intimate friend of Jean 
Baptiste Rousseau, and appears to have been a man of high 
literary attainments. He rose rapidly in the Turkish ser- 
vice, and distinguished himself in several bloody engage- 
ments. He was made Pacha of Karamania, and died in 
1746, a general of engineers, and a pacha of three tails. 

Carefully taking off our boots and shoes at the door of the 
chapel, and carrying them in under our arms, we entered 
just as the exercises had begun. Within a large area in 
the centre of the chapel, and railed off" from the spectators, 
five dervises were spinning round like tops, while an instru- 
ment like a flageolet, but blown through the nose, poured 
forth from the gallery a monotonous and lugubrious air. 
The heads of the dervises were covered with a high conical 
cap, a tight short jacket enveloped tlie body, and a coarse 
loose gown completed their attire. 

An aged dervise stood at the eastern side of the enclo- 



8KBTCHE8 OP TURKEY. S48 

8ure» and appeared to be at the same time the master of 
ceremonies, and the chief object of the adoration of the 
others. While they were performing their gyrations their 
eyes were closed, their hands steadfastly extended, and 
their gowns opened out by their revolutions in the manner 
of ^ making cheeses," as practised by our little folks at 
home. Gradually the music assumed a louder tone, and a 
tambourine and kettledrum struck in with the wild and 
plaintive strain. At the expiration of about five minutes 
the music and the spinning ceased, and then commenced a 
series of bows, which would have been deemed graceful 
even in a Parisian salon. After performing several of these 
salaams with divers ad libitum variations, and the perspira- 
tion oozing from every pore, they again began spinning 
upon the carefully waxed floor, while several male voices 
now joined in the plaintive chorus. At two o'clock the 
music, the spinning, the singing, and the bowing ceased ; 
the waltzers dropped on their knees with their faces to the 
ground, while the attendants threw over them thick cloaks 
to prevent their cooling too suddenly. We left the chapel 
with mingled feelings of contempt at witnessing such mon- 
strous absurdities, practised under the name of religion; 
and pity for the audience, who seemed disposed to consider 
ibem in the light of divine inspirations. 



S44 aKBTCHBS OF TUBXBT. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Koom Boomoo— Ancient Roads — Ak Baba Keui — ^FonntauuH- Pnvimmoo 
— CaTern — Former Lerel of the Euxine — Anadol-phanenkI — Soldiery — 
Yankee Doodle— ForU on the Boq>honia— Anecdote of a Toik— Itafin 
Sennoii* 

Koox BooRNOo is one of the few natural curiosities in the 
environs of Constantinople, and is so little known that it was 
only by a casual hint in Clarke's Travels that we were 
made aware of its existence. It is a remarkable headland 
on the Asiatic coast of the Black Sea, about thirty miles 
from the capital, and is represented as consisting of a 
group of basaltic columns, similar to those of the Giant's 
Causeway in Ireland. As we had many years previously 
visited tlie great Irish phenomenon, we were naturally dis- 
posed to compare it with its Asiatic namesake. To Koom 
Boornoo, then, it was determined to go, and our starting 
place was from Hooncair isca lessee, where, by the polite 
attention of a friend, we found horses in readiness for the 
journey. Our road lay through the beautiful broad valley 
already described. Natural clumps of majestic trees were 
scattered over the plain : while the numerous young trees, 
recently set out, gave promise at some future day of lend- 
ing new charms to the already lovely scene. Our party 
was composed of six persons, including our surrurgee or 
guide, Mahmoud ; and from some mistake in tlie previous 
arrangements, we were furnished with only four horses. 
But as galloping, or even trotting, is seldom practised in 
travelling in this country, it was very easy to accommodate 
ourselves to this diminution of our cavalry. We adopted 
the primitive plan of " ride and tie," as practised by the 
renowned Joseph Andrews ; and it was soon discovered 



SKETCHES OF TURKET. S46 

that a very general preference was given to walking, 
rather than encounter the balancing requisite upod the un* 
couth Turkish saddle. 

The road carried us along near the bed of a mountain- 
torrent, and the deep and broad channel which it had worn 
into the loamy alluvial soil, indicated that during the season 
of rains it must form no inconsiderable stream. We soon 
began to ascend a steep hill, where labourers were engaged 
in quarrying stone for the buildings at the landing-place. 
As no carts are used in tliis country for the transportation 
of materials, the stones were awkwardly heaped up on the 
backs of asses, and secured by means of ropes. We 
shortly afterward came upon a regular paved road, resem- 
bling those constructed by the Romans, and there can be 
little doubt in referring this to the period of the Greek em- 
pire. Passing through a neat pretty little village called 
Ak Baba Kcui, or the village of the white-headed father, 
we struck into a narrow path which wound along in a ser- 
pentine manner along the sides of a mountain. This path 
scarcely permitted a single person to pass along, and it was 
completely overshadowed by dense foliage which screened 
us from the sun. We met several Bulgarian charcoal- 
burners returning from the mountains, and the bulky 
burthens on their horses compelled us frequently to quit 
the path and dive by main force into the adjoining thickets. 
Abundance of large ripe blackberries, and likewise a d^ 
licious bright red fruit resembling a cherry, but with a mild 
subacid flavour, induced us often to loiter on our way. 
The latter is the fruit of the cornus mas or cornel-tree, to 
which frequent allusion is made by the ancient poets. 
Occasionally, as the heat of the day and the toil of the jour- 
ney became more urgent, we stopped at pretty fountains 
along our path, overrunning with fresh and pure water. 
At these places wc were always sure of finding a commo- 
dious drinking utensil, considerately left by some benevo- 
lent traveller. 



846 8KSTCHS8 OF TUKKST. 

There is nothing which reminds the stranger more that 
he is in the East than the universal attention paid to the 
minutest source of water. The smallest rill is carefully 
husbanded : in the deepest recesses of the forest and in the 
midst of a barren plain one is surprised at coming suddenly 
upon a marble fountain, tastefully executed, and gushing 
out the purest water. In our own happy country, wo highly 
favoured by the hand of Providence, we can scarcely 
realize the whole force and beauty of those splendid orien- 
tal images employed in the Scriptures, derived from this 
source. 

The neighbouring hills abound in wolves and jackals, 
which frequently come down to the village, and make sad 
havoc among such of the asinine race as have been care- 
lessly left in the open fields. An acquaintance of ours 
residing near Stambool, lost two fine asses in one night in 
this manner ; and they carried their boldness so far as to 
attack his large and powerful English mastifli', whose torn 
and bleeding body still bears the marks of a desperate 
conflict. 

Our path, as we ascended, became more and more indis- 
tinct; and when we reached the summit of a ridge of hills, 
our surrurgee was evidently at a nonplus. Taking the 
distant minarets of Constantinople and the shores of the 
Black Sea which bounded the northern horizon as our 
guides, we determined to select a path for ourselves. The 
fields were covered with the Buglos (C. crispiis), and occa- 
sionally the Laurus nobilis, with its dense foliage and aro- 
matic odour. In the hedges we noted, to tlie detriment of 
our clothes, the Rhamnus paliurus with its double set of 
thorns, and which would form an excellent hedge, impene- 
trable alike to man or beast. Thia is the most common 
thorn in Palestine, and is very generally supposed to be the 
identical species that was used to bind round the brows of 
our Saviour. We also noticed that noble tree, known here 
under the name of the Trebizond plum, but which in fact is 



8KSTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 347 

the Diospyros lotus. Its fruit, although small, resembles 
in taste and appearance our luscious persimmon. The 
tree is more lofty and branched than its American con- 
gener. Of the low scrubby oak {Querais coccifera)^ which 
affords the Kcrmus dye, and the Arbutus unedo^ we also 
collected specimens. The sportsmen of the party met with 
little success, but bagged in true cockney style a few 
cuckoos and crows. 

A ride of three or four hours over the summits of several 
elevated hills brought us to a beautiful valley, covered with 
luxuriant grass, upon which were grazing large flocks of 
sheep and goats, attended as in the primitive pastoral times 
by shepherds. The sight of this verdant slope, and the 
appearance of a poplar-tree and a haystack, the first we had 
seen in Turkey, transported us in imagination to our own 
green fields and luxuriant pastures across the Atlantic 
Grossing this valley, we ascqnded a gentle slope, which 
brought us to the brow of a precipice overhanging the sea. 
This was Koom Boornoo, so called from a low sandy beach, 
or cape, which may be seen on either side of this promon- 
tory. By a little extra exertion it is possible to descend to 
the water's edge ; and such of our party as were not un- 
willing to incur a little personal risk were amply rewarded 
for the labour. The rock consists of a dark, almost black, 
volcanic porphyry, but its columnar structure is not appa- 
rent until you have descended some distance down the 
cliff. Near the water-edge one may walk over the tops of 
columns as at Staffa and the Giant's Causeway ; and look- 
ing up, he sees, almost impending over his head, other 
columns forty and fifty feet high. The columns are of 
various sizes and figures, but chiefly assume the pentagonal 
form. The interstices were often scarcely perceptible, but 
in many instances distinct, and filled up with quartz and 
chalcedony. In some few instances small pieces of me- 
tallic copper were discovered, which lead to conjectures 
that they had formerly belonged to shipwrecked vessels. 



348 0KXTCHS8 OF TURKXT. 

The greenish hue which pervades many of the rocks in the 
neighbourhood of Stambool, indicating some of the forms of 
copper, would induce us to suspect that the pieces just 
alluded to may have been derived from some vein in the 
vicinity. This promontory is apparently about the height 
of the palisadoes on the Hudson ; but d^s not preserve its 
prismatic form for more than four hundred yards. It will, 
therefore, readily be perceived that in extent it cannot be 
compared with the two European localities just alluded to, 
although it will amply reward the visiter. 

From the summit of the cape we had a magnificent view 
of the Euxine, now in a state of calm but deceitful repose, 
with its rugged iron-bound shores, at present enjoying a 
cessation from the boiling waves which usually lash its 
tides. As far as the eye could reach, innumerable vessels 
of all nations were seen dotting its surface, with their snow- 
white sails scarcely distended by a faint southern breeMT 
On our left, we beheld the Phaneraki of Thrace and the 
black Symplegades ; while to the east, the bold point of 
Kara Boornoo with its isolated rock stretched boldly out 
into the Euxine, and beyond were the far receding shores 
of Asia. We may here incidentally mention that the 
Patriarch of Constantinople, in the chart accompanying his 
description of that city,* calls this and a few other adjacent 
rocks K»mfimi v^mk»i. ot the Black Islands ; a name which 
Clarke applies also to the Symplegades on the European 
side of the Bosphorus. They may, however, both be right, 
bat we leave the question as we find it. 

Having concluded our examination of this interesting 
•pot, we descended from the promontory and again crossed, 
near the seashore, the valley which we had traversed on 
our way to Koom Boornoo. A large cavity in a bluff, near 
the water-edge and facing the sea, attracted our attention. 



* Ktnftrmwrldat nkaia rt not vtttrtpa irm 
Kii ni—n wi — X i i H« Bntnmf 1894. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 249 

We found it sufficiently spacious to contain our whole party 
on horseback, and it was evidently scooped out by the 
action of the waves, which in high north gales still enter 
the cavern. The rock is similar to that of Koom Boornoo, 
with large imbedded nodules of the same material, but 
rather more compact in its structure. The frequent oc- 
currence of this sort of porphyritic conglomerate, if we 
may be allowed the term, would seem to indicate that this 
region has been the seat, not of one, but of many succes- 
sive volcanic eruptions. We searched in vain along this 
whole coast for any indications of the Black Sea having 
once stood at a higher level. Nor were there the least 
traces either of water-worn cliffs, except at the present 
level, or of rolled pebbles, along the shore. The coast for 
miles consists alternately of beaches of fine sand, with bluffs 
and capes of volcanic porphyry. It would perhaps be un- 
reasonable to expect to find exactly at this spot any traces 
of a former high level, even admitting that such was 
formerly the case ; but they might be detected at other 
places along the coast 

The declining sun admonished us to pursue our journey 
homeward, and we accordingly hastened towards Anadol- 
phaneraki, or the village at the mouth of the Bosphorus, in 
which is placed the Asiatic lighthouse. From the hill on 
which the village stands we were presented with a striking 
view of the volcanic promontory which we had just visited. 
The village is prettily situated upon a bold bluff, jutting out 
into the Black Sea, and is protected by a battery of twenty 
guns near the water's edge. The lighthouse is a circular 
stone building, forty feet high, surrounded by a wall, and 
containing many subterranean arched vaults. Although 
now much dilapidated, it was formerly strongly fortified, 
as the embrasures testify; and we should be disposed 
to attribute its erection to the Venetians or Genoese. The 
lantern is only open towards the sea. 

In the main street of the village we sat down under a 

K K 




SM 

Tine-arbonr, in the nei^ibouriiood of a eofiee-riiop, ind 
oommeDCed a vigcvoiu anaidt upoo the proraider whjih 
we had taken the pracautioD to provide beforehand. Han 
it a noaU garriaoD of fifty aoldien heie, and, ai the tima 
aaemed to hang heavy on their handa, they loitered about* 
oar arbour, rega^diog m with much cuiiouty,but at the same 
time with a civility bordeiiag upoa ceremoniotu reipect 
Encouraged by oar questiona, th^ approached nearei^ 
and an animated intercoune vaa soon established. Tbesa 
■iddiera, we leaned, were draf^ fiom aaa of the int^ 
nor provinces of Asia, and had but recently arrived, ao 
that, in all probability, we were among the first foreigner! 
they bad ever seen. And yet they were remarkably civil 
and courteous, although they knew us to be the enemieB of 
their foith. A similar party of soldiers in an obscure vil- 
lage, in many parts of Europe, would, in all probability, 
have shown an insolent deportment towards unarmed ^B 
peaceable Btrangers. To read the accounts of travellerit 
as late even as Macfarlane, one would suppose that it was 
dangerous to travel alone in Turkey, and that even to look 
npon a soldier would be attended with persona] hazard. 
Such may possibly have been the case during the reign of 
the turbulent and fanatical Janizaries, but I can aver, from 
my own experience, that a person may now travel in any 
part of Turkey without peril of life or limb, except aa en> 
dangered by the ordinary casualties of a journey. 

This excellent order and public tranquiUity is to be 
attribated to the energetic measures of the present sultan, 
and, for the purpose of curbing still further the natural 
insolence of an ignorant soldiery, they are not permitted to 
wear arms, except when on duty. Indeed, the rule has 
become a general one for all classes, and if by chance you 
meet with one anned, he is either a traveller just arrived 
from the interior, or one of the scarlet showmen attached 
to each European embassy. These kavaaaet, aa tbey are 
lenned,are,»B&rascoatuQ)e is concerned, the last lemains 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 261 

of the Janizaries, but are, in fact, livery-servants of the 
ambassadors. They certainly make a most formidable 
appearance, and, as they approach, appear to be bristling 
with swords, daggers, yatagiians, pistols, and other deadly 
weapons, which stick out of their belts in the most threaten- 
ing manner, I had the curiosity one day to stop one of 
these Turkish noli-me-tangeres, and to examine his armory. 
In this I was good-naturedly assisted by the man himself. 
It consisted of a hanjar, the handle of which was studded 
with cornelians, but the blade was wanting ; a tastefully 
decorated dagger could not be unsheathed ; a pair of silver- 
mounted pistols had no flints ; and, in fact, the only really 
oficnsive or defensive weapon was an ivory-handled pair 
of tongs, used to place a coal of fire to his tobacco pipe. 
Let us rejoice that these things are so, for there can be no 
surer sign of tlie precarious nature of a government, and 
Ae ineflicacy of its laws, than where individuals are 
obliged to carry weapons for self-protection. 

The soldiers of the garrison examined my fowling-piece 
with much minuteness, and when I snapped off several 
percussion caps, great was their astonishment, and copious 
the showers of Mashallahs ! and Ollah Kayrims I When 
the gun was put into their hands to repeat the experiment, 
it was remarked that, like the militia of a country which 
shall l>e nameless, they shut their eyes or turned away the 
head when they pulled the trigger. This, of course, will be 
corrected by dint of practice. In explaining to them that 
we were Americans, they appeared to have very vague 
ideas of our country, but the mention of the New World 
cleared up the mystery immediately ; and it is not unlikely 
that hereafter the idea of an American and a percussion 
cap will be intimately associated in the minds of these 
simple-minded Asiatics. It is curious tliat the Turkish 
words " ycnyee doonyee," or new world, should resemble 
our Yankee doodle, and it is possible that some future 
American Valiancy may enlist these words in the cliain of 



262 8KBTOHB8 OF TUBKIT. 

evidence, by 'which he will attempt to prove our lineage in 
a direct line from the parent stock which formerly inhabited 
the mountains of Altai. 

Committing our horses to the care of our faithful sururgeCy 
we descended, by a steep path, to the beach, where a caik 
had been engaged, in order to vary as much as possible 
our little excursion. Alternately sailing and rowing along 
the Asiatic shore, we had leisure to admire and sketch the 
various bold and striking features of this rocky coast. 
Here appeared dikes or walls of solid rock, stretching out 
boldly into the breakers from the green moulding rock sur- 
rounding them ; while, farther on, large masses would thrust 
tiiemselvcs above the water, iuid assume various grotesque 
forms. To one of these singular rocks a lively fancy has 
given tlie name of " the easy-chair," from its strong resem- 
blance to that venerable piece of furniture. At one spot a 
small circular lonely-looking tower crowned the summit rf 
a hill, whose base was washed by the sea, and formed a bit 
worthy to exercise the pencil of Weir. 

We next passed Poreas-liman, a thirty-eight gun battery, 
erected on rocks disposed in nearly horizontal strata, with 
a picturcscjue valley in its vicinity. This, and the nearly 
opposite fortress of Karipchay on the European side, were 
constructed in the year 1773, under the inspection of the 
celebrated Baron de Tott. They were both enlarged, 
altered, and improved by Scbastiani in 1806. Shortly 
after passing the fine old ruined castle heretofore described, 
we came up with the thirty-two gun battery of Kawah 
Anadoli, where all vessels must stop to clear before enter- 
ing the Black Sea. The whole transit duty for each vessel 
amounts to fifteen cents. No vessels are allowed to pass 
alter dark, and a shoal opposite compels all vessels to keep 
close in with the Asiatic shore where lliis battery is erected. 

Both shores of tlie Bosphorus are lined in this manner 
Cmr twenty -eight or tliirty miles, from the Euxine to the Sea 
of Marmora, with heavy batteries, mounting in all three 



MKWtCKEB or TUIUCBT. S08 

hundred guns of every caliber. But with all this formi- 
dable array of cannon, it may be doubted whether they 
could oppose successfully a determined enemy. The cur- 
rent runs frequently at the rate of six knots an hour. A 
fleet, aided by a strong breeze, might pass them all in a very 
short time with little loss, and anchor in the Gulden Horn, 
where no guns could be brought to act successfully against 
them. During the late war with Russia, one is at a loss to 
conjecture why the Muscovites did not at once boldly force 
this passage, and seize upon Constantinople before their 
faithful allies had time to interfere. It is true that a failure 
would have been attended with a total destruction of the 
fleet, but these are incidental risks, which the thorough 
seaman knows how to appreciate, and is always prepared 
to hazard. But even tlie loss of a fleet would have been 
attended with less expenditure of blood and treasure than 
wu actually incurred in forcing the passage of the Balkan. 
In the event of another rupture, it is highly probable that 
Russia will adopt this course ; and the numerous vessels 
now constructing at Sebastopol, and other ports of the 
Euxine, may be considered as indicative of her future 
policy. 

On the morning after this excursion a young Turk called 
to inquire whether I had not lost a game-bag on the pre- 
vious day. I had, in fact, very carelessly left it on the shore 
of the Black Sea, and was expressing my regret for its loss 
when my worthy hostess, the princess, although a Greek 
herself, assured me that if it should be found by a Turk it 
would undoubtedly be restored. The young man who had 
found it inquired immediately for the owner, and was told 
that it probably belonged to the Americans, for such persons 
had been seen in the neighbourhood. Upon this hint he 
travelled more than twenty miles to the American palace, 
and was directed by some of the domestics to my lodgings. 
I found its contents imtouched, and the young man was 
modestly retiring, when I recollected that although virtue 



IM 

is declared to be its own reward, yet that so much Tdunlsiy 
trouble required a suitable compensation. 

The day is excessively stormy, vith strong gales from 
the north, and several vessels which we had seen yesterday 
in the Black Sea were now scudding into the Bosphonis 
under bare poles to secure a harbour. These storms not 
onfrequeotly strew the southern shores of the Euxine with 
namerous wrecks, and the annual loss of lives is said to be 
very considerable. Our worthy Iriend, Mr. Goodell, cele- 
brated divine worship at home, and such of the inmates d" 
the palace as felt disposed attended the ser\'ice. As many 
did not understand English, Mr. Groodell delivered an in> 
pressive discourse in Italian. It is certainly not among 
the least of the novelties of our situation to hear a Yankee 
clergyman preaching in Italian upon the banks of the Bos- 
phonis to an audience composed of half a dozen difierent 
nations, assembled from various quarters of the globe. 



aKBTCBES OF TimKBT. 365 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

CaJiks on the Bosphorus — State Barge — Festival at Ibrahim Aga — Schoola 
of Constantinople — Seclusion of the Princes of the Blood Royal — Sac- 
cession to the Throne — Kitty Gerry — Education of the Prince Abdool— 
JPaifllion of the Sultan-Sultana— 'Amusements. 

The day upon which the heir presumptive to the throne 
is delivered over to his instructers is always celebrated 
with great festivities and rejoicings. It seems, indeed, 
proper that an event upon which may depend the future 
happiness of millions should be accompanied with suitable 
solemnities. The reigning king has two sons, the eldest of 
whom is now nearly nine years old, having been bom April 
20, 1824. His name and title is Abdool Metzib EfTendi, 
and that of his younger brother, Abdool Aziz Eficndi. On 
this day Abdool Metzib is to be given up to his tutors, 
with the customary solemnities. The plain of Ibrahim 
Aga, on the Asiatic shore just below Scutari, has been 
selected as the scene of the three days* festivities, which 
commence this morning. 

At an early hour, almost the whole population of Stam- 
bool and its suburbs were poured forth upon the waters, 
and the Bosphorus was literally blackened with the number- 
less ca'iks employed in transporting passengers across to 
the Asiatic shore. At a distance they appeared to form a 
continuous line from Seraglio Point to the opposite shore, 
and in many places this line covered a space at least a 
quarter of a mile broad. We are informed that the num- 
ber of caiks in and about Constantinople is 5000, but from 
the exhibition this morning, we should be inclined to believe 
that they greatly exceed that numben 



256 8KETCBB8 OF TITRKKT. 

At ten o'clock the sultan and the young prince made 
their appearance in two separate state barges, which, in 
beauty of shape and splendour of decoration, far exceeded 
any thing of the kind we have ever witnessed. They are 
built on the model of the Turkish caik, are about 120 feet 
long, and glitter in every part with burnished gold. Each 
of them was manned by twenty-four boatmen, selected for 
their strength and manly forms, which were highly set off 
by the picturesque costumes I have already described as 
common to the caikjees on the Bosphorus. They made 
half-minute strokes with the greatest regularity, and the 
simultaneous plunge of so many oars, with the accompany- 
ing foam of the waters, formed a wake like that of a 
steamboat. 

It was with much difficulty that we succeeded in forcing 
our way through the dense crowd of boats along the beach, 
and we were indebted to the politeness of a Turkish officer 
to whom we addressed ourselves, for permission to enter 
the camp. The extensive plain of Ibrahim Aga, as well 
as the adjoining hills of Kadi Reni and Scutari, were cov- 
ered with tents for the accommodation of troops, of whom 
there were 24,000 on the field. They were composed of 
the imperial guard, and five regiments of the line. The 
cavalry were chiefly horse artillery and lancers, and were 
remarkable for the beauty of their horses and the splendour 
of their equipments. The infantry made a good appear- 
ance, and went through several evolutions with remarkable 
celerity and precision. The crowd was immense, and a 
gentleman of our party, who has had opportunities of esti- 
mating large masses of people, gave it as his opinion that 
there could not be less than 150,000 persons on the field. 
Not the least conspicuous among these were the children 
belonging to the schools of the metropolis, who had been 
with great propriety summoned to witness the ceremony, 
and for whom tents had been expressly provided. These 
were scholars belonging to the free'Schaohf which amount, 



SEETCHES OF TURKST. • 257 

as I am informed, to 300 in Constantinople alone. The 
students in the academies or colleges (medresses) amount 
to about 5500. Fifty years ago the number of schools 
registered on the books of the Stambool effendi, or mayor, 
amounted to 500, and at the present day is stated to be four 
times that number. These little urchins formed almost an 
army themselves, for they exhibited a force amounting to 
6000. This was the only occasion I ever had of estimating 
the school population of Constantinople. 

Our inquiries as to the nature of the future education of 
the Prince Abdool furnished us with meager information. 
A conspicuous feature in it, we were given to understand, 
was to make him thoroughly acquainted with the Turkish 
language and literature, together with a perfect knowledge 
of Arabic and Persian. To this will be added a knowledge 
of the French language. The sultan is said to be the most 
accomplished oriental scholar in his dominions, and although 
now over forty years old, has recently applied himself to 
the study of the European languages. All the princes of 
the blood-royal, are by the singular state policy of the 
Turkish empire, kept strict prisoners within the walls of 
the seraglio, until their death or elevation to the throne. 
It would seem scarcely probable or possible that these 
princes could t)e competent, from their secluded manner of 
living, to handle with skill the reins of government ; nor 
can we well conceive how supreme authority can be mode- 
rately or judiciously exercised by a person who steps sud- 
denly from a prison to a throne. Such, however, is the 
practice of the Turkish empire, originally adopted in order 
to prevent the contentions which might arise between rival 
princes of the blood-royal. In consequence of tliis state 
regulation, a movement against the sultan is usually fol- 
lowed by the decapitation of his nearest relative ; and hence 
when a revolution takes place, it is not the people who 
suffer, but the royal line. Although this is directly opposed 
to the practice of western Europe^ and of course is con- 

L L 



258 SKSTCUBS OF TUEKBT. 

sidered barbarous, yet how much blood and treasure would 
have been spared if such a state policy iiad been adopted. 
We have already seen how near the present royal dynasty 
was to becoming extinct in the person of the present 
sultan. To Eome inquiries touching the succession in case 
of iailure in the present reigning family, we learned to our 
great astonishment that the nearest heir to the throne, and 
the validity of whose claim would be acknowledged by the 
Turks tliemselves, was an old classmate in Edinbuigfa. 

Among the odd characters assembled in 1818 and 1810 
within the gloomy lecture-rooms of that venerable univer- 
sity, from various quarters of the globe, was a queer fish, 
£unil!arly known under tlic name of Kitty. He sported on 
his cards ** Sultan Gerry, Krim Gerry, Kitty Gerry and of 
Caucasus,** aiul was reinaikablo for tlie astounding English 
in which he cluthcd his oriental ideas. He w;is represented 
to us as having been a Mussulman converted to Christianity, 
and sent at the cx])enso of the Emperor of Kussia to be 
initiated into the learning of tlie West He was a very 
inoffensive man, with great simplicity of character, and a 
much more attentive student than many of us wiio amused 
ourselves with his peculiarities. It was considered an ex- 
cellent joke among the profane to invite honest Kitty to tea 
under tlie pretence of discussing literary matters. Tlie 
conversation would sooner or later diverge to religious sub- 
jects, and particularly to the comparative morality of tlic 
Christian and Mohammedan belief. Some would jestingly 
espouse the cause of Moliammed, wliile poor Kitty would 
work himself into a perfect fever in defending his adopted 
religion. During this discussion, wine, or ratlier potent 
Faimtosh, would be introduced, and Kitty, altliough by edu- 
cation and liabit exceedingly temperate, would partake of 
the passing cup. As the genial liquid began to exercise its 
influence, his fervour increased, and a hint tliat he was as 
abstemious as a Mussuhnan would inevitably comiicl him 
to ton off another bumper a^ a pledge of his ortiiodox\ . 



8KSTCHBS OF TURKET. 258 

The steadfastness of liis faith increased as the steadiness 
of tiis gait diminished, and Avhen every thing around him 
looked double, he would the more vehemently defend the 
doctrines of the Trinity. 

I have since learned that he married a Scotch lassie, 
much against the wishes of her family, and took her with 
him to Russia, where he now resides. He is a lineal de- 
scendant of the ancient khans of the Crimea, and we were 
informed by one of the officers of government here, that in 
default of male issue in the present royal line, he will cer- 
tainly be called to the Ottoman throne. His immediate 
predecessor sold the sovereignty of the Crimea to Russia, 
and he is now a dependant upon its bounty. That govern- 
ment, with their usual long-sighted policy, doubtless reserve 
him or some of his descendants in order to make a claim 
upon the Turkish throne, and fill it with one of their own 
vassals. This, hoi^ever, unless some unusual calamity 
should befall the present royal dynasty, is scarcely a proba- 
ble event ; for to judge by the loyal demonstrations of joy 
exhibited around us this day, a stranger would infer that 
the great bulk of the people arc strongly attached to the 
reigning family. 

The frequent salvoes of artillery, the acclamations which 
rent the air in responses to the prayer of the grand mufti, 
delivered at the foot of the throne, the gay assemblage of 
costumes of every form and hue, and the heartfelt joy which 
seemed to beam on every countenance, formed a cheerful 
and animated picture. Here were groups of women seated 
on the ground, eating, laughing, and delighted with the 
scenes around them ; while in another place were squads 
of noisy boys, bent on making the most of this privileged 
day, while their grave-looking tutors seemed almost as gay 
and light-hearted as their riotous charges. Here we passed 
long flies of gayly-painted and carved arabahs, drawn by 
oxen, and filled with women of all ages and colours ; and 
then, again, we would ahnost stumble over some Mussulman 



200 SKBTCfHXS OF TimKET. 

prostrate at his devotions, and r^ardless of the noise and 
din around him. 

The ceremonial which accompanied the transfer of the 
young prince into the hands of his instructers was simple, 
and not devoid of dignity. The sultan was seated on his 
throne, under a splendid pavilion, which fiur exceeded 
our ideas of oriental magnificence. The grand mufti, the 
duef ulemahs, and the professors of the seraglio stood on 
the right of the throne. On the left wero arrayed all the 
great dignitaries of the empiro ; and in firont wero placed 
the general officers of the army and navy. The young 
prince was introduced, who, after embracing respectfully 
the feet of his father, took his seat on a cudiion placed 
between the grand mufli and the sultan. After a short 
pause, a chapter from the Koran was road, and the grand 
mufli then pronounced a prayer suitable to the occasion. 
At every pause the childron took up the responses of 
Ameen I which were shouted through the camp, and borne 
back in echo from the neighbouring hills. When the prayer 
was concluded, the prince arose, again embraced his father's 
feet, and afler asking permission gracefully made an obei- 
sance to the assembly and withdrew. 

Thus terminated the public ceromoniol, which was ac- 
companied by a distribution of food to the troops, and to 
the childron of the difleront schools. Fifteen criminals 
under sentence of death wero also publicly pardoned, in 
honour of the day. Among the many changes which 
have taken place in this country of late years, one ancient 
custom was still preserved, although it savours strongly of 
its barbaric origin. We allude to the distribution of food 
by the sultan to Iiis principal officers of state, and which is 
performed with much pomp and ceremony. A long train 
of splendidly attired servants bore on their lieads massy 
silver trays, loaded with every variety of food. The 
viands were covered with cloths of gold and silver tissue, 
and the procession moved solemnly to the various pavilions, 
to the music of a full military band. 



* flVETCRES OF TURKIBY. 261 

The seraskier happened to espy our party on the field, 
and had the kindness, after the ceremony was concluded, 
and the sultan had retired, to send an officer to invite us 
within the sacred precincts of tlie throne. This was the 
more gratifying as it was a favour granted to no one else 
on the field. We were thus permitted to examine minutely 
this specimen of oriental taste and magnificence. The 
royal pavilion covered a clear area 120 feet long by 40 
broad, although the space actually overshaded by this huge 
canopy was more considerable. The canopy was sup- 
ported by fourteen gilded columns forty feet high, and the 
whole interior was carpeted with the richest and rarest 
productions of the Persian and Turkish looms. The ma- 
terial composing the pavilion itself was crimson, yellow, 
and blue damask, tastefully intermixed, and richly worked 
with gold and silver tissue, wUle the gracefully arranged 
festoons of drapery were fringed with massy gold. The 
throne itself, elevated about five feet from the ground, was 
constructed of rosewood, lignumvita), and mahogany, splen- 
didly polished, and inlaid with ivory and gold. On the 
back of the royal seat glittered a large sun, composed en- 
tirely of solid gold, weighing, as we were informed, twenty- 
two and a half pounds. A silken screen or barrier, about 
four feet high, completely enclosed the pavilion, at the dis- 
tance of one hundred feet, in order to restrain plebeian cu- 
riosity. But we feel it impossible to convey by mere 
words an adequate idea of this royal pavilion, and we 
were unwilling to excite observation by making a sketch 
of it on the spot. We had now been gratified with a 
view of the sultan in all his glory, of his heir, and of tlie 
throne itself. The only remaining appanage of royalty 
was the sultana, or empress-queen ; and here also we were 
gratified, as she drove past us on the field in an English 
coach and six. It is, however, a matter of acknowledged 
difficulty to convey at any time an accurate notion of a 
lady's face ; and in this case the difficulty was increased 



202 IKBTCRBS OF TUBXST. 

by the envious veil, which only permitted us to see her 
darkly-beautifiil eyes, and the tip of her royal nose.* The 
festivities of the day terminated by rope-dancing and other 
amusements, and in the evening by an exhibition of fire- 
works. The festival lasts three days, and during all tiiis 
time the men, women, and children remain on the field. 
To judge by the number of women, of all ranks, here, and 
<m other public occasions, one is at a loss to account for 
the errors into which most travellers have feUen, with 
respect to the rigid and jealous seclusion in which the 
Turks are supposed to keep their females. That this is 
not the case at the present day we feel amply prepared to 
prove; but, in compliment to the fair* subject, we shall 
reserve our remarks for a separate chapter. 

* A few dayi sabscqaent to thii we were informed, upon what we con- 
sidered good authority, that there is no such being in the Ottoman empire 
as a sultana, or empress, unless it be the mother of the reigning sultan. 
Our admiration and gaping wonder were therefore misplaced. The lady in 
question was, in all probability, the mother of the heir to the throne, but haa 
no rank nor title until her son assumes the royal sceptre. She then be- 
comes the valid ay sultana, or empress-mother, and always addresses her soo 
by the endearing epithets of ** My lion,** or *' My tiger.** Such, at least, are 
the titles prescribed by usage, and are equivalent to the '* Well-beloTed 
cousin** adopted among the xoyal race of Europe. 



SKKTCIUBS OF TUKKEY. 263 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Consklerationi upon the Condition of Females in Turkey — ^Their Souls— 
Yashmaks — ^Harem and Salamlik— Causes of this separation — ^Amuse- 
ments of the Women — Personal Appearance — ^Particulars in which they 
differ from the Europeans. 

If tlie uniform weight of evidence on any given subject 
is to be depended upon, we fear tliat the souls of the Turk- 
ish women are in a bad way. It is gravely stated, and 
repeated by every traveller in tliis country, that the Turks 
firmly believe tlieir females to have no souls. We once 
asked a sly old Mussulman the opinion of his countrymen 
on tliis subject, and the only reply was a contemptuous 
sneer at our gullibility ; but when he was assured that such 
stories were printed all over Europe, he took the liberty of 
indulging in a most undignified fit of laughter. Nothmg 
indeed can be more explicit than the language used in their 
religious code in reference to the souls of women. In tiio 
third chapter of the Koran it is said, ** The Lord sayeth, I 
will not sufier the work of him among you who worketh 
good to be lost, whettier he be male or female ; the one of 
you is from the other.'* In chapter 1 3 we have, •* The reward 
of these shall be paradise, whether he be male or female 
we shall surely raise him to a happy life." In chapter IC, 
** Whoso worketh good, whetlier male or female, and is a 
true believer, tliey shall enter paradise.'' In chapter 33 
we have even a still more positive declaration : ** Verily 
the Moslems of either sex, and the devout women, and the 
women of veracity, and the patient and the humble women, 
and the almsgivers of eitlier sex, and the women who fast, 
and the chaste women, and those of either sex who re- 



264 8JL£TCli£S OF TURKEY. 

member God frequently, for them has Cod prepared for- 
giveness and a great reward." Many odier texts might be 
quoted in confirmation of the strong religious belief on this 
subject, but we imagine that the above are amply sufficient 
In reference to this matter, there is an amusing story related 
of Mohammed, which is equally creditable to his ingenui^ 
and gallantry. Some of the Arabian commentators, upon 
the faith of an obscure passage in the 56th chapter, relate 
that an aged woman once begged Mohammed to intercede 
with the Deity to admit her into paradise. He replied 
abruptly that no old woman could be admitted ; but perceiv- 
ing that the poor body was much distressed, added, very 
gallantly, if not apostolically, that God would make her 
young again. This reminds one of the courteous French- 
man, who, in reply to tlie question why women were not 
admitted into the Chamber of Deputies, said, that to be a 
member it was rcciuisile to be forty years old, and it was 
impossible to supix)sc that any lady could reach tliat un- 
seemly age. 

Equally absurd with this general opinion as to tlie souls 
of the fair Moslems is the idea entertained willi respect to 
their bodies. But tiiis is a more excusable error, inasmuch 
as various circumstances in the manners of the Turks 
would lead one to infer that the women were kept in a 
constant state of rigid and jealous seclusion. In all oriental 
countries, women, in conseciuencc of their deficient educa- 
tion and the multiplicity of their household duties, form no 
part of general society, but that they are considered as 
important helpmates is manifest from the Turkish pro- 
verb — ^"A wife causes the ruin or the prosperity of a 
house." 

The general use of veils in the East is also set down to 
the score of the husband's jealousy, although it would be 
quite as easy to attribute it to tlie modesty of the women 
themselves. It would not perhaps be a difficult matter to 
prove that in Asia, tlie cradle of tlie human race, both men 



nOTCHBS OF TURXBT. 365 

and women used at first the same style of dress, but that 
the necessity for preserving the complexion from the efiects 
of a burning sun, or from the chilling blasts of winter, soon 
suggested a veil as a protection, and the desire of pleasing 
supplied other distinctive marks. In the most ancient his- 
tory extant, we learn that the veil was the greatest mark of 
distinction between the Hebrew male and female dress ; 
and in the East it is almost the case at the present day. 
In the Biblical Archeology of Jahn we find enumerated six 
different kinds of veils : 

1. The radeedf or hood. Songs v. 7. Isa. iiL 23. 

2. The tzamah ; covering the breast, neck, and chin, to 

the nose. Songs iv. 1, 3, 6, 7. Isa. xlviL 2. 

3. The riallah^ or mufiler. Isa. iii. 19. 

4. The mamafah; covering the whole body. Isa. iiL 

22. Ruth iii. 15. 

& The tztihif, or double veil. Gen. xxxviii. 14. 

6. The shebiseenif or caul, a thin, gauze-like fabric. 

Among this assortment of millinery it is not difficult to 
detect, by the description alone, to say nothing of the simi- 
larity of name, the prototype of that particular species of 
veil now worn by the Turkish women under the name of 
yashmak. This consists of a piece of white muslin, cov- 
ering the breast, and rising up over the mouth, and also 
covering the forehead. In the southern provinces of Asi- 
atic Turkey, the piece over the forehead is black and shades 
the eyes, and produces a very unpleasing efiect The 
general impression produced by these white yashmaks, 
although confessedly very trying to the complexion, is 
somewhat pleasing, and they remind one of the nuns of 
western Europe. 

The reluctance of the Turks to converse about w<xnen 
has also been alleged as a proof of their jealousy. The 
whole amount of this is, that they consider it an improper 
topic, and that to introduce any conversation on this subject 
if an undoubted evidence of ill-breeding. We have had 



260 nxTCHxs of Tinuanr. 

opportunities of hearing the remarks of even young Tmks 
on topics allied to this, and they would form an amusing 
contrast with the ordinary conversation of our well-edu- 
cated young men ; we need scarcely add that the advan- 
tage on the score of morality, to say nothing of propriety, 
is much in favour of the Moslem. When we therefore state 
that the Turks consider it as a mark of ill-breeding to speak 
of ea<^h other's wives, we offer at once an apology and^ui 
explanation of their conduct. It is a matter of conven- 
tional opinion upon which even Christendom is divided. A 
well-bred Frenchman conceives that he pays you a compli- 
ment when he assures you that your wife is an angel ; and 
a German will kindly inform you that your wife has a good 
heart ; while an American would feel offended by a public 
reference either to the accomplishments or to the excel- 
lences of his spouse. 

The internal arrangement or distribution of a Turkish 
household has also furnished a fruitful text for those who 
declaim about Turkish jealousy. Every house is in fact 
divided into two parts, — the hareiUy or women's apartment, 
and the salamlik, or part allotted to the men. This distri- 
bution is not exclusively Turkish, nor even exclusively 
oriental, for the Greeks have a similar arrangement in their 
Andronitis and Gyneconitis. This division is of great an- 
tiquity, for an allusion is made to it in the sixth book of the 
Iliad. In 1828, the excavations at Hcrculaneum exposed 
one of the most splendid private houses of the ancients ever 
beheld by modem eyes. In this a separate part of the 
mansion was allotted to females, and was exclusively occu- 
pied by them. 

We have been in several Turkish houses now occu- 
pied by Franks, where this arrangement can be conve- 
niently studied. A long room communicating with several 
others is the ordinary living apartment of the women and 
female domestics. In this room all the household opera- 
tions, such as sewing, spinning, weaving, &o., are performed. 



•KXTCHB8 OF TITRXKT. 267 

and here, too, they take their meals. Around this room is 
a range of closets or cupboards three feet high, which con- 
tain domestic utensils, clothes, and other articles appertain- 
ing to a household. Upon the top of these closets they 
deep at night, and, similar to the men, with their clothes oo« 
This unseemly practice they have in common with the 
Greeks, who do not, however, correct it like the Turks by 
firequent ablutions, and who are said, at least the lower 
classes, to wear out a suit of clothes before it leaves their 
backs. The apartments for the husband and the male 
domestics offer nothing peculiar, except that they are 
distinct from those of the women ; in some houses the com- 
munication is completely cut off except by a single door, of 
which the husband and wife have each a key. In others 
the food prepared by the women is conveyed into the salam- 
lik by means of a revolving cupboard, similar to the con- 
trivances used in the convents of Europe. The entrance 
from the street is equally distinct, and it is needless to add 
that the women have free ingress and egress. It is proba. 
ble that the women are quite as much satisfied with this 
arrangement as the men ; and if the truth could be ascer- 
tained, it would no idoubt be discovered that it originated 
with tlie women themselves. They must certainly be rid 
of those thousand petty annoyances which, we arc assured 
on competent authority, even the best of husbands are but 
too apt to create in an orderly family. For example, they 
are free from the nuisance of tobacco-smoke, of entertain- 
ing husband's ^ dear five hundred friends," of being com- 
pelled to listen to long-winded prosy conversations on trade 
or politics, and they are scarcely responsible for husband's 
appearance when he goes abroad. As they take their meals 
separately, there can be no sour looks or tart remarks 
should the beef be underdone, or the soup be parboiled ; 
and as the marketing is done by the women, the poor 
man must perforce receive thankfully whatever is placed 
before him, and swallow it without grumbling. Ws think 



nUBTCHES OF TVKKBT. 

that we have noticed in our own country an attempt of the 
men to copy at least a part of the Turkish system, by having 
a room exclusively to themselves, which they endeavour to 
defend against the brush of the whitewasher and the broom 
of the maid. Our good wives, in setting their faces against 
such pretensions, act, as we think, unwisely ; they riiould, 
as a matter of interest to themselves, rather encourage it, 
and when the good man meekly petitions for one room give 
him two, but upon the express condition that there only 
he must receive his company and entertain his friends. 

Marriage is highly honoured among the Osmanlis, and m 
widow almost invariably marries again. Indeed, so fiur it 
this opinion of the honourable estate of matrimony carriedp 
that old maids arc considered by the more orthodox as liT<» 
ing in perpetual transgression of the law. Boys are con- 
sidered of a<^ at twelve, and girls at nine, when marriages 
may be legally contracted. Although by law a man may 
have four wives, yet few are willing or able to avail them- 
selves of this doubtful privilege ; and so strong is the senti- 
ment against it, that a minister of Abdool Hamid L, who 
had four wives, was openly satirized by the Turks as m 
luxurious voluptuary. But aside from this, the expense of 
the dowry and of maintenance, domestic broils, and the 
scruples of parents to give a daughter to a man already 
married, o^K^ate as so many discouragements against m 
plurality of wives. It is, indeed, often the case, that when 
a man marries he enters into a solcnm contract with the 
parents not to conlract a second marriage during the lifi?* 
time of the first wife. Marriage is considered as a civil 
contract, and is ()erformcd by the imaun at the house of the 
groom, the bride btnng present only by proxy. To give 
additional sanctity, however, to the contract, it is not un- 
usual for botli to visit the nearest mosijue accompanied by 
their relatives, where certain formalities are performed. 
Preteojls are of course exchan^nl Ivforehand, and a certain 
tinie is allowed to the future hu^sbaud to make acrangements 



IKBTCHE8 OF TUBKET. S69 

for the dowry to be settled on his spouse. Weddings usu- 
ally last four days, and this time is consumed in frolicking 
and feasting. They usually commence on Monday, so as 
not to interfere with their Sabbath, which, as is well known, 
occurs on Friday. 

Every person who has been in Turkey, and is not afraid 
of speaking out his real sentiments, instead of timidly ac- 
quiescing in the loose reports of ignorant or prejudiced 
travellers who have preceded him, will agree with us when 
we state that women in Turkey actually enjoy more liberty 
than in the other countries of Europe or in America. We 
do not speak of the higher classes, for we know nothing 
about them, although our opportunities have been equal to 
those of most of our predecessors, and in many cases supe- 
rior. We allude to the middling classes, by which alone 
every country is to be judged, if judged fairly or cor- 
rectly. No stronger proof of the liberty they enjoy is 
necessary than the numerous parties of ladies which one 
meets with in the environs of Constantinople, which ex- 
cursions, from their frequency, appear to form almost 
the sole business of their lives. It is in fact a pleasant way 
of passing time, and resembles our own practices, except 
that it differs in its details. Instead of a formal card from 
Mrs. White to Mrs. Green and the Misses Green, the 
Turkish lady sends her servant to a friend, and asks her 
company to a ride out to Belgrade, or to an excursion on 
the Bosphorus. Instead of being bored to death like Mrs. 
White, who hopes half her dear friends will stay away, 
and, between the grumbling of husband and remissness of 
servants, is in a feverish flutter for a week or fort- 
night, the Turkish lady manages the business in a dif- 
ferent manner. The fair Fatimah orders provisions to be 
put up for a day's excursion, and leaving enough for her 
complaisant husband, steps into her cai'k and calls upon her 
friend the Lady Zaylilah. From thence the party proceed 
up the Golden Horn, or, breasting the Bosphorus, select 



270 SKETCHES OF TUSKE|i^ 

some lovely valley bordering upon that ^ ocean stream.* 
Here the friends spend the day surrounded by their house- 
hold, and continuing their customary avocations, while the 
young people are sporting under the shade of the lofty 
trees, and the party return home in the evening in high 
spirits, and with their health improved by exercise in the 
open air. It may be doubted whether our young women 
are equally benefited by spending an evening in a heated 
and crowded room, and vitiated atmosphere ; but we fear 
the comparison may be thought Gothic. 

In Constantinople, and the same may be said of aU Tur- 
key, the women occupy the markets, fill the streets, and 
barricade the bazars. Availing themselves of the general 
respect paid to their sex, they elbow their way through m 
crowd, regardless of whom they may derange in their way ; 
and the domestics do not even scruple to act upon the 
principle of " peaceably if wc can, forcibly if we must^ 
It has more than once been our lot, in a crowded bazar, to 
receive a substantial punch in the side, and, upon turning 
round, discover that the uncourteous salutation proceeded 
from the fair hand of some Turkish servant-woman, whose 
path we had unconsciously impeded. They never address 
a stranger, or even reply to a casual observation. In per- 
ambulating the bazars with two American children, I have 
been, however, frequently accosted by Turkish women, 
and their inquiries and observations were made with the 
most perfect freedom and simplicity. These facts are 
mentioned to show the unrestrained liberty enjoyed by the 
Turkish women ; and we are assured by persons, whose 
long residence and perfect familiarity with many Turkish 
families here entitle them to full credit, that the class of 
discreet and sensible husbands maliciously termed ben- 
pecked is as numerous in Turkey as in any other part 
of the globe.* 

* Mr. Arundel, in his pleasing tour to the Seven Churches, relatefl an 
anecdote which, although unimportant in itself, illustiatei our obaerratiooa. 



9BTCIIE8 OP TUBKEY. 271 

But while we thus expose the misrepresentations con- 
cerning the imprisonment and degraded condition of the 
women, it is equally due to c^andour and truth to state, that 
we cannot subscribe to the great personal beauty which is 
commonly attributed to them. It is true that we sec them 
partially disguised and enveloped in a dress which, accord- 
ing to our ideas of taste, would convert a Venus into a 
downright dowdy. Their yashmaks conceal their fore- 
heads and mouths, but, among the many revolutions going 
on, it may be reasonably expected that this will ere long 
disappear. Already is it becoming curtailed in its extent, 
more particularly with the young and good-looking, and we 
have frequently noticed it dropped altogether. Their eyes 
are usually dark, their complexion fair, and often with a 
tinge of sallowness, and a want of animation, or rather a 
listless languid air, appears to be uniform. Several Ameri- 
cans here have fancied a strong resemblance between them 
and our own dear countrywomen ; but after what has been 
said respecting them, it might be indiscreet to offer an 
opinion. We may, however, be permitted to mention a few 
particulars in which the Turkish women differ from our 
own. The out-door headdress of all classes consists of a 
white handkerchief, covering the head and part of the 
face ; hence they are totally free from all anxiety about the 
choice of a spring or fall bonnet A plain cloth cloak, or 
feridjee, covers the whole person, and of course leaves no 
scope for extravagance in silk or merino dresses, to be 
rejected at the end of the month as vulgar, because their 
dear friends have already the same pattern. Instead of 
gloves and stockings,, they stain their fingers and toes with 
khennah, and of course no inconsiderable item of expense 

Ha had enga^ a Tuik to conduct him to a neighbouring town. The wife 
followed, and alternately begged, scolded, and entreated, and at laat auc- 
ceeded in persuading her husband to turn back. When remonstrated with, 
she alleged as a reason that her husband was unwell, and that she ooold not 
think of permitting him to go out in such weather. 



Of TCHU% 

is mvoided Tbey give no grand entertainmenti» ivbera 
ostentation and display are substitiAed for friendly intef^ 
course, and, as theatres, baUs, and routs are alike unknoinw 
tbey usually oxitriye to reach ahealthy old age. 



CHAPTER XXVIIL 

Rnsdui Corrette— CompftiiMm between Riuaian and Qieek SeHo r i M i 
egement of Tuikish Neirj — ^Yerft Vatan Serai — Been Beer Diiek— T< 
taine— Ineeriptiona on them — SlaTe-maiket — ^Romanoee on ihia BiAjiil 
-—Decree of Freedom — Condition of Slaires in TnriDey. •» 

A Russian corvette-built ship came in to-day from tfao 
Black Sea. She was originally constructed by order and 
for the Russian government ; but when peace took place 
she was, with eight others, left upon the constructm's 
hands. This at least was the story, improbable as it may 
appear, in circulation at Pera. She is now brought in 
here for sale, but her name, the Navfurino, is scarcely m 
recommendation to the Turks. If not sold here, she will 
proceed to Alexandria. We had the curiosity to pay hsr 
a visit She is a rough-built vessel, of 700 tons, and can 
carry 26 heavy guns, is deeply laden with naval stores^ 
and will doubtless find a good market at Alexandria, where 
the unusual activity in the Egyptian marine begins to cause 
some uneasiness to the government here. The commander 
of this corvette was a Greek, and, if we remember rights an 
officer in the Russian service. His crew were all Greeks^ 
and upon expressing surprise at this circumstance, ha 
assured me that the Russians were the worst gjdors in tho 
world, and that, with his twenty-five Greeks, he was con* 
fident that he could handle his vessel better than with one 
hundred Russians. We were aware that the Russian navy 



8KXTCHE8 OF TU&KET. S7S 

was horribly mismanaged, but had always supposed that the 
chief difficulty lay in the officers ; and, on the other hand, 
we have never seen any thing to give us a very exalted 
opinion of the Greek sailor. In one particular, we should 
suppose the Russian far superior to the Greek. They are 
more subordinate, and this quality far outweighs the bodily 
activity attributed to the Greek. We were informed by a 
foreigner, that in a conversation with the admiral of the 
Turkish navy, he was asked why it happened, that Russia, 
with her immense revenues and naval resources, had been 
able to effect so little at sea. It was replied, that when- 
ever a Russian ship was fitted out, she was scarcely a week 
absent when some previously-concerted accident was made 
the pretext for her return, and the officers and crew pil- 
fered and sold every thing that could be taken out of her. 
** Mashallah !** exclaimed the admiral ; ** why, they behave 
exactly as we do." Any comment upon this is unneces« 
sary ; but one is disposed to wonder how, under such 
mismanagement and peculation, a fleet could ever be fitted 
out by either party. The Turks did, nevertheless, contrive 
to capture one Russian frigate in the Black Sea during the 
last war. 

Wednesday. During an early stroll through the streets 
of Constantinople this morning, we were surprised to find 
that the bazars were still closed, and would not be open 
until 7 o'clock. An Armenian informed us, that the Turks, 
although early risers, were still occupied with their devo- 
tions. Business before every thing else is but too oflen a 
favourite phrase with merchants ; but devotion before busi- 
ness appears to be the rule among the Turks. We had set 
out early, with a full determination to find the yaray patan 
seraif or subterranean palace, an immense reser\'oir, which 
was constructed to furnish the capital with water in case 
of a long drought or a siege. In the time of Gyllius, he 
relates that he navigated it in an open boat, and was sur- 
prised to find that the people living immediately over it 

N N 



■were not aware of its existence; According to Gnek 
hypeibole, this vast reservoir entirely swallowed up dM 
rivers Cydaris and Barbysesi — by which tbey merely niemt 
to convey the simple idea that it was supplied with wilar 
from these two pigmy brocks. After many fmitlesa kh 
qudries, we at last found the spot ; but the family occupying 
the house over the principal entrance were in the coontrj 
on a holyday excursioD, and we never afterward had an 
opportunity of repeating our visit The inquintive tiav^ 
eller may, however, find it in a street running north ftom 
the Atmeidan, and we were informed that it still sappKad 
the establishments connected with the rnosqiw of 8l SopUii 

The beat beer direk, or the thousand and one oolona^ 
designates another reservoir, which was formeriy fiDed 
with water. We descended into it by a long fli^t <tf 
rickety wooden steps to the depth of forty feet, when W6 
found ourselves in a dark and gloomy cavern. It is said 
to have been the work of Philoxenus, and to have been 
constructed during the reign of the Constantines. Then 
are openings at various places in the upper part of the 
vault, which at present admit light, but through which, in 
ancient times, the water was in all probability dravm from 
the reservoir. The earthen floor is very irregular, and in 
many places, where rubbish has been thrown in from above, 
the bases of the columns are concealed, and this has given 
rise to the idea that there are double rows of Mdnmns, one 
tier of which is now supposed to be entirely covered api 
W^ should think, from a rough estimate made on the spot, 
that this cavern contained an area of 40,000 square feet, 
and is supported by two hundred columns. Instead ef tbs 
" pallid wretches whose forbidding countenances were 
illumined by the glare of torches," we found simply a 
number of civil and industrious Jews, engagMl in the ddt 
cate and tedious operation of spinning silk by the dim light 
which entered from above. 

Upon emerging from this cave a Turkish Ud ofiered 



norrcHXf of turxxt. 275 

to show us beer shay goozelly or something very pretty in 
tfie neighbourhood. In the hope that we might accidentally 
stumble upon some undescribed curiosity, we followed im- 
plicitly our little guide to what appeared to be the ruins of 
an extensive palace. Descending a flight of stone steps, 
we were conducted through a series of gloomy vaults, well 
adapted for the scene of a bloody romance. From the 
massy strength and seclusion of these dungeons, they may 
be supposed to have been, in ancient days, used as prisons 
for the miserable victims of state policy ; but a more sober 
fancy would suggest that these subterranean vaults, now 
filled with stalactites, may have once served as public 
granaries* From this we were conducted to another reser- 
voir, resembling the been beer direkj but by no means so 
extensive. It was quite as deep, but did not contain more 
than forty pillars, which in their form bore a rude resem- 
blance to Corinthian columns. Like the been beer direkj it 
was occupied by silk spinners, for which its equable tem- 
perature, and exemption from currents of air, rendered it 
peculiarly appropriate. Besides these, there are in various 
parts of the city other reservoirs, whose tops have fallen 
in, and are now cultivated as gardens. Constantinople is 
at present so well supplied with water, that these public 
reservoirs have become in a great measure useless, but 
still we think that they should not have been abandoned. 
In case of a siege, under the present system of supply, the 
capital could not hold out a week, if the enemy should cut 
oflf its sources of water. 

The public fountains in the capital and suburbs invariably 
elicit the admiration of the traveller. They are usually in 
Ae Persian style, and often highly decorated. The most 
magnificent is that near Tophanna, or the military arsenal, 
jast above Galata. It is covered with poetical distichs, in 
Turkish, Arabic, and Persian, of which the following may 
serve as examples : — 



276 8ESTCHB8 OF TVBKaT. 

** This celestial foantain, which is esUhlished in a place worthy of kt 
distributes water in every direction^ through a thousand and a thousand 
channels." 

" Its purity is an evidence of its salubrity, and its limpidity is a pledge of 
its brilliant reputation.'* 

"As long as the drops of rain fall into its reservoirs, so long shall a hapfif 
people laud its virtues to the skies.** 

** May Divine justice render happy the author of this beneficent work ; 
may his memory be immortal." 

** This delicious fountain, described by Haifi, is, in the presence of (?od, a 
mtritorious act of piety of the Sultan Mahmoud, 1145." (1733.) 



Not far from the Burnt Column is the slave bazar, wlu4 
depending upon the information of books of travels, we 
have hitherto frequently passed as a place forbidden to 
strangers. Having been, however, assured to the contrary, 
we detennined this morning to pay it a visit* It consists 
of a quadrangular building, with an open court in the centre 
about 200 feet square. Around this square are raised 
platforms, three feet high, upon which the slaves are ex- 
posed for sale. Behind these are rooms with latticed win- 
dows, where the white women are kept until sold. In the 
court there were nearly a hundred black w^omen, whose 
scarred checks and striped dresses announced them to be 
from Darfur and Scnnaar. They endeavoured, by ges- 
tures and a strange gibberish, accompanied with shouts of 
laughter, to attract our attention, and induce us to become 
their purchasers. Strange as the fact may appear to many 
of our countrymen, who regard, very justly, slaverj' as a 
great moral and political evil, these poor beings, instead of 
shuddering at the approach of a purchaser, actually look 
forward to that event with undisguised pleasure. We 
have had frequent opportunities of observing the same 
feeling in the crowded slave-markets of South America* 
Travellers, who arc prone to draw upon their fancy for 
their facts, have indulged in strange flights of imagination 
on this subject A modern English Mendec Pinto* has 

* Madden. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 2T7 

particularly distinguished himself by his romantic pic- 
tures of ideal wo in the slave bazar of Constantinople. 
The white female slaves are chiefly from Circassia and 
Georgia, and, until within the last two years, from the 
Morea. By a decree of the Porte in 1830, the trade in 
Greek slaves was formally abolished ; and all Christian 
slaves who had become so in consequence of the Greek 
revolt were ordered to be set at libertv,and to be furnished 
with money to return home. This decree is so remark- 
able for its freedom from the cant of philanthropy, and for 
the naivete with which it exposes the reasons why the 
measure has been adopted, that for a state document it may 
be regarded as a curiosity. It is addressed to all the judges t 
naibs, governors, muselims, ayans, &c. of all towns and 
villages. The following is a translation of this curious 
decree : ** When seditious subjects revolted, and declared 
themselves rebels against their sovereign lord and bene- 
factor, the chief of the Sublime Ottoman Porte, a sentence, 
in accordance with the sacred law, was issued by the mufti 
against the rebels, so that those who persevered in their 
treason, and in their insolent sedition, should be punished. 
The Turkish army which marched against them punished 
and chastised them as long as they persisted in their rebel- 
lion, and their wives and children were made prisoners, and 
reduced to slavery. But, always magnificent and merciful 
to those who demand pardon and protection, our sovereign, 
although much irritated, is disposed, from feelings of com- 
miseration, to grant their pardon, in order to secure their 
tranquillity and restore them to their firesides. Therefore, 
considering that among the slaves there are some who, 
after having been purchased and sold, have been disposed 
to receive the lights of Mohammed, and have had the hap- 
piness to be admitted into the true faith ; that others have 
remained in the Christian belief, and have expressed a 
desire to return home, and, by their continual attempts to 
escape, can be of no utility to their masters : considering. 



278 SKETCHES OF TUSKBT. 

moreover, that now peace and order reign* under the pro- 
tecting shadow of his imperial majesty, who tolerates no 
fraud nor violence, — the said slaves, who have served a 
long time, looking continually towards their homes, have 
remained steadfast in their faith, and are only kept in 
slavery by force ; that if they gained their freedom, and 
were sent home, the empire will gain in population, and 
their masters, who freed them, will have enduring claims 
upon their gratitude. Therefore^ you will take care to 
cause to be published, and to explain the present decree, 
and see that it is executed. That is to say, you will cause 
to be fr^ed all the male and female slaves who have not 
embraced the Mohammedan religion. In order to do so, 
you will cause to appear before you all the slaves and their 
masters, and give them to understand that they do them- 
selves little credit, and deprive themselves of public esteem, 
by compelling slaves who refuse to renounce their faith to 
serve them by force. You will observe, especially, that 
this decree does not extend to those who have embraced 
Islamism ; watch carefully that these do not escape, and 
punish them according to law if they make the attempt. 

" As to those who have remained Christians, you will 
cause them to be freed ; you will furnish them with the 
money necessary to return to their homes ; and you will 
cause to be transmitted to the Porte a list of all who have 
been liberated by this present decree.** 

The chief supply of male and female white slaves has 
hitherto been from Georgia and Circassia, where they were 
sold by their parents or relatives. The condition of these 
nominal slaves is in point of fact rather enviable than other- 
wise, for the females become the respected heads of families, 
and the males are carefully educated and trained to occupy 
the most important stations in the empire. It is a curious 
fact, to which we have already adverted, that it is from this 
class that we see selected to fill some of the most elevated 
stations in the realm, persons who in other countries would 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 270 

be, from the circumstance of their origin, necessarily ex- 
cluded from any office whatsoever. From whatever cause 
this singular practice may have originated, there can be 
little doubt that its direct tendency has been to free the 
country from the shackles of an hereditary aristocracy, 
independent of the equalizing effect of its religious code. 
Whether it may not be more than counterbalanced by the 
absolute authority vested in the sultan, which is unrestrained 
by a proud and formidable nobility, is a question which 
with our ideas of government wc must frankly answer in 
the affirmative. 

By the late treaty with Turkey this traffic was formally 
abolished, on the plea of humanity ; but its inevitable effect 
has been to annoy the Turks exceedingly. It does not 
appear, however, .to be acted upon, or rather, we should 
say, the business has changed hands. In August last a 
Russian vessel arrived here with seventy slaves from 
Georgia. They were all immediately purchased up at 
prices varying from three to eight hundred dollars apiece. 
Sir John Chardin, who was in Mingrelia in 1G72, and wit- 
nessed this slave-trade in operation, thus speaks of it: 
** Crowds of women and children, half-naked, or covered 
with rags and filth, but resplendent with beauty, were 
hoisted on board, where their wretched apparel was ex- 
changed for clean, neat garments, and where, perhaps for 
the first time in their lives, they tasted bread." Should this 
treaty be rigidly enforced, we are told that the reigning 
Ottoman dynasty would finally be extinguished ; for as the 
sultan, by the laws of the empire, cannot marry one of his 
own subjects, he is compelled to select a wife from Circassia 
or Georgia. Perhaps, indeed, some of the royal families of 
Europe might compassionate his case, and kindly offer one 
or two of their marriageable daughters, in order to per- 
petuate the royal line. It may be doubted, however, 
whether such a proposition would be acceded to by his 
Ottoman majesty, as it would in the eyes of his subjects be 



connected with what they consider as the taint of Quia* 
tianity. The annals of the Ottoman empire, however, fur* 
Dish numerous examples of its sovereigns intermanyiog 
with Christian princesses^ Orchan was married to the 
daughter of a Grecian prince, and afterward to Theodma, 
daughter of the Emperor Cantacusene. Murad I. married 
a daughter of Emanuel 11. Bajazet I. was married to 
Mary Princess of Servia. Since Ibrahim L none have 
HEiarried, but have formed, as D'Ohsson (from whom I 
borrow these details) quaintly expresses it, unions de con- 
science. 

We have already alluded to the common but unfounded 
report, that the mother of the present reigning noonarch 
was a European. Some of the Irish residents here are 
positive that she must have been from the Green Isle, and 
sportively contend that the title of the sultan himself is an 
aigument in their favour ; for what is Padir Shah but a 
Turkish corruption of Paddy Shaw ? 

The black male and female slaves, who may be purchased 
for eighty or a hundred dollars, are employed as ser- 
vants, and there is no doubt that their condition is infinitely 
ameliorated by being removed from their own country. 
There, they were slaves in the worst sense of the word, 
with barely sufficient to sustain life, under the constant lash 
of the tax-gatherer or the spoliations of the marauder. 
Here, as soon as purchased, they become to all intents 
members of the family, partake of the same fare and at the 
same table, nurse the children, accompany the family in all 
their holy day excursions, are consulted and give their opinion 
freely upon all family matters, and in fact are considered 
more in the light of humble friends than as purchased 
slaves. If their master is exiled or disgraced, they follow 
his fortunes; and indeed from their supposed community d 
interest and feeling, it has hitherto not been unusual to 
include them in the same sentence of banishment They 
repay the kindness with which they are treated with the 



SUTCHES OF TURKST. 281 

a 

warmest afiection and gratitude, and we know of no coun- 
try in the world where the relative situation of master and 
slave is accompanied with fewer galling conditions on the 
part of the latter than in Turkey. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

DrogomBa of th« Porte — SalariM of OfBcera — Drogomen of Foreign Powert 
-—Bickerings between them and the Frank Residents — Greek School — 
Malta Press — Anecdote of the Seraiskier — Haii-storm — Presents to the 
Turkish GoTemment 

FuHNisHED with an introduction, we called upon the 
drogoman of the Porte, and found him in a low room on 
the ground-floor, without a single article of furniture except 
the divan. His oflice is held in a large public building near 
the great gate of the seraglio, from whence it has probably 
derived its name. It is here that the councils of ministers 
(commonly called the divan) are held, and the reis eflendi, 
or minister of foreign aflairs, has also his oflicc in this build- 
ing. Hence it is the place where the ambassadors of 
foreign powers transact their business, and the term Porte 
has in consequence become synonymous with the govern- 
ment of the country, in the same way that we speak of the 
closet or cabinet of St James's or the Thuilleries. The 
word Porte is also expressive of an oriental metaphor, 
meaning strength, durability, and majesty, and hence we 
have the grandiloquent phrase *' The Sublime Portc.^ The 
drogoman of the Porte is one of the most important and 
confidential officers of the government Through him all 
foreign afiairs are transacted with the reis efiendi, and the 
importance of having a man of capacity and integrity in 
such a station is sufficiently obvious. It was formerly held 

oo 



by the Greeks of tbe Fanar, and was the usual steppin^- 
atone to the principalities of Moldavia and Wallschia. 
As we cast our eyes round tbe low, dark room, we felt 
assured that wc stood in the identical apartmeot described 
by the author of Anastasius as the office of Prince Mav- 
royeni. 

The present incumbent is a native Turk, a soD-in-Iaw of 
the principal of the College of Engineers. He received 
us with great affability, and while smoking the customary 
pipe, he entered readily into gencial conversation. Near 
the comer of the divan where he sat, and within reach, 
was a small japan tray, containing a few narrow strips of 
paper, a couple of reed pens, an inkstand, sand-box, and bis 
official seal. With these simple implements, unaided by 
clerks, and independent of an organized bureau, he daily 
transacts all the complicated business connected with his 
department. He seemed to be well acquainted with the 
situation, political condition, character, and manners of our 
country ; at least ratlier better informed than wc are on the 
subject of Turkey. He informed us tliat not only his, but 
all the public offices throughout the empire, were open som 
after sunrise, and last until sunset, without intermission. 
They even take their meals, and, if there is no urgent busi- 
ness, indulge in a nap in their olTicc. His salary, we were 
afterward informed, does not exceed 81000, and yet with 
a station scarcely inferior to any in the empire, he is satis- 
fied to labour on, day after day, for a length of time &r 
beyond what a merchant's clerk in our country would con- 
descend to do for twice the amount. During our interview 
several persons entered on business, which was transacted 
in a low tone of voice approaching a whisper, and this we 
learned was the established official etiquette. Several 
drogomen of the foreign powers also dropped in, apparently 
to lounge away their time and relieve the ennui of their 
situation. They have a room in this building allotted for 
their use, and are expected to be within call in case their 



«KXTGHEf OF TVBKXY. 288 

services are required. They are each provided with a pair 
of yellow shoes, which they slip on over their boots when 
they visit the drogoman of the Porte, or are summoned 
by him. 

We have elsewhere observed that in consequence of the 
general ignorance among the Turks of any other language 
than their own, the ministers of foreign powers are com- 
pelled to treat with them through the medium of an inter- 
preter or drogoman, a term corrupted from the Turkish 
word tergiman. They are usually selected from the Euro- 
pean families who have resided in the country for several 
generations, and are perfectly conversant with the Turkish 
language. In many of these families the office has become 
almost hereditary, and the consequence has been the estab- 
lishment of a sort of local nobility. Several have acquired 
large fortunes by their office, and this, it is said here, could 
only have been done by betraying the interests of their 
employers. 

As they affect to look down with contempt upon the mer- 
chants of Galata, these, in their turn, return the contempt 
with interest A common proverb at Constantinople is ^ Dio 
mi guardi dai dragomani, io mi guardero dai cani." As 
there are no laws against defamation, and duelling is not in 
vogue, this petty warfare is kept up by squibs, mots, pas- 
quinades, and sometimes atrocious libels. The merchants 
of Galata repeat the distich, — 

In Pent sono tre malanni 
Peste, fuoco, dragomani, — 

while the drogomen retort by asserting that the merchants 
of Galata are so ignorant, that when a missionary distributed 
copies of the New Testament among them, they actually 
believed that St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians was 
addressed to themselves.* Although among our own ac- 

* This joke ii to be found in a very grave history. " Le people ignorant 
et atapide croyoit que I'epitre de St. Paul ad Galataa, avoit M adieiiia aux 



984 

qtuintoDces here we have found aa much refinement ind 
general inrormation aa in any part of Europe, yet it murt 
be confesBed that the schooimester has not been abroad in 
Galata. One of these mercantile worthies, althou^ he 
knew us to be Americans, actually congratulated us npcm 
the foil of Warsaw. 

Drogomen are, however, important aids to those powen 
which have political relations with Turkey. From the 
peculiarities of the Turkish character it is extremely diffi> 
cult to treat with them, eicept throu^ persons thorou^itf 
acquainted with their language, and their manner of tram* 
acting business. We have, however, ntiified ouraelTM 
that they would be great gainers in their tiansactions with 
foreign powers, if iheir chief officers of state at least wera 
acquainted with any one European language. The tranaac- 
tion of business through the intervention of a third party 
is always a tedious process ; is liable to frequent miscoi^ 
ceptions ; and the interpreters may consult their own 
private interest by misrepresenting or by giving a fiUse 
colouring to what has been said by either party. We sire 
otherwise at a loss how to explain the lact that the drogo- 
man of Russia is now one of the richest individuals of 
Pera. 

There is another disadvantage connected with it which 
one would suppose to have been long ere this sufficiently 
obvious. Ambassadors havebeen termed, and with justice, 
privileged spites, and the necessity for a large drogomanic 
retinue of course increases the number of these spies. The 
Russian diplomatic corps at Pera, for example, including its 
various drogomon, aspirants, jeunes dc langues, counsellors, 
&.C. dec, comprises at the present moment ninety individ- 
uals. If these people faithfully attend to the business for 
which they are paid, the consequences are sufficiently ob- 

habilani de « fRUtioiirg." — HUtmrt dn Bat Empirt depuu Cmtttntinpuft'i 
la frit de CoiutantinofU tn 14£3. Fu Jacquei CoKniia Itiijos. Ton. 



8KBTCIUBS OF TURXET. 285 

vious. The Turkish government can enter into no negotia- 
tion, nor mature any public measure, without its becoming 
public among the diplomatic runners of Pera. 

A drogoman is not, however, what his name implies, a 
mere interpreter. He is, or at least ought to be, the con« 
fidential friend and adviser of his minister. Occasions may 
and often do arise, when the imperious or abrupt demands 
of the chief are softened in passing through the drogoman, 
and hasty or inconsiderate expressions are modified and 
•ometimes suppressed. In conducting a negotiation, their 
personal acquaintance with the individual characters of the 
chief officers of state, and their knowledge of the *Uempora 
moUia fandi," render their services highly important. 

It may, however, well be questioned, whether their em- 
ployment is not attended with more inconvenience than 
benefit Ruphy has given a lively picture of the evils con- 
nected with this system. *'Ils etoient obliges de livrer 
leurs personnes et leurs intercts k la discretion de quelque 
trucheman renegat dont ils payoicnt ch^rement les services 
et quelquefois les infidelites — Ils etoient presque toujours 
tromp^s dans leurs transactions," &c. He advises to aban- 
don the old routine, to study the language, and then, to use 
the expressive terms of Volney, " L'industrie s'eveille, les 
esprits s'electriscnt, les idees se repandent, et bientot par ce 
contact general s'etablit cntre I'Asic et TEurope, une affinity 
morale, une communication d'usages, de besoins, d'opinions, 
des mcBurs, et cnfin dcs lois." 

Our minister here. Commodore Porter, has attempted the 
novel experiment of dispensing with the services of a drog- 
oman, and transacts his business directly in French through 
the drogoman of the Porte. This is a direct appeal to the 
candour and good faith of the Turkish government, which 
cannot fail to make a favourable impression. Of course, 
this unheard-of innovation has occasioned universal scandal 
among the diplomatists of Pera, and they pour upon his 
head the same wrathful and bitter denunciations with which 



# 



fae was once honoured by an English Quarterly Review. 
They have indeed reason to be alarmed, for if the example 
of Commodore Porter should be imitated by the other 
ambassadors, the brilliant star of drogomanerie will set in 
darkness, and the world will lose the radiant glories of the 
petite noblesse of Pera** 

Titesdojf. In company with a young Greek who has been 
educated in one of our eastern collies, we visited a Greek 
school of mutual instruction, which has been established by 
some of his relatives at YenikeuL It was under an hamUe 
shed, but the young Grecians, to the number of sixty, went 
through their exercises with great spirit and commendable 
accuracy. Under ordinary circumstances, we do not knoiw 
of a more interesting spectacle than a well-regulated schooL 
In its little population we behold our successors oa the 
theatre of life, and upon their improvement depends their 
future character and prospects, and the welfare of unborn 
generations. These considerations receive additional in- 
terest when we survey a school like the present, composed 
of lads whose parents have just passed through the bloody 
ordeal of a revolution, and whose ancestors are habitu- 
ally (we do not say correctly) associated in our minds 
with the most splendid and glorious passages of history. 
It was gratifying to perceive that to America this and 
almost every other great school in Turkey and Greece is 
indebted for its elomentary books of instruction. For such 
truly benevolent and disinterested labours mere human 
praise is inadequate, but they are richly repaid in the ines- 
timable benefits they confer on the present and future gen- 
erations. These books are printed at the American print- 
ing-press at Malta, which has been unwearied in its efforts 

* Since the above was written, an American gentleman (Mr. Hodgeon), 
who has devoted much attention to the oriental languages, has been formallj 
appointed drogoman to our embassy. If a drogoman must be employed, 
this is hx preferable than to be compelled to use the tervices of a for«igiMr, m 
•ray MikM of the word. 



SKETCHES OF TU&KBT. 287 

to do good. According to an official statement, it appears 
that from the year 1822 to 1829 there were issued from the 
Malta printing-press 250,000 copies of various reHgious 
works, containing more than ten millions of pages in Greek, 
Italian, and Turkish with Armenian characters. It is a 
subject of regret that such benevolent efforts should in 
some instances have taken a wrong direction. Nearly 
forty thousand dollars have been expended upon works 
which are as unintelligible to the Greeks or Turks as a 
Pelham novel would be to "Split Log" or "the Black 
Hawk." The remedy, however, is easy. Instead of trans- 
lating the Dairyman's Daughter, and other tracts of a simi- 
lar character, let the missionaries be instructed to compose, 
on the spot, short stories filled with local allusions, and 
naturally arising out of the scenes and manners around 
them. Let them write something in the style of the Ara- 
bian Nights, always however, with a moral end and aim, 
and they will be read with avidity. Of this Malta printing- 
press we may further remark, that although the English 
government permits, or, as it is expressed, " sanctions its 
Operations ;" yet it is with the express condition that no 
tract shall be circulated on the island. It would be natural 
to suppose that this saving clause originated in the peculiar 
morality and intelligence of the islanders ; but truth compels 
us to state, that throughout the Levant the name of Maltese 
is connected with all that is turbulent, fanatical, dishonest, 
and immoral. 

These Lancasterian schools are very popular among the 
Greeks, and the wealthier classes contribute liberally to- 
wards their support. Through the unwearied zeal of our 
excellent missionary Mr. Goodell the Armenians are com- 
mencing schools upon a similar plan; and it is through 
them that Mr. G. expects ultimately to introduce a more 
elevated scheme of instruction among the Turks. This it 
is impossible to effect through the medium of the Greeks; 
for any thing would be received with distrust from that 



If 



388 8KXTCHX8 OF TUBOnT. 

quarter. Like the Romans, the modem Turk, howerer he 
may be disposed to give them credit for cleverness and 
ingenuity, heartily despises their character. During our 
residence in Constantinople, some of the European Catho- 
lics had insinuated into the ears of the government that the 
Americans were busy with a new plan of enlightening the 
Greeks, and that it would be advisable to watch their pro- 
ceedings. The head of one of the schools was sent for by 
the seraiskier, and questioned as to his system. The 
teacher exhibited his books, and gave a detail of his nnxle 
of instruction. ^ I see nothing but what is good in this,* 
said the old seraiskier ; " but I know of no reason why it 
should be confined to our Greek subjects. I must visit your 
school some dav, and see how your system works. If it is 
good, our own people shall have the benefit of it. Leave 
your books with me, and I shall take care to show them to 
the grand mufti." Since that period the number of schools 
has greatly increased in and about Constantinople. 

Just before our departure from this school at Yenikeui, 
the principal gave us a specimen of what Frederick of 
Prussia was in the habit of terming " praying by battalions." 
At a given signal all the pupils rose, and repeated after the 
master a series of prayers, with a rapidity which rendered 
them totally unintelligible. The levity and indecent haste 
with which they were uttered gave the whole affair more 
the appearance of a regular frolic, than an humble and peni- 
tent act of devotion. It certainly contrasted very strongly 
with the lowly and unaffected manner in which the Turks 
address their inaudible petitions to the Deity. 

Wednesday. We were all startled from our beds this 
morning by a noise resembling that which precedes an 
earthquake. A dense cloud, as black as ink, approached rap- 
idly towards us from the south-west, accompanied with low 
muttering thunder and a rushing sound which it is impos- 
sible to describe, and from that circumstance was rendered 
the more appalling. In the course of a few minutes hail 



nSTCHES OF TUBXBT« 280 

began to fall of a size exceeding any thing of the kind we 
had ever witnessed. The whole surface of the Bosphorus, 
as far as the eye conld reach, presented a singular appear- 
ance. The fall of these enormous stones on the smooth 
surface of the water resembled the operation of millions <^ 
little miniature water-spouts. Many of these hailstones 
which we measured exceeded ten inches in circumference. 
An apothecary in the neighbourhood weiglied several, which 
were found to be 100 drachms in weight. Their shape 
was very irregular, and resembled an aggregation of several 
hailstones ; but this could scarcely have been the case, for 
when examined some time after their fall, a distinct radiated 
structure was observed, fix>m the center to the circum- 
ference, on their smooth melted surface. They were 
probably formed in a very elevated region. We are not 
aware that the fact is constant, but as far as our recollec- 
tion serves, showers of hail of a preternatural size in 
northern latitudes are usually accompanied by southwest 
winds. 

The ravages of this storm were very severe. From our 
elevated position we observed the tiled roofs beneath us 
shattered like glass. Most of the windows in the rear of 
our palace were protected by shutters ; but more than one 
hundred panes of the largest size and unusually thick were 
shivered to atoms in the course of a few minutes. The 
storm did not exceed half a mile in breadth : it passed over 
Constantinople, Galata, Pera, &c. along the Bosphorus, 
which it crossed near its outlet into the Euxine. Its course 
could be distinctly traced by its ravages, for it broke glass, 
unroofed houses, stripped trees, destroyed poultry, and 
killed two men in the outskirts of the city. 

It is an ancient oriental custom to accompany the trans- 
action of all important business by an interchange of 
presents. We were fa vouifed:r yesterday with a sight of 
the presents which are, intended to . be- presented by our 
minister to this government as soon as the treaty shall be 

pp 




ntiM : they conntted at ranfilboxef, frna, tpy-^tuam, 
watdm, cf^ee-cup rtands, and other knickmcki, all ^W 
tering with diaii)(»idt and preciooi itooeB. One aoafftiOK 
rIodc, which was intended for the saltan tiJnuftlf, eoM 
•10,000 ; and the total value (rf* aU the preaenU amovitMl 
to neariy 40,000 doUan. Frerioai to the distribotioB of 
preientB there ii a liat handed in to the minister cootuniog 
the namea of the several officers of government, from tfas 
mltan downwards, with the amount in money which tmA 
expects to rteeive. The {wesents tbemselres an merdy 
intotded to disguise the transaction; but they hare eadi ■ 
Muitet value, and find their way immediately into dia 
jeweller's bands to serve for antther occasion. This iden- 
tical snufT-box, for example, baa no doubt passed tbroufj^ 
the hands of the aultan, the brokers, and the foreign minia- 
ters, upon a dozen dilTerent occasions. 

We have mentioned that when a mimster is presented, a 
treaty ratified, or any other public act performed, an ex- 
change takes place of presents of equal value. The 
Turkish government had, however, been informed of the 
seizure and sale of the horses which had been presented to 
a former American agent, Mr. Rhind, and of course will 
make no return to our minister. This system of making 
presents appears to us highly absurd, but it is one of those 
oriental customs which will probity never be eradicated. 

There axe two kinds of presents — the paysck kayich, or 
noble present, . and the boAthish, or simple douceur. The 
former is reserved for great occasions between diplomatic 
personages, while the latter is an ordinary transaction be- 
tween private individuals. The bakskisk descends even 
lower in life, and is equivalent to the " please to remem- 
ber me, your honour," of the English servant, or the pecu- 
niary demand of the Italian domestic because you have 
visited his master. It resembles, too, English taxation, for 
it pursues you everywhere, and meets you at every turn. 
If you call upon a Turkish grandee, the aervants i 



gRMCIUW OF TCRKST. 291 

themselves at the door as you depart, and, holding out their 
hands, repeat the magical word ^ bakshish.'' If the visits 
are repeated the bakshish must also be continued, and at 
the close of the year they call upon you in a body to ex- 
tract a more liberal bakshish. When you have purchased 
an article, no matter how small or insignificant, the vender, 
after receiving his due, repeats, in a wheedling tone, bakshish. 
You pay a boatman even something over the stipulated 
price, and he exclaims, in a modest half-query, bakshish 7 
It is the first word which a stranger learns, and it is almost 
the last which he hears upon quitting Turkey. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Ratification of the American Treaty — History of the yariouB Attempts made 
to obtain a Treaty — Circumstances attending the Exchange of Ratifica- 
tions — Intrigues — Final Success. 

The treaty between Turkey and the United States is at 
last, after a number of tedious and vexatious delays, finaUy 
ratified. These delays have arisen, partly from the pro- 
crastinating habits of the Turks, and partly from circum- 
stances foreign to the treaty itself. But, at length, in spite 
of official sluggishness, drogomanic intrigue, the mancBuvres 
of pretended friends, and of secret foes, it has been brought 
to a happy conclusion, and destroyed a fertile subject of 
scandal, innuendoes, hints, and conjectures, which has for the 
last three months occupied every tongue in Pcra. 

It has been proverbially a matter of great difficulty for 
any nation to make a treaty with Turkey. France, in 1543, 
succeeded in making a treaty of commerce, after a tedious 
negotiation which lasted ten years. Their great commer- 
cial rivals, the English, did not obtain a similar treaty, 



292 ttOnCBMB OF tiikehv. 

although backed by the most potent arguments and eoo* 
sideratioDS, until fifty years afterward, under Elizabeth. 

Exaggerated ideas of the value of the Turkish trade 
early led us, soon after the formation of our government, 
to attempt to form a commercial alliance with TuriKsy. 
Through this we naturally expected to share in the com- 
merce of the Black Sea, which had hitherto been cloted 
against our mercantile enterprise. Various attempts were 
made at different periods to effect this desirable objecttbott 
through the mismanagement of the agents on some occa- 
sions, and the opposition of the conmiercial powers on aO, 
these efforts were fruitless. 

The first attempt was made during the administraticm of 
Washington. Mr. King, who was then in Liondon, em- 
ployed an English gentleman, whose familiarity with the 
language, and acquaintance with the peculiarities of the 
Turkish character, seemed to render him a suitable^ person 
for this service. He was sent to America with despatches, 
and to receive farther instructions from Washington, but 
on his passage was captured by a French privateer, and 
sent to Verdun. We have forgotten his name, but he is 
still alive, and an English consul on some part of the coast 
of Syria. 

Mr. Offley, our present able and efficient consul at 
Smyrna, was then furnished with powers to form a treaty, 
but, as we have been informed, it fell through, chiefly in 
consequence of the publicity which accompanied hiseiibrts. 
Mr. Bradish, of New- York, was subsequently authorized 
to negotiate, but, in spite of the favourable impression 
which he made upon the Turks by the manliness and 
urbanity of his character, his efforts were equally fruitless. 
He failed entirely through the open and avowed hostility 
of the English ambassador. Another attempt was made 
through Mr. English, of Boston, but, through some un- 
worthy jealousies on the part of his associates, as we are 
informed, this was also a failure. Mr. English possessed 



8KETCHS8 OF TURKBT. 29S 

peculiar advantages for this undertaking, having resided 
for several years in the East, but, like Murad the Unlucky, 
his course through life was a continued series of disap- 
pointments and disasters. 

The treaty so often made the subject of negotiation was 
finally brought to a successful issue by Mr. Rhind, of New« 
York, whose conduct on that occasion deserves great com- 
mendation, indeed much more than it was his good fortune 
to obtain from the public servants of the United States. 
The private history of this negotiation, the intrigues em- 
ployed to counteract it, the stratagems resorted to, the 
plot and counterplot, give it rather the air of a romance 
than a tale of real life. If Mr. Rhind should ever be 
induced to publish an account of this negotiation, it wiU, 
no doubt, form an amusing chapter in the annals of diplo- 
macy. It is due to the Russian government to state, that 
its ministers and public agents at Constantinople afforded 
Mr. Rhind every assistance in their power; and their 
services, particularly those of Count Orloff, were eminently 
useful. In this particular, the Russian government stood 
alone. Mr. Rhind, as we learn firom himself, was em- 
powered to act alone, but, from a desire to conciliate 
various interests, requested that Mr. Offley, and the com- 
mander of the Mediterranean squadron, should be asso- 
ciated with him. Mr. Rhind proceeded alone to Constan- 
tinople, and there, by dint of perseverance during the long 
Mohammedan festival, when the English and other ambas- 
sadors supposed it to be impossible to transact any busi- 
ness, he brought the affair to a successful issue. The 
treaty was in the usual form, and contained a secret article, 
which was totally distinct and separate from the treaty. 

It had been the invariable custom of the Ottoman gov- 
ernment to consider commercial treaties as privileges which 
they conferred upon foreign nations, and, as a matter of 
course, an equivalent in some shape was always expected. 
It was manifestly impassible to purchase a treaty, and yet 



'^ 



SM mpvcHM OP fwujifi 



it wu a matter anxiously desired by our go ve mment b 
thii dilemma it occurred to our iiegotiator»*that a permi*- 
son to build ihipa in America, a subject upon which dw 
Ottoman government had expressed much anxiety, would 
be omsidered by them as a full equivalent for the trealy. 
As this secret article was afterward the subject of much 
discussion, we give it here entire, suppressing merely the 
titles and useless repetitions, in order that our readers maj 
jbnn an opinion finr thenuelves. 

^SnC3Kn' AKTICIiB* 

^ The object and motive of this writmg is, that ai unlil 
the present there has existed no treaty or official and dipk^ 
matic convention between the Sublime Porte and the Umtad 
States, we, the undersigned, clothed with the high rank of 
Riasset (chancellor of state), and authorized by the Sublime 
Porte to negotiate with our friend the honourable commis- 
sioner and plenipotentiary of the United States, Charles 
Rhind, who has arrived here, to conclude, separately or 
conjointly with the two other commissioners who are at 
Smyrna, we have concluded and exchanged between us the 
articles of the treaty. In consequence of this treaty being 
concluded, and by reason of the most sincere and perfisct 
friendship which has been established between the two 
« powers, and the. reciprocal advantages that must result 
therefix)m, this secret and separate article has been drawn 
up. In consideration of the abundance and excellence of 
ship-timber in the United States, and its cheapness, and in 
testimony of the sincere friendship entertained by the United 
States towards the Sublime Porte, it is agreed that when- 
ever the Sublime Porte wishes to build any number of two- 
deckers, frigates, corvettes, or brigs, the foreign minister, 
Riasset, &c., shall address himself to and concert with the 
minister of the said power upon the mode of making a 
contract for such vessds. This contract shall contain all 



SKXTCnES OF T1711XBT. 295 

the conditions relative to price and time, and the mode of 
delivery at Constantinople, so that vessels may be built 
after models furnished by the imperial admiralty, as strong 
and as durable as vessels belonging to the government of 
the United States, and at no greater expense. And if the 
Sublime Porte wishes, the commissioners on both sides shall 
so arrange it that vessels thus built in the United States 
may take as cargo the timber for building another vessel as 
large as the vessel transporting it, and at no greater cost 
than is paid by the United States. 

«• 14 Zibidhay, Cherisaay, 1245 {7th May^ 1830).** 

This is the famous secret article, which was subjected to 
a strict scrutiny in the senate of the United States. On 
the one hand it was contended that it would be trenching 
upon our settled policy of strict neutrality, and that it might 
by possibility embroil us with foreign nations ; that it was 
at variance with frank and open policy to have any secret 
articles at all ; and that in treating with foreign nations we 
had always acted on the footing of equals, neither asking 
nor granting a boon. It was also urged that the very article 
in question was one which we could ill spare, and that all 
our efforts should be directed to keep it in the country for 
the use of government 

On the other hand it was maintained, that we were bound 
to respect the usages of other governments, if we desired 
to establish an intercourse with them. That with respect 
to the article in question, our government had shown them- 
selves incompetent to protect that small portion which was 
public property, and that the stipulation with respect to the 
price amounted to nothing, inasmuch as it was well known 
that armed ships could be cheaper and better built in private 
dockyards. It was also maintained that secret articles 
were no novelties in our diplomatic intercourse, and that its 
adoption would lead to the encouragement of an important 
branch of domestic industry. Finally it was urged, that the 



jMS noETCHXB or tubkst. 

aecret article, in point of foct, however important it might 
be considered by the Turkish govermdent, conceded no 
privileges which any other foreign .nation did not equally 
possess, which they aheady enjoyed, and could avail tbem- 
•elves of without any treaty at alL 

Such were the arguments used on this occasion; but 
whatever might have been their weight or importance^ 
they had no influence on the decision of the question. The 
treaty was ratified, and the secret article rejected by a par^ 
vote. There was a circumstance connected with the rati- 
fication of this treaty, which it may be necessary to advert 
to as connected with its diplomatic history. The original 
treaty was of course written in Turkish, and a French 
translation of it was made by the drogoman of the United 
States, a Mr. Navoni, a person whose services in negotia- 
ting the treaty had been highly importanL In order to give 
this translation an official authority, it was formally certi- 
fied to be correct by the drogoman of the Porte, and thus 
every precaution was taken to avoid mistake or misconcep- 
tion. In the discussion which took place in the senate, this 
translation, in which elegance had been sacrificed in order 
to ensure verbal accuracy, was severely handled, and even 
the Turkish original was declared to be suspiciously obscure. 
We are at a loss to understand how any person could have 
ventured to give an opinion on such a subject, for at that 
time there was not a person in tlie United States com- 
petent to decide the question. A new translation was 
made out, and it was this translation which the senate 
ratified. 

The administration were desirous of giving the exchange 
of ratifications an imposing form, in order to conciliate the 
Turkish government. With this view it was deemed highly 
important that a minister or envoy should be despatched to 
Turkey to exchange the ratified treaty ; but in this they 
were thwarted by the opposition. There appears to be in 
this world a retributive political as well as poetical justice. 



SKBTCHB8 OF TUBKBT. 297 

The administration of that day had come into power under 
the popular but delusive clamour of extravagance, waste, 
and reform, and now they were foiled on an important point 
with the same formidable but unworthy weapons. An 
outcry was raised against the extravagance of appointing 
a minister, when a simple charge d'affaires would be com- 
petent to transact all the business; and doubtless there 
were numerous disinterested persons who would have 
willingly undertaken to contract for even a business of 
much more delicacy for half the money. The opposition 
carried their point, and a charge was appointed. 

Before his arrival at Constantinople the Turkish govern- 
ment had been apprized of all that had passed; they had 
also learned, and their oriental pride was not a little dis- 
turbed at learning, that the horses presented by the sultan 
to Mr. Rhind had been seized by the government of the 
United States^ and sold at public auction. Accordingly, 
one of the first questions agitated was to know why a min- 
ister plenipotentiary had not been employed to negotiate so 
important a matter as a public treaty. It was explained 
that we were a very economical people, and that in fact we 
recognised no difference between the two ranks, except on 
the score of salary ; that we were as yet young among 
nations, and scarcely older, as one of our agents told the 
leraiskier, than the beard of his highness. '' I understand 
all that," said the old man; ''but you send a minister to 
Russia, and even to the petty republics in the southern part 
of your continent, and why do you insult us by sending an 
inferior officer ?" With regard to the seizure and sale of the 
horses, although an exceedingly small matter on the part of 
our government, it was explained to their satisfaction that 
the law on this subject was too imperative to be disregarded ; 
but that no disrespect was intended to the sultan. At this 
juncture our charge d'aflSires* Commodore Porter arrivedy 

* It ifl to be regretted that we have do good English word to take die place 
of this awkward French compoand. Is our language too poor for an equiT- 

Q Q 



and it required all the good sense and AimneM whidi dw- 
tJDguiahes tliat gallant officer to prevent an open rupture^ 
After several conferences, in which these prelimiDaiy nriat- 
ters were fully discussed, the rejection of the secret article 
was taken up. It required considerable address to explain 
to the Turkish government why we had refused them 
privileges which every nation possessed; and they evea 
adduced the example of those vessels which had been built 
for their rebellious subjects the Greeks. Tltey were in- 
formed that the secret article granted them no privil^ei 
which they had not already ; and that the Ottoman govern- 
ment could cause a fiect to be built, if they wished it, in the 
United States without any molestation. 

At this stage of the negotiation difficulties arose about an 
excliange of salutes between the American vessel of war 
in which Commodore Porter had arrived and the Turkish 
batteries. It has been the leading topic of the day among 
the Frank residents, and so many different versions have 
been given of the transaction, that it is almost impossible to 
Btnte its precise nature. It terminated, however, in a civil 
intimation from the Turkish authorities, that the departure 
of the vessel in question would l>c particularly ngreeable, 
and slie accordingly left the harbour. The Turks, who 
sometimes uke odd views of things, cannot be made to 
conceive why so much importance should be attached to 
so simple a matter as the burning a few pounds of pow- 
der. They give no salutes, nor do they ask for any. If 
you tell them that the ship is the representative of the 
country, they ask if the captain represents the king or 
president and the officers the congress ; and when you put 

Hipnt lerm, ot loo infleiihle for a coEnpaanil epithet 1 or m we loo timiil to 
invenlawurJ which Bhall ileoignktelhia fuoctionirj! We do not ptofn* U 
be Toncd in Jiplumntic lore, but if a new worJ ahould be thought too gntt 
un inni>*Miuii, why not Jcsignalo him a* correiponJing secrelarj, or u re«- 
Jenll Anj lemaculni teim tlmott ij better ibui to diafixun our alraidy 
piehald buiguH^. 



nCBTCHEt OF TURJUBV. 909 

the salute on the footing of a compliment to their sultan, 
they reply that they do not require such noisy and empty 
compliments, and that in their own country they might 
surely be permitted to indulge in their own usages. An 
efiendi, to whom we endeavoured one day to explain the 
nature of the compliment, said, ** I observe that you Chris- 
tians take off your hats to each other when you meet ; is 
this a compliment or act of courtesy similar to that which 
you have been endeavouring to explmn?" To this we 
assented. " Pray, then, what would be your opinion of a 
stranger who walked into your house and addressed you 
in this manner — ^ I am a stranger to you, sir, but wish to 
be your friend, and to give you a convincing proof of it I 
will now take off my hat and salute you; but first I must 
liave your promise that you will take off your own in return, 
otherwise I shall help myself to a chair, and take no further 
notice of you V " This was putting the business of salutes 
in a novel light, and we left our Turkish friend chuckling 
over the ingenuity of his comparison. 

This matter had no sooner been adjusted than another 
<iifficulty arose in a different quarter. The drogoman of 
our mission, Navoni, supposing that as his appointment 
liad emanated equally with that of the charge from the 
senate, he was not precisely under his orders, refused to 
accompany the secretary to the Porte, although he expressed 
his willingness always to wait upon the charge. He was 
instantly dismissed from the service, and great was the hue 
and cry that ensued. On the one hand, it was maintained 
by the friends of the deposed drogoman that this measure 
was owing to the intrigues of tlie secretary, who wanted 
the situation himself, and who had been a candidate pre- 
viously ; but the senate tliought proper to confer it upon 
Navoni as a reward for past services. On the other side, 
it was stated, and we believe justly, that Navoni had been 
deeply mortified by the appointment of a simple charge 
instead of a minister plenipotentiary. His rank and emolu- 



800 8KBTC1IES car Timxxr. « 

menu were of course much diminished by this meatuiv, 
and he was moreover excessively indignant that our gov-- 
emment had refused to date his salary from the commence- 
ment of his services. It was accordingly said* that while 
he had been openly lukewarm in the cause, he had been 
secretly exerting all his influence to prevent the treaty 
from being ratified. We give no opinion on these matters, 
but merely state both sides of the question. We cannot, 
however, refrain from expressing our firm belief that an 
Americcm drogoman, if acquainted with the language, is a 
thousand times to be preferred to a foreigner ; and that we 
hope in future to see this and similar posts filled by our own 
countrymen, to the exclusion of men who have not nor can 
have one feeling in common with ourselves. 

We are now approaching the denouement of this diplo- 
matic drama. Every thing was ready to sign, seai and 
deliver, when suddenly the unfortunate Wasliington trans- 
lation was brought forward, and declared by the Turkish 
authorities to be a false and spurious document. As by the 
terms of the treaty, if not ratified by a certain day which 
was near at hand, it would be null and void, and as there 
was no time to send home for instructions, it was taken for 
granted tliat the whole affair would fall through. Much 
chuckling ensued among the agents of those powers sup- 
posed to be most interested in excluding us from the Black 
Sea ; but their triumph was of short duration : Commodore 
Porter, with that straight- for ward decision which renders 
all the cobweb tissues of diplomacy unavailing, boldly cut 
through the entangled snare. He is represented to have 
stated, that as the senate supposed tliat they had ratified 
the original Turkish treaty, he was willing to act upon that 
principle, and would take upon himself the responsibility, 
if any there was, of signing the original Turkish document 
instead of the Washington translation. To this there could 
be no objection ; and thus, after a wearisome -negotiation 



8KBTCHB8 OF TVRXKT. 801 

of two months, in which intrigues of all kinds were at work 
to defeat our minister, the exchange of ratifications has 
finally taken place, and the Americans here feel as if they 
were now on an independent footing. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

AnneDian Party — Their Drea„ ph^ri^ter and History of tha Armeniant^— 

Their Occupations — Religious Distinctions among them — Exile of th« 
Catholic Armenians — Circumstance which led to their recall — ^Pait taken 
by them during the Russian Campaign — ^Their literary turn. 

We were invited a few evenings since to the house of a 
friend, where we were informed that several Armenian 
ladies would be present, and where we should have an 
opportunity of seeing in perfection the exact costume of 
the higher classes of Turkish ladies, as they appear upon 
occasions of ceremony when male visiters are excluded. 
The Armenians in fact resemble the Turks more than any 
other people. Like them, they are of oriental origin, and 
in manner, customs, modes of thinking, and every thing but 
religion, may be considered as the same people. The Ar- 
menian party consisted of four ladies, accompanied by their 
husbands, brothers, and father. They were, indeed, dressed 
out in a marvellous manner, and one in particular was so 
splendidly attired, that albeit unused to describe the fancy 
work of milliners, we must in compliment to our fair readers 
attempt at least a sketch of her appearance. 

A small scarlet cap with a purple tassel just fitted the top 
of her head, and round this was gracefully wound an ample 
turban of silver tissue, with a superb sprig of the most 
costly diamonds in firont The hair, which was fiincifiilly 



802 SKBTCHSS OF TUBUnT. * 

intermingled with silk of various hues, hung dpwn in 
graceful curls over the back and shoulders. A dark velvet 
jacket with large variegated silken sleeves, embroidered 
with gold in the most expensive style, fitted tight to the 
body above, and hung down about her feet in^vers strange 
and fantastical scollops and appendages, which it is utterly 
impossible to describe. An open under dress of black 
crape, and beneath this the prettiest Turkish drawers in 
the world, of gold and silver tissue, with tiny yellow ter- 
leeks, or boots, completed the most splendid and certainly 
the most costly dress we ever witnessed. In the dazzling 
effect produced by this gorgeous and becoming dress, and 
its connexion with a lovely face, we certainly never ihould 
have dreamed of its pecuniary value, had it not been whi»- 
pered to us that the little gipsy actually wore on her person 
at that moment articles costing not less than five thousand 
dollars. The splendid diamond ring on her finger was a 
present from her husband when they were first betrothed, 
and the brilliant sprig or plume in her turban was another 
present when she first unveiled and permitted her husband 
to see her face. Although the general effect of the dress 
was magnificent and imposing in a high degree, yet as she 
entered the room all the Americans present were ready to 
pronounce her to be one of our own red women of the 
forest. The comparison was heightened by the similarity 
in the complexion of the Armenian ladies, which, let it be 
said in a whisper, borders, if not exactly upon the tawny, 
at least upon something approaching to it They entered 
the room with the case of well-bred women, and after the 
usual salutation, which consists in placing the right hand in 
rapid succession to the breast, mouth, and forehead, they 
proceeded to take their seats. This, however, is no easy 
task without much previous practice, owing to their flowing 
robes and tlie manner in which it is necessary to dispose of 
them previous to sitting down. The external slippers or 
papooshes are first shullled off, and lefl on the carpet near 



tXXTCHEB or TUKKXT. 303 

the divan or low sofa with which every house in Turkey- 
is provided. They step upon the divan, and turning 
round lower themselves down in a way which it would 
be difficult to describe. It is not exactly cross-legged, 
although apptrently something like it, and is varied occa- 
sionally by resting on their knees for a change of posture. 
One of the young ladies was a near relative of the heroine 
of M*Farlane's clever novel entitled The Armenians. The 
story is founded upon an event of real life which occurred 
at Constantinople a few months before our arrival. Vero- 
nica Tinghir Oglou was pointed out to us one day from the 
window of her father's house on the Bosphorus. The 
young Greek is still alive at Jassy, and, very unhero-like, 
boasts of the sums of money which he expended in obtaining 
the fair Veronica. 

The Armenians form no inconsiderable part, and by far 
the most respectable portion of the Christian population of 
the East. Their closely shorn heads, their immense balloon 
hats, flowing robes, and solemn air impress a stranger at 
first sight very disagreeably, but this wears off upon a 
further acquaintance. Strange as it may appear to those 
who only know them under their present aspect, which is 
that of a patient, money-getting, prudent, and timid race, 
they were formerly a brave and warlike people. Originally 
inhabiting Armenia, they bravely and desperately contended 
with the Persians in many a bloody field, but were finally 
subdued, and their martial propensities so thoroughly 
quenched, that we hear nothing of them for many succeed- 
ing generations, except as a great and flourishing agricultural 
people. They had so completely abandoned the sword for 
the ploughshare, that, like our own Quakers, they submitted 
to insult and injury rather than attempt even a show of 
resistance. As skilful and patient cultivators of the soil, 
their labours were blessed by plentiful harvests, which but 
too often they were not permitted to reap. In the wars 
between Persia and Turkey their now rich and fertile 




toaatrj becune a conTemBnt graiuiy, from whenoa tfaa 
Tmkuh anniea derived their aappliM wben they made their 
inroadi upon Ferria. At lei^th Shah Abbas the Gnat (as 
he is dengnated in liiitory) determined from motivei of 
ftate policy to lay waste the -wboia cotiobcjifiaA noMrra 
the peaceable and unresisting inhabitants into ibe interior cf 
liia cnrn empire. By this decisive but cmel measure ha 
prevented the encampmenl of Turkish armies on the froo- 
tien of his dcxoinions, at the expense, however, of the Uvea 
of thoosands of an intensive race. Its efiecta were never^ 
tfaeless advantageous to his country, far by incorporating 
soeh a patient and laborious pe<^^ among his own subject^ 
he gave a new spirit of activity and industry, which gready 
increased the wealth and resources of his empire. 

After this forced emigration, the Armenians could not in 
their new situation cultivate the soil, and were therefore 
compelled to substitute commerce for agriculture. la their 
new pursuits they displayed the same unwearied patience^ 
industry, and prudence, and were soon distinguislied as 
enterprising, intelligent, and upright merchants tluoughout 
Europe and Asia. It ia diilicuitt nay almost impossible, aa 
we have already frequently had occasion to mention, to 
ascertain the actual Armenian population ; and hence it 
can be but mere conjecture which estimates the whole 
number of Armenians in the Turkish empire at 2,000,00(K 
In Constantinople and its suburbs they are supposed to 
exceed 130,000, and exercise all the trades and occupations 
required in a large city. The most wealthy are bankers 
and brokers. They buy up specie and loan it to tlie Tui4a 
at the rate of twenty and thirty per cent. They allow 
twelve per cent on all deposites, and are proudly distin- 
guished for their punctuality and integrity. There are Ar- 
menian surgeons, jAysicians, and apothecaries. They are 
the chief housebuilders, masons, cabinet-makers ; and as 
&rrien and horse-breakers are said to be the best in the 
country. They also fonn a large portim of the water- 



8KSTCHES OF TURKEY. 805 

carriers of the metropolis, transporting this important fluid 
in large leathern bags upon their shoulders. Indeed they 
exercise all the mechanic arts, and from their activity, in- 
dustry, and ingenuity, have been termed the Yankees of the 
East This, however, seems hardly applicable, for they 
arc not partial to innovations, are grave, taciturn, docile, 
and meek under injuries. From their docility, endurance 
of fatigue, and patience, the Turks with more propriety 
term tliem tnen camels. 

They are divided into two great sects. One is termed 
Catholic, and the other heretic, schismatic, or gross Arme- 
nians. As the religious belief of these two sects varies 
only in a few unimportant particulars, they of course hold 
each other in utter detestation. The schismatic Armenians 
do not acknowledge the supremacy of tlie pope ; but to 
compensate for tliis, observe their fasts with scrupulous 
severity. On their fast days they avoid with horror the 
use of meat, fish, butter, milk, and cheese, and during Lent 
abstain likewise from caviar, oil, oysters, muscles, and 
clams. Their priests marry, and their patriarch, who re- 
sides at Jerusalem, is called Etchmiadzin Aratch Nortuk. 
The most obnoxious article of their faith is their belief in 
certain saints and martyrs, who are regarded by the other 
sect as entirely apocryphal. 

The Catholic Armenians are few in number when com- 
pared with the schismatics, but by various means had con- 
trived to occupy all the most lucrative offices and situations 
within tlieir reach. This of course did not fail to increase 
the rancour already existing between them. It is impossi- 
ble to say what grounds existed for the charge that the 
Catholic Armenians were spies in tin; interest and pay of 
the European powers. It is, however, well known that 
many of them were in the employ of foreigners, and enjoyed 
foreign protection in the capital ; and when the Russians 
occupied Adrianople they were of material service to the 
enemy. Whatever may have been the foundation for the 

R R 




ehRi;g;e, it was ui^ged lo •ooeeufhlly by the i 
aided by the timely apfdieation of the mmipotent bakM k jJk, 
that a decree of baniahment was issued against dwm. By 
tliifl decree, which tcxik {dace in 1827, ten tfuDsaiid Cathaio 
Armenians were banished from Constantinople, and ordend 
to leare within twelve days. A nonneiy containing twen^ 
or Aiity enthusiasts was (mlered to be abcdiahed; and ts 
fill op the cup of their misery to the brim, another measmw 
was adopted which gave a fercical character to the olhv- 
wise harsh decree. The daughters of some of the woakb- 
isst Catholics, iriio had loi^rigbed in otter hopefa a ne si ftr 
young heretic Armenians, were ordered to many them im- 
mediately. To the dau^ters this wasof coarse an agvav- 
able mandate, but it was gall and wormwood to their 
bigoted parents. They were allowed to seU Iheir inov^ 
able property, but their houses were takeu poasesnoo of by 
the govenunent. To alleviate in some degree the rigour 
of their exile, they were permitted to return to the {Jacea 
from whence they originally came, and tliey accordingly 
selected Angora, Bruaa, and Adrianople, for their fiitan 
abodes. 

At the expiraUon of two years and a half they were aO 
recalled, chiefly, it is said, through the instnunentali^ of 
the French ambassador, Guilleminot, who succeeded in 
convincing the Turkish government that the decree was 
equally cruel, impolitic, and unjust The exertions of Hat 
benevolent gentleman were the more praiseworthy, as he 
had not the sympathy t^ a coreligionist to induce him to 
use liis influence in their favour. He was a decided Pro- 
testanL 

At the time of their exile, a commission had been ap- 
pointed to sell the houses and lands of the Cathohc Anne- 
nians. They were necessarily sold very low, and in many 
instances entirely sacrificed. As a necessary accompani- 
nlent to the act of justice which produced their recall, they 
were permitted to take possession of their bouses, but were 



8KBTCHS8 OV TUEKBT. 807 

required to refund to the actual holders the sums for ^hich 
they had been originally sacrificed. This bore very hard 
upon the Turkish propridtors, who had in most cases spent 
large sums of money in decorations and improvements, all 
of which were of course entirely lost The Turks, aided, 
it is said, by the schismatic Armenians, put all manner 
of impediments in their way, and succeeded in obtaining 
an order from the Nazir, or superintcndant of buildings, 
that all houses which were painted red should not be 
restored, as this colour denoted Turkish occupancy. 

An amusing scene ensued. All was bustle, hurry, and 
confusion during the night succeeding the publication of this 
absurd decree; and on the following morning it was 
scarcely possible to recognise the same neighbourhood, for 
it was discovered that whole streets had assumed the same 
uniform orthodox colour. The order of the Nazir was 
rescinded, and he was punished for his impertinent pre- 
sumption. The secretary of the sultan, Mustapha EiTendi, 
gave the first example, by surrendering up without any 
remuneration several magnificent houses which he had 
acquired at the public sales, and his example found nume- 
rous imitators. The effect of this rapid succession of 
owners gave rise to several curious occurrences. Among 
others, we were informed of a Frank physician who had 
been rewarded for his professional services by the present 
of a house, valued at five thousand dollars. It was a noble 
fee, and the physician spent a large sum in various altera- 
tions to render it more commodious and worthy of the 
generous donor. The patient died, but the substantial fee 
remained ; and the worthy doctor was snugly established 
in his comfortable mansion, waiting patiently for a new 
subject, when the decree of the sultan was promulgated. 
The original proprietor appeared, and was received with 
great courtesy by the doctor, who prescribed immediately 
for some chronic disease of which the Armenian complained. 
The sum of 8500 was put into his hands with great for- 



OMdity hj the pseodo patient, and he stopped the grmtafbl 
doctor's thanks inunediatelyy by uifonning hnn that thiB 
iiim was not a fee, bat an equivalent for the original pia^ 
chaseHnoney of his house, which he dvilly requested Ub 
to eyacnate as soon as possible. The matter was not ad- 
josted when we left Constantinople, owing to one of the 
parties being a European ; bat the doctor's profesrional 
brethren, who of course sympathiie deeply on such 
sions, said it was the bitterest dose the doctor had 
prescribed or tasted. 

We have hinted at the fret of the Armenians having aided 
with the Russian army when they occupied Adrianopb* 
Upon the withdrawal of that army, conscious how for thef 
had committed themselves, they fled the country by thovh 
sands, and taking refuge on the frontiers, abandoned their 
houses, farms, and property of every description. From 
mixed motives of policy and humanity the sultan issued a 
decree shortly after the conclusion of the war, in which wa 
find these remarkable words : '^ It is my imperial will that 
you (the governors, &c.) gain their confidence, and induce 
them to return to their occupations. I wish you to emjdoy 
all the means in your power to conciliate and gain their 
good-will.'* AH inquiries into their past conduct were fisr- 
bidden, and a due tribute of praise was accorded to their 
valuable qualities as citizens. We were informed that many 
thousands returned under the protection of this decree, which 
they found to be an ample safeguard, and very different from 
those atrocious documents issued by the governments of 
Spain and Austria under the name of amnesty, by which 
they inveigle their victims under false pretences within their 
grasp, and then securely glut their vengeance. 

The Armenians are more addicted to letters than the 
Turks, and we have seen many book-shops in Constan- 
tinople groaning under their productions in various depart- 
ments of literature. Unlike their oriental brethren, they 
devote much attention to the literature of Europe, and the 



SKBTCHBB OF TURKBT. 809 

accuracy with which they write and speak foreign lan«- 
guages is truly surprising. An Armenian, Joseph Asker 
Oglou, a ripe and a good scholar, who now acts as second 
drogoman to the American mission, we may adduce as a 
remarkable instance of the facility with which our difficult 
and abnormal pronunciation may be conquered. In the 
course of a fortnight this gentleman was enabled, with little 
instruction, to read a chapter from the Bible with the perfect 
accuracy of a well-educated American. The greater part 
of their literature, it must be confessed, is wasted upon the 
barren and unprofitable field of sectarian polemics ; but they 
have also authors in their own language worthy of any 
country. D'Ohsson, an Armenian, has written, according 
to the testimony of competent judges, the very best history 
and description of the Turkish institutions that has yet 
appeared. 



810 marcam m 



CHAPTER XXXn. 



AxMoal— Oan«j-«lavM— Di7-dod»— TIm laifert Ship in tlw W o t M 
Canditioiiof the Navy— DiwipliiM^lUtioiw— The Gapndui : 
Hifltoiy — ^Foieignen in their Sefrice. 



In pursuance of an invitation firom the commandant of tlw 
anenal, we visited this morning the navy-yard* where we 
were gratified with a sight of the operation of letting in the 
water to one of the dry-docks containing a ship of the line. 
The navy-yard, or arsenal, as it is termed here, covers a 
large extent of ground, commencing just above Galata, and 
extending along the Golden Horn for nearly a mile and a 
half. It has a noble range of storehouses and workshops 
solidly constructed of stone, and contains also ropewalks, a 
hospital, and a prison. It is under the control of the Reis 
Uman bey, or intendant of the arsenal, and the Tershannay 
emini, or secretary of the navy, has also his office within the 
walls. About 500 labourers are usually employed, inde- 
pendent of numerous galley-slaves. These latter are cutp 
throats of every grade ; but the greater number are Al- 
banian desperadoes, a fierce and truculent race, eternally 
warring with their neighbours, and rarely giving or asking 
quarter. Their religious ideas are so vague that the Chris- 
tians consider them as Mohammedans, and the Turks be- 
lieve them to be " no better than Christians.** They oil*- 
tainly possess the bulldog quality of courage in a remark- 
able degree, which led Byron, in speaking of them, to ask, 
** Who ever saw their backs ?" As they assisted us out of 
the boat in hopes of a trifling gratuity, we felt a shudder at 
being in close contact with such ferocious and desperate- 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 811 

looking ruffians. They were all more or less chained, 
and some of them seemed to require a muzzle into the 
bargain. 

The various operations of the yard appeared to be con- 
ducted with great perseverance, though in that slow and 
easy manner so characteristic of the Turks, and which will 
one day prove their ruin. They are about putting up three 
steam-engines; one for boring guns, anotlier for sawing 
wood, and a third for rolling copper. These have all lately 
arrived from England with the requisite engineers. 

The two large dry-docks in this yard are built of a coarse 
limestone in a substantial and workman-like manner. They 
were constructed about forty years ago under the direction 
of an able French engineer. The largest is 340 feet long, 
80 feet wide, and 30 deep : it is estimated to hold 1400 tons 
of water. A line of battle ship, the Mahmoud, was in this 
dock undergoing coppering and repairs ; and shortly after 
our arrival the water was let in in order to get her afloat. 
This was done by six separate sluices, and the whole time 
required was nearly an hour. The dock is emptied by 
horse-power, and this usually requires two days : arrange- 
ments have lately been made to procure a steam-engine for 
this purpose, which will free it in a much shorter space of 
time. 

The Mahmoud is chiefly remarkable for being the largest 
ship in the world, and is built upon the French model. We 
were fortunate in visiting her in company with the chief 
naval constructor of the empire, who pointed out such parts 
as seemed particularly worthy of notice. Although no 
sailor, we could not fail to notice some particulars in her 
construction and arrangement in which she differs from our 
vessels. The birth and spar-decks had no knees, and the 
beams which were six feet apart had no carlins between 
them. Instead of hammocks there were a number of little 
raised platforms on the birth-deck for the men to lie down 



ai9 



upon, and between these and the ndea of the veisel wera 
•mall lockers to contain the clothes of the men. The Blab* 
moud, although commenced only a few years ago^yet fion 
carelessness or ignorance m the selection of materials (dl 
sorts of timber in every possible condition having bes( 
ployed) the dry-rot has already appeared in her, and 
no inconsiderable progress. 

Through the pditeness of thb chief constructor we 
furnished with the following statement of her dimensions^ 
which was afterward verified by one of our friends in 
lish feet and inches. 

Ft. In. 

Length of the lower gun-deck 32S 
Extreme breadth . . 
Depth from the base-line 
Height of birth-deck 
lower deck 
second deck 
third deck 
upper deck ■ 
Length of the mainmast 
Diameter of do. . . 
Draft forward • . 
aft • • • . 
Burthen 3934 tons. 
She 'is planked inside and out with soft pine, and the woik* 
manship is very rough, although her model is good. She 
is pierced for 140 guns, which are to be 42's,32's, and Id'sb 
with 60 lb. carronades. It is to this vessel that the author ci 
Anastasius alludes when he says, '* The capital preparesjD 
launch a three-decker so prodigious that none of our mSk 
will have room enough to work her ;" and she is in fact the 
largest ship in the world, not even excepting our Pennsyl- 
vania ship of the line. Immense sums have been idly ex* 
pended on each of these marine monsters, which can serve 



61 


8 


80 




7 





8 




7 


6 


7 


6 


7 




139 




4 




26 


11 


27 


9 



SKSTCHES OP TURKEY. 313 

no other purpose than to make a national raree-show.* After 
this vessel was afloat, we walked round the arsenal to 
inspect the various men*of-war then in port : most of them 
were unworthy of repair, being hogged and rotten ; but 
from a childish attempt at display, new poops were being 
built upon these worthless vessels. Such tricks impose 
upon no one, and only excite laughter. We took the pains 
to examine each vessel separately, and made out a list, 
which has unfortunately been mislaid, stating the size, ap- 
pearance, and condition of each vessel. The following may, 
however, be relied on as conveying nearly an accurate 
account of the condition of the Turkish navy up to the 
year 1833. 

In ordinary. 

Three line of battle ships, 140 guns. 

Three others carrying 100 guns, much hogged. 

Eight frigates — four of these old, hogged, and leaky. 

Eight corvettes. 

Twenty brigs. 

Two cutters, and two steamboats. 
One of the line of battle ships was built by the celebrated 
French naval constructor Le Brun ; she is 198 feet in 
length, with 53 feet beam. Although roughly built, the 
timber was of a good quality ; she was fastened with iron 
spikes alone. Ttie frame was oak from the Black Sea and 

* For the purpose of eomparieon, we give below the dimensions of the 

ship of the line now building at Philadelphia. 

Fed. 
Length between perpendiculars 220 
Breadth of beam for tonnage • 67 

^ Depth of hold 23 

Extreme depth amidships . . 61 
Burthen 2306 tons. 
"With respect to this ship, it has been asserted by skilful naval architects 
who have examined her lines with ranch attention, that to render her an 
efficient sea-vessel, it will merely be found necessary to close her lower ports, 
or to take off her upper deck. 

8 8 



314 MDETCHXi OV TVUMMt. 

the Sea of MaiWiora, the. knees abundant and good, the 
beams of a pine resembling our yellow pine, her ballast was 
sand. All the vessels were sadly neglected. We tocA. the 
liberty to suggest a shed or covering for these vessels, but 
found that their ideas on this subject were at variance with 
ours. They contended that a shed was an excellent pro- 
tection if a vessel was kept on the stocks ; but after having 
been launched, its effect was to exclude light and airland by 
thus interfering with proper ventilation would only accel- 
erate the progress of the dry-rot There may be some 
foundation for these remarks, if the dry-rot has actually 
taken place before the vessel is thus smothered by a 
shed. 

Among the frigates and corvettes, severalHrere pointed 
out to us as the remains of the iniquitous affair of Navarino, 
and one is the only naval trophy of which the Turks can 
boast : it is a small Russian frigate, captured in the Black 
Sea during the last war. 

The government steamboats naturally attracted our 
attention. There are two of these, both of English con- 
struction : one was originally a Scotch smack, lengthened, 
and now rebuilding ; the other is about 200 tons, of eighty 
horse power, and, although she has not been in the service 
more than three years, is very rotten. She cost this gov- 
ernment in the rough state 850,000, and much has been 
expended in fitting her up for state purposes. Her accom- 
modations consist of a large cabin, lined with mahogany, 
and fitted with six berths near the centre of the vessel. In 
the after-part are two state-rooms for the captain, and a 
small but superb cabin for the use of the sultan, floored 
with a Wilton carpet, two beds covered with the moit 
costly silk and satin, divan, marble water-closets k la 
Turque, Slc, Sz^c, She is commanded by a clever Scotch- 
man, Captain Ivellie, who is in the Turkish service, and has 
adopted the Turkish fez, mustachios, and petticoat trousers. 
The engines of botii vessels are very old, and are interest- 



8KXTCHB8 OF TURXST. 815 

ing specimens of the infancy of the art. The utmost speed 
of these vessels is about six knots per hour. ^^ 

The fleet which has just arrived consists of the following 
vessels. 

A line-of-battle ship of 80 guns. 

Do. .... 76 

Da .... 76 

Two frigates mounting 50 

Do. • • do. • . 36 

A frigate 52 

Do 48 

Do 42 

Two corvettes ... 24 
^ IQVo transport brigs . 8 
There are besides, according to an oflicial statement, in the 
dock-yards at Mytilene, Boodroon, &c. four ships of the line 
and ten heavy frigates, three corvettes, and four brigs on the 
stocks in various parts of the empire, and nearly ready for 
launching. These vessels are built by the pachas of the 
"respective districts; and the manner in which they are 
built is another evidence of the short-sighted policy which 
characterizes all arbitrary governments. Is a maritime 
pachalik poor — ^it is ordered to make up its deficient reve- 
nues by furnishing a vessel to the government. Is a pacha 
supposed to have acquired property by grinding the poor 
of his district — he is ordered to build a vessel, and this gives 
him another opportunity to increase his exactions. The 
government, so far from feeling its own prosperity identi- 
fied with that of its subjects, seems to act updh the absurd 
aad wicked principle that every para wrung from the 
mbourer is so much clear gain to the nation. 

Some of the vessels were much hogged, but others would 
have done credit from their appearance and manceuvrcs 
to any navy. One frigate in particular, which we visited, 
is considered to be the crack vessel of their service ; she 
mounts 52 guns, viz. 82 on the gun-deck, 14 on the quarter- 



316 8KETCHB8 OP TTKnT. 

deck, and 6 on the forecastle, all of brass. On the saliject 
of brass cannon for ships the Turiu exhibit much igDonnce : 
their lightness as fieldpieces presents some advantages ; bat 
we are not aware of any superiority which they possess orer 
iron cannon for sea service. In the naw-vard we no6ced 
heaps of brass cannon, of all shapes and calibres, from thft 
iniancy of the art down to the present day. Some of them 
were pointed out to us from N^ropont, which bAig too 
large for transporting entire, had been broken into scveni 
pieces. T*he bore of one of these was three feet in diaaie- 
ter, and the thickness of the piece at the muzzle was eight 
inches. According to a rough estimate, its wei^t was 
judged to be 4000 lbs. There are, at least, 2000 pieces of 
ordnance of brass in the navy-yard, which, iT broken up, 
would produce more than a million of dollars ; but which 
are now lying idle and useless, as the greater part of these 
guns arc so much injured as to be unserviceable. The 
Turks have latterly shown some gloamings of good sense 
in ordering 1500 iron cannon from England for the usetf 
their navv. There is no iron-foundrv in the countrr, 
although their castings of brass are equal to any in the 
world. 

From the facts cited above, we may form a pretty accu- 
rate idea of the actual condition of tlieir fleet We are 
presented wit'i the following total : 

Nine linc-of-batlle ships. 

Nineteen frigates of various sizes. 

Thirteen corvettes. 

Twenty-six brigs ; besides steamboats and smaller ves- 
sels. 

Separating from this the mass of rubbish which is to be 
found in the navy-yard, we may estimate the effective 
force of tlie Turkish navj- at the present moment as 
follows : — 

Six linc-of-battle ships. 

Twelve frigates. 



8KBTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 817 

Ten corvettes ; and other smaller vessels. 

To these must be added a corvette of 26 guns and 1000 
tons, recently purchased in the United States, and by far 
the most efficient vessel in their service. 

■ 

The fleet, which has recently arrived from a cruise in 
the Mediterranean, came fhto port in tolerably good order, 
although their manoeuvres were not exactly in the first-rate 
style of seamanship. We were informed by Captain Kellie, 
of the steamboat, that upon coming to anchor at Rodosto, 
it was done so expeditiously, that the amchor of the admi- 
ral's line-of-battie ship was dropped into the cabin-windows 
of the crack frigate. We are at a loss to conceive how 
this could be done ; if it really occurred, it is a naval feat 
which is without a parallel. 

Since the Greek revolution, no Greeks are permitted to 
serve in any capacity on board their fleet, and this regula- 
tion is strictly enforced. They regard the employment of 
foreigners in their service with suspicion, and indeed have 
flOiUch reason for it. The Greeks have played them many 
is slippery trick, as well as the Christian slaves whom they 
formerly compelled to serve in their ships. In 1600, a 
Turkish frigate was lying at anchor in the Bosphorus. 
While the captain was giving a dinner on board to his 
friends, the slaves mutinied, killed the Turkish crew, put 
the officers in irons, made sail, and the Porte never heard 
of them again. In 1760, the slaves in the vice-admiral's 
ship rose upon the crew, while the officers were at church 
on the island of Stanchio, cut the cables, made sail, and 
although hotly pursued, arrived safe at Malta. Through 
th6 mediation of France, the ship was sent back, fourteen 
months afterward, filled with Turkish prisoners* At the 
present day few Europeans would feel disposed to enter a 
service where his life depended upon the caprice of a cap- 
tain pacha. A few French officers have occasionally ap- 
peared in their service, but they were careful to carry vnth 
them the protection of their own country. The ill eflfects 



318 SKETCHES OF TUSKED. 

of this were visible at Navarino, where they were cam- 
peHe^ to abandon the fleet previous to the action, as thejT 
wer^ threatened by the French admiral to be treated as 
pirates or rebels if they were taken. An English navy 
lieutenant was here a year or two ago, who kindly dKeated 
to instruct the Turks in naval tdl^tibs. His proposals 
very moderate. He only required the humble rankef 
admiral, and^he pay of that rank as allowed by the rules 
of the English service ; a little modicum of about 830,000 
per annum. The Turks replied that he should be heartily 
welcome to any rank, title, name, or honour that he desired ; 
but that they could not afford to give him a sum wbidi 
nearly equalled their whole civil list. 

The Turks have some good qualities al sailors, and 
others which will for a long time continue to operate against 
them. We do not speak of the men, for they are capable 
of being made first-rate sailors, as ihey are able, active, 
clean, and subordinate. The fault lies with the oflicen^ 
who, under the existing regulations, seem to take i?o pride 
in their rank, and indulge in the indolence and apathy which 
mark the character of the Turkish eflendi. We have 
seen crowds of young naval olficers in attendance at the 
levee of a grandee, who instead of exhibiting their quarter- 
deck paces in the antechamber, were snugly stowed away 
upon a divan with their heels tucked under them, and wait- 
ing for hours in the same position without the slightest indi- 
cation of impatience or uneasiness. It is fair to presume 
that the same sort of anchor watch is kept on board ship, 
and that there is not much difference in fact between a 
watch on deck and a watch below. 

There is, moreover, no respect or etiquette kept up 
between the officers of ditVereiit ranks, and blows are dis- 
tributed rather more freely among the officers than upon 
the crew. An admiral will pull a captain by the beard, or 
slap his face without ceremony ; a captain will kick a com- 
mandant, the commandant tweak the nose of a lieutenant, 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 810 

ftnd a lieutenant whip a score of middies before breakfast, 
iqx)n the slightest provocation. Nor is this all ; the captain 
pacha has the power of life and death over all his officers 
and crews, a power which he exercises without ceremony 
or responsibility. The present captain pacha, as we have 
been assured by an ejxwitncss, acts in two different ways : 
when a- culprit is brought before him, he is questioned as to 
his crime or fault, and asked to explain. If the fault is 
trifling, the pacha usually knocks him down by a blow upon 
the head with a ponderous club, and 'when he com^s to, he 
finds himsglf in his own berth, and returns to duty as 
if nothing had happened. If the crime be a serious one, 
the pacha orders him to retire, and. by a sign intimates the 
punishment He is strangled immediately upon leaving the 
tabin, and his body thrown overboard. No such thing as 
a court of inquiry, court martial, or judge advocates are 
ever heard of, although these have been within the last 
two months attempted to be introduced into the army. 

The rations of the Turkish sailors are good, and amply 
sufficient for all their wants. Their pay is 83 62| cents 
per month, and they are also furnished with clothes. They 
are divided into as many messes as there are cannon, and 
the number of seamen attached to each ship varies accord- 
ing to circumstances. The usual complement of a ship of 
the line is stated to be 1200 ; but the fondness for large 
retinues, which distinguishes all orientals, increases this 
number to an enormous amount. In the captain pacha's 
vessel, which was burned by the Greeks near Scio during 
the late revolution, there were more than 2200 people on 
board. 

Each district of the empire is bound to contribute a cer- 
tain number of sailors, and upon their return from a cruise 
they are permitted to visit their friends upon furlou^. 
Should they exceed their furlough two or three weeks, little 
notice is taken of the transgression. This is, however, 
obviously wrong, and is one of the many causes which 



390 SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 

prevent the government from fitting out an expedition upon 
the* spur of the moment. A single fact will illustrate tte 
tardy movements of their navy, although it is commanded 
by anp active and efficient officer. About tlie middle of 
November, 1831, the movements of the Viceroy of £gypt 
having become very suspicious, ^n order was issued for the 
fleet to proceed to se:^ with all possible despatch, and yet 
it did not sail until the 7th of May following. It requires 
no skill in prophecy to foretell that a nation which tKus pro- 
crastinates in its public acts will be, and indeed deserves to 
be, defeated. 

An English resident here related to us the following anec- 
dote, which shows the Jnanner in which their naval affairs 
are managed. The successor to a former captain pacha 
(who was a small man) happened to be rather above th# 
ordinary stature. On paying his first official visit to the 
arsenal, he went through the several vessels then lying in 
ordinary } and as he was compelled to stoop in going his 
rounds, he ordered all the decks to be heightened to suit 
his stature, and when some one ventured to suggest that 
the former pacha had determined their height after the 
opinion of the naval constructors, he replied that all that 
might be true, but that his predecessor was a little fellow, 
and might get along with such low decks, but that he would 
not put up with it, and they were accordingly all altered. 
If we were not misinformed, this identical big pacha after- 
ward lost his life in the Straits of Scio. 

Their nautical words are chiefly borrowed from the 
Greek and Italian. The pay of a commander of a vessel 
is $500 per annum, and his half-pay, when not in actual 
service, is forty cents per day. The various ranks are 
dependent entirely upon the will of the sultan ; hence it has 
happened, that a high admiral of to-day may lose his rank 
and command a small, vessel to-morrow, with the simple 
title of commander. 

No country in Europe has greater need of a maritin^ 



flKBTCHES OF TUKKBT. 821 

force, and few surpass it in the abundance of all those arti- 
cles necessary for the support of a marine. Excellent oak 
and pine are found in great abundance along the Black Sea, 
Marmora, and the Mediterranean. Iron is obtained from 
Samakof, Inada, and Cavalla ; rosin from Negropont ; pitch 
and tar from Cazdaghi ; and hemp from Samsoon, Fassa, 
and Yooneyay. Gunpowder is manufactured near the city^ 
and at Gallipolis and Salonica. 

We were introduced a few days ago to the captain pacha, 
a fine, intelligent, and manly-looking Turk. His name is 
Halil Rifaat, or, as he is usually designated, Halil Pacha, 
and he appears to be about thirty-five years old. With 
great personal activity, he is unremitting in the duties of 
his station, and punishes neglect or idleness in the most 
summary manner. As I studied his remarkably handsome 
face and winning features, I could scarcely credit the sto- 
ries in circulation respecting his barbarity. His history is 
another instance of the apparent caprice of fortune in this 
country, which so firequently elevates a beggar or a slave 
to the highest offices of government He was originally a 
Georgian slave, and purchased by the present seraiskier, 
who adopted him as his son. This is an everyday occur- 
rence in Turkey, but does not seem to be understood by 
modem travellers. It is well known that such is the poli- 
tical organization of this government, that it rarely happens 
that the children of high officers ever obtain office them- 
selves, except among the ulemah. Whether this is a part 
of the royal policy to prevent the formation cff an heredi- 
tary nobility, we cannot venture to say, but such is the fiict 
The grandees being aware of this, purchase Georgian or 
Circassian children, give them a careful and finished educa- 
tion, and press them forward, in order to occupy stations 
where they may be of service as protectors of their own 
family. This purchase of slaves for such purposes must 
freqiiently give rise to incidents of a striking nature, and 

T T 



wauncuMM of tv: 



we have iDdeed heard of sereral which seem afanoet to 
border upon the province of romance. 

During the last war with Russia, the present captain 
pacha distinguished himself by several acts of gaUant dai^ 
ing. At Shoumla, in 1828^ he commanded a sortie againsi 
the largest redoubt of the eneipy. It was commanded by 
Major General de Wrede» who after a most desperate and 
sanguinary resistance, was, together with his whote gairi- 
flpn, put to the sword. He was employed on a mission of 
much delicacy and importance shortly after the concluBion 
of the late Russian war. It was desirable on the part of 
the Turks to obtain a remission of some part of the amount 
of the subsidy, which by treaty they had agreed to pay to 
Russia, and it was also important 'to obtain her consent to 
extend the time of payment Halil executed this missionr 
with much address, and his personal appearance and man> 
ners prepossessed every one in his favour. Although pre* 
viously unacquainted with French, he set about acquiring 
it with so much industry, that in two months he was enabled 
to keep up a sustained conversation with great ease. Dur- 
ing our visit the conversation was kept up through the 
medium of an interpreter, although upon subsequent occa* 
sions he spoke French with great fluency. 

We gathered from the pacha that, notwithstanding the 
large fleets which the necessities of the empire required to 
be continually in service, the whole annual expenses did 
not exceed $2,000,000. They are, however, in economy 
of expenditure, excelled by the republic of Genoa, which 
keeps seven fine frigates of from forty-six to sixty gims each 
in excellent order, pays the officers and seamen, and main- 
tains the whole coast police of Liguria and Sardinia, for a 
sum not exceeding 8500,000. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 323 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Dinner with Turkish Grandcca— Coffee — Number of Dishes — Toasts — 
Conversation — Provfirbs — Children of our Host — Music — Dancing-boys. 

It is not often that the stranger in Turkey h&s an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing the interior of a Turkish family, and it 
was therefore with mingled feelings of pleasure and curi- 
osity that we accepted an invitation to dine with the Reis 
liman Bey, one of the chief officers about the court of Con- 
stantinople. He is the naval commander of the port, and 
his rank is that of admiral in the * navy. In company 
with two of our countrymen, we presented ourselves at his 
palace at six in tll^ evening, and were introduced between 
two long lines of ricbli^ dressed domestics into the reception- 
room, where his excellency awaited our arrival. The room 
was hung around with pi^^ures of horses, battles, and, 
among others, the portrait oNhe Empress of Russia. The 
mention of pictures reminds us that none arc more fre- 
quent in Turkey than those vile-coloured French prints 
emblematical of the four quarters of the globe. In these, 
of course, America figures with her feathers, bow, and 
quiver ; and hence, the idea has been adopted that we as 
Americans must necessarily wear these ornaments and 
arms. A friend who has just returned from Russia informs 
me, that at Moscow, he was asked in a large circle, where 
he was introduced as an American, to put on his real dress, 
and to appear there next evening with his paint, feathers, 
and arrows. 

Among the novelties in tlie apartment, which our host 
appeared to regard witli complacency, was an English oil- 
cloth in lieu of the mats which are universally used. Chairs 
too were placed in various parts of the roonu As soon as 



8M 8KXTCBX8 OF TUSKXT. 

the ciwtomary civilities had been exchanged, the pipe and 
cofiee folIoweA The pipes were magnificent, and of the 
real diplomatic size, being at least six feet in length. We 
have already alluded to Turkish coffee, which has been 
alternately vilified and commended. It is exceedingly 
strong, and is served up with the grounds without sugar or 
cream. An English traveller (Sandys) about a century 
ago, after minutely describing the Turkish process for 
making what he most unorthographically spells cojfoy 
gravely inquires, ** Whether it be not that hlackt broihe 
which was in use among the Lacedeemonians." With 
regard to the Turkish coffee it may be said, that after some 
time it becomes palatable, and when used in small quanti* 
ties, and for the same purpose that it is employed here, it is 
an agreeable and refreshing beverage. The Turks never 
use it as a meal, but simply to sweeten their mouths after 
smoking. Taken in this way, it is far better than our weak 
infusion, which, by courtesy alone, has obtained the name of 
cofl^« After some conversation with our host, who speaks 
a little Italian, we were ushered into the next room, where 
we found the dinner served up in as handsome style as it 
has ever been our lot to witness in Europe or America* 
The knives, forks, and plates were of English manufacture, 
and of the most costly kind ; the table was set off by cut 
glass of exquisite workmanship, French wines of the most 
delicate flavour made their appearance, and in short, 
nothing was wanting to satisfy even the fastidiousness of 
an English exclusive. We should hardly have supposed 
ourselves in Turkey, had it not been for the venerable 
beards of some of our neighbours, and the armed and scarlet- 
dressed attendants who stood behind our chairs. 

We took our scats without any ceremony or prearranged 
order, and after a preliminary whet with rakee as an 
appetizer, proceeded to do justice to the good things before 
us. Soup, fish, roasted turkeys, joints of meat, game, &c. 
were severally introduced and discussed in the most ortho* 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 8SS 

dox and unexceptionable order. It was not until we had 
made a hearty meal, that we were apprized that our 
labours had only begun. According to the custom of the 
country, there were only some thirty or forty dishes in 
reserve, all of which must at least be tasted, in order to do 
honour to our host. It was a practical illustration of the 
old saw, *' to kill with kindness," but as there was no es- 
cape, we braced ourselves for the task. The same savage 
custom prevails in some remote parts of our own country, 
we regret to say, and tinder even a more horrid shape* 
We still remember with loathing and disgust an occasion 
of this kind, in which our efforts to be civil nearly cost Ufl 
our life. Our worthy hostess had succeeded in heaping 
on our plate a motley mixture of meat, vegetables, and 
sauce of such prodigious dimensions, that we fear to name 
them, lest we should be suspected of exaggeration. We 
may, however, mention, that we could not feed from its 
summit without arising from our chair, and to attack the 
flanks of this artificial mound might have caused the whole 
to topple down headlong and bury us in a premature grave. 
Thanks to the organization of the societies for the suppres* 
sion of vice, these enormities are now rarely perpetrated. 
The Turkish practice offers few of these inconveniences ; 
for, provided one merely tastes a dish it is sufficient, but 
many of them were so exquisite, that we should have been 
pleased* with an opportunity of discussing them as a whole 
meal. They were all new to us, and many of them ex- 
ceedingly savoury,— one in particular seemed worthy of a 
brevet d'importation into our hemisphere. It appears in 
the shape of an immense custard, and owes its peculiar 
exceUent flavour to the presence of the breasts of very 
young chickens, which are by some means so intimately 
blended and incorporated with the custard as to be scarcely 
distinguishable. It is certainly an exquisite dish, and 
worthy of being classed with that French sauce which is 
to be so palatable, that a person might be tempted 



896 8K8TCHS8 OF TURKBT. 

with it to eat his own grandfather. We rejected, as un* 
worthy of credit, the suggestion of one of our American 
friends near us, who hinted that he knew how to make this 
dish in m rery compendious way ; as only the breasts of 
very young chickens are employed, he proposed to prepare 
the custard by using chickens in the shell. 

After the appearance and removal of at least forty dishes, 
and the Champagne and Margaux had freely circulated, we 
were favoured with a visit from a Turkish dignitary, who 
dropped in very unceremoniously, and entered with gnat 
freedom into the festivals of the evening. He was an inti- 
mate friend of our host, and if we remember right, was 
chief secretary to the captain pacha. Shortly after his 
appearance, we were invited to propose toasts, and accord- 
ingly commenced, as in duty bound, with the health of the 
sultan. This was received at first with a stare of sur- 
prise, but was quickly followed by loud applause. The 
sultan is such a sacred topic among his subjects, that we 
anticipated a solemn silence, but our new friends offered to 
appreciate our motives, and accordingly loud and enthu- 
siastic alTairims ! (bravo's) resounded through the hall. 
Actuated by the warm feelings of the moment, many of 
them laid aside their conscientious scruples, and joined in 
the toasts with great glee. We do not mean positively to 
affirm, that they joined us in discussing the Lafitte and 
Margaux, for they had a substitute which is allowable, on 
some occasions, for the stomach's sake. Unluckily for the 
reputation of Mohammed as a prophet, he was not gifted 
with sufficient foresight to warn his followers against the 
appearance of a liquid which might frustrate his wise and 
benevolent intentions. Accordingly, we find that rakee, 
a delicate and seductive variety of the great alcoholic 
family, is not always regarded by a Turkish gentleman 
with the same pious horror with which he views a glass 
of generous wine ; and, upon this occasion, some of them 
used it with water to do honour to the toasts. Our 



SKETCHES OF TUBKET. 837 

entertainer, a distinguished naval officer, who had visited 
foreign countries, and was in many respects a man of the 
world, declined quietly, and without the least affectation, 
our profane wishes to induce him to pledge as in any 
thing but pure water. 

But what shall we say of the conversation, the table- 
talk among a people so habitually grave and taciturn as 
the Turks. Religion is never discussed in mixed society, 
politics they leave to the Padir Shah, who is emphatically 
" the party" in Turkey, which all are interested in main- 
taining. These simple souls never dreamed of the dis- 
covery made in modem times, among the freest govern- 
ments, by which nearly one-half of the community are ex- 
cluded from all offices and honours, on the score of their 
belonging to another party. From their retired modes of 
living, scandal can have no existence, and we are informed 
that they have not even a name for it in the language. 
The conversation turned upon manners and customs of our 
respective countries ; and it appeared to be a mark of 
breeding to avoid inquiries respecting our religion, govern- 
ment, or women. 

We had been much diverted by the introduction of 
several quaint proverbs, and as they are usually considered 
as the condensed wisdom of a nation, we afterward made 
a large collection, of which the following may serve as 
specimens : — 

A little stone can make a great bruise. 

In a cart drawn by oxen you may catch a hare. 

A foolish friend does more harm than a wise enemy. 

It is not by saying honey 1 honey I that sweets come to 
the mouth. 

He who expects a friend without faults, will never find 
one. 

He sells a crow for a nightingale. 

Eat and drink with your friend^ but transact no business 
with him. 



gXBTCHES OF *T17RKET« 

A man deceives another but once. 

It is difficult to take a wolf by the ears. 

You can't carry two melons under one arm. 

To live quietly, one should be blind, deaf, and dumb. 

All that you give you will carry with you. 

More flies are caught by a drop of honey than by a 
hogshead of vinegar. 

Who gives to the poor, gives to God. 

The fool has his heart on his tongue, the wise man keeps 
his tongue in his heart 

Good wine and handsome women are two agreeable 
poisons. 

Every event which causes a tear is accompanied by 
another which produces a smile. 

An egg to-day is better than a hen to-morrow. 

Do good and throw it into the sea ; if the fishes don't 
know it, God will. 

He who fears God does not fear man. 

If your enemy is no bigger than a pismire, fancy him as 
large as an elephant. 

A wife causes the prosperity or the ruin of a house. 

He who knows every thing is often deceived. 

He who weeps for everybody soon loses his eyesight 

More is learned by conversation than by reading. 

A fnend is more valuable than a relative. 

There are more invisible than visible things. 

He who rides a borrowed hor3e does not ride often. 

Don't trust to the whiteness of the turban, the soap was 
bought on trust. 

Death is a black camel which kneels at every door. 

When you visit a blind man, shut your eyes. 

Blood is not washed out with blood, but with water. 

* 

Although the tongue has no bones, it breaks bones. 
The heart is a child, it hopes what it wishes. 
It would be easy to extend this list, but enough has been 
cited to diow the temper and genius of the people. The 



8XJBTCH1S8 OP TUIUUT. 829 

frequent allusions to friends and enemies originated, no 
doubt, in their peculiar hostile attitude towards every na- 
tion around them. Many of them are pregnant with mean- 
ing, and afford interesting matter for reflection. How 
many a wise saw, moreover, which we have supposed to 
be of native growth, it is apparent from this list, is o[ 
oriental parentage. 

After dinner, the children of the admiral (a boy and girl^ 
about seven years old, and very beautiful) were brought in 
to see their father's guests. This is one of those good old 
practices formerly much in vogue in England ; but which 
a stupid fondness for aping foreign habits has almost per- 
mitted to become obsolete. It always produces a pleasing 
impression ; the host is exhibited to his guests in a new 
light, and it serves equally to abridge a dull prosy ccMiversa- 
tion, or to cut short a vehement argument Young Master 
Ali Bey, for such was his name and title, appeared to be a 
bright lad, although he seemed to regard us strangers with 
some reserve, and resisted every attempt to oecome better 
acquainted. 

After the cloth was removed six Arab musicians made 
their appearance ; they sat down on the floor near the open 
door, and commenced singing Turkish airs with the accom- 
paniments of violins, small lutes, and a tambourine, and this 
was continued at intervals during the evening. It is, how- 
ever, a mistake to suppose that the Turkish music is de- 
ficient in tones or time, or that it wants intonations. An 
amateur assured me that it was even richer than European 
music in semitones and melody. To judge by the speci- 
mens we had this evening, we should be disposed to char- 
acterize Turkish music as soft and harmonious, somewhat 
monotonous, and strongly marked by mannerism. The 
old Scotch air of Roslin Castle, played in quicker time and 
without pauses or rests, will convey a tolerable idea of the 
general character of Turkish music. A lad of fourteen ac- 
companied the^ instruments with words which, we were in- 

u u 



fimned, were looie versea. We asked for a ptttriotb^ of 
what we call a natiooal long, but was infonned that aoae 
of tlus kind are extant in Turkey. 

- A person who has been several yean is their servicei 
but whose name for obvious reasons we cannot quote, 
stated to us that the feeling of patriatism, and of course its 
name, are equally unknown to the Turks. This, howeveTt 
we are not disposed to credit, although it may not possibly 
exist in the sense in which the word is used among VM. 
They substitute for it the common bond of religion, which 
leads every Turk to aUnd or fall by his brother for tbs 
honour and glory of their sultan, the living representativo 
of their prophet. It has likewise been asserted that tbs 
word honour is unknown among the Turks, but this is un- 
founded. The words irz, nafimooz, tc/tann, &c. all ex- 
press diSerent modifications of our word honour. Tbeas 
pretended discoveries, always be it noted, made by for^ 
eigners knowing little of the language, reminds one of 
the Englishman who, upon his arrival in France, cocks op 
his lordly nose, and exclaims, "Comfort ! how should theM 
French frogs know what it means, when they have not 
even a word to express it ?" The ass is ignorant of the tact 
that his countrymen are indebted to the French for the 
Very word in question. 

During the evening the youngest of the musicians retired 
for a few minutes, and soon made his appearance with a 
Cashmere shawl, enveloping his head and shoulders. It 
was intimated to us that he was to personate the part of a 
woman, and accordingly, as a female dancer, be went 
through a series of evolutions which were insipid and vul- 
gar enough, if measured by our standard of saltatory ex- 
cellence. Some English travellers have thought that they 
detected a close resemblance between these exhibitions and 
the morris-dancing still kept up in many parts of their coun- 
try. It resembled so closely the Spanish fandango, though 
devoid of its grac«, that there could be little doubt of iti 



oorrcnes of tubxbt. 881 

being derived from the same Moorish source. After spend- 
iDg a very agreeable evening, we took our leave at mid- 
night The liveried attendants of the Reis liman Bey took 
their stations on each side of the hall, with massive silver 
candlesticks in their hands, as we passed out, and our 
worthy host, after many pressing entreaties to take beds in 
his house, very courteously furnished us with his six-oared 
barge to convey us home. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Cboleraf — Iti Appearance at Conatantinoplc — Symptomf and mode of Cure 
— Is it a new Disease ? — Not eontagious— Quarantinea, and examples of 
their absurditj. 

During our residence here we have had rumours of cho- 
lera, and its ravages were said to be peculiarly destructive. 
The Turks, who meet death with great stoicism in the 
shape of plague, were terrified at t^e approach of a new 
disease, which is said to be destructive in a few hours, and 
in some cases instantaneously fatal. After many vague 
reports respecting its existence in the suburbs of Constan- 
tinople, it suddenly made its appearance on board an Amer- 
ican sloop c^ war then lying off Seraglio Point Several 
of the men were suddenly attacked, and three died in the 
course of a few hours. We could learn nothing of the par- 
ticulars of these cases, as the vessel proceeded to sea on 
the following day. After this, frequent cases occurred, and 
the progress of the disease was extremely irregular and 
unaccountable. It would appear in a village or a particu- 
lar quarter of the city in one night, and numbers would be 
attacked, when it would entirely disappear from that neigh- 
bourhood, and make its appearance in the same mysterious 



882 SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 

manner in another quarter of the city, or in another village 
several miles distant. It is a common belief among the 
physicians here, that the cause of this mortal disease, what- 
ever it may be, is conveyed by particular currents of air ; 
but this hypothesis is surrounded with difficulties. Some 
suppose it to be caused by animalculee, and others by a 
peeuli£ur subtle poison; while others again, overlooking 
second causes, refer it directly to the agency of the DeitjT 
as a punishment for sins. 

We believe it to be generally conceded, that the present 
eudiometrical processes for the analysis of air are far from 
being perfect ; and we therefore take leave to suggest that 
the cause of this disease will be found to exist in the altera* 
tions which have taken place in the constituent parts of the 
air. We think that a diminution of the quantity of oxygen, 
or an increase of carbonic acid gas, would be sufficient to 
produce the same train of symptoms. This hypothesis is 
capable of being tested by direct experiment, upon indi- 
viduals whose lives have been already forfeited. In the 
absence of direct proof, we have analogical evidence 
in other cases where asphyxia is produced by well known 
causes. 

When this formidable pest was at this height, the Amer- 
ican vessel United States was at anchor off Dolmabatchi 
in the Bosphorus. She had an unusually healthy crew, 
and while the cholera was raging on board of other vessels 
in the harbour, she had so fiir fortunately escaped. A few 
weeks since, the first officer of this vessel was attacked and 
died in five hours, and within an hour after the commeace- 
ment of this attack, seven others of the crew were taken 
down with the same symptoms. By the timely application 
of the usual remedies, all but two were immediately re- 
lieved. These two (blacks) had resisted for a length of 
time every attempt to bleed them, until the disease had 
made too great progress. 

This is not the place for a medical essay, but as it li-a 



ffKETCHES OF TU&KBT. S88 

disease which is rapidly extending itself over Europe, and 
will in all probability visit our shores,* a brief sketch of 
the form under which it appeared here, and the treatment 
which was found most efficacious, may not be uninter- 
esting. 

The first symptom was a sensation of uneasiness about 
the stomach and bowels, not amounting to positive pain, but 
accompanied with great prostration of strength and nausea. 
Vomiting and watery purges soon appeared, and shortly 
afterward, spasms. These spasms varied in intensity in 
almost every patient, and in some cases none whatever 
appeared. The face was pallid and contracted ; the patient 
complained of cold extremities (which was often the first 
symptom), and of excessive thirst In this state the 
patient died with perfect consciousness, but with complete 
indifference to every thing around him. In some instances 
there was a burning sensation in the pit of the stomach, 
which in India we are informed invariably accompanies 
this disease. 

As soon as cholera made its appearance, the following 
was the uniform treatment, and we had abundant oppor- 
tunities of witnessing its value. A dose of from 50 to 200 
drops of laudanum, with five to twenty drops of oil o( 
peppermint, according to the urgency of the symptoms, 
was immediately administered in hot rum or rakee, and 
this it was sometimes requisite to repeat Blood was im- 
mediately taken from one or both arms, and the bleeding 
was continued until deliquium or perspiration ensued, or 
until the pulse became more firm and distinct, when the 
patient would express his relief from all disease. It was 
frequently necessary to repeat the bleeding either generally 
or topically, and to support the strength at the same time. 
In the five fatal cases which we witnessed, no blood could 
be obtained. It had a black and viscid appearance like 

* Thete appniMiudoni haTe nnce been lealised. 



that drawn from persons labouring ondar ooogmAr^ Ibvoft 
or in cases of poisoning by arsenic Frictions and extemal 
beat to the extremities were also valuable aindliaiiecu 
When the patient is convalescentt his diet is to be acnk 
pulously attended to. He is confined rigidly to gum water 
and other mild diluents, and the least error or ezoe« 
occasioned a relapse, which made its appearance in tbi 
fimn of local cragestions, evinced by pain.in the head or 
bowels. For this leeches are liberally applied, and wo 
have sem from SO to 100 leeches used on one person* fo 
the after stages, small and repeated doses of calomel m4 
dfisua were found highly beneficial. When the disoasi 
was jttoperly treated at its onset, it was immediately and 
almost certainly arrested in its progress. 

The disease appears to have left us entirely, and we now 
bear of its appearance in Smyrna, which from its low 
swampy situation seems to be peculiarly exposed to its 
ravages. The number of deaths here cannot be known^ 
as the Turks have no bills of mortality, and indeed during 
a season of pestilence their utility seems questionable. 
Fear, we know to be one of the strongest predisposing 
causes of this disease, and this is constantly kept up by 
knowing the full extent of the mortality. When the pesti- 
lence is on the decline, the publication of authentic bulletins 
is highly useful in restoring public confidence. As fiur as oor 
opportunities extended, we suppose that 1000 deaths havf 
taken place. 

We have thus given a brief sketch of its appearance bsre, 
and of the treatment which was found most efficacious, but 
we should mislead the reader if we were to allow him to 
suppose that this is always the form under which this dip- 
ease appears. We were favoured with the perusal of a 
letter from a celebrated English physician, who has seen 
this disease in British India, and who is now practisii^ at 
Shiraz in Persia, where the cholera has prevailed. He 
avers that no one should \)e hardy OMiiigh to declare that 



•KSTCHIS OF TUHXST. 885 

he ifl acquainted with cholera, for that it not only differs in 
its features in different places, but at the same place it 
rarely appears under the same form for two consecutive 
seasons. This variety of form, which was often manifested 
by the predominance of one particular symptom,* or by 
an alteration in the succession of the symptoms, although 
it required a corresponding variation in the practice, does 
not affect the general principles of the mode of cure. 

The disease, as we had abundant opportunities of seeing 
it, evidently depended upon a congestion of blood in the 
heart and great vessels. The indications of cure were 
therefore to stimulate the heart to act, and to abstract as 
much blood as possible in order to give the heart liberty to 
carry on the circulation. For the same purpose frictions 
to the surface are useful in exciting the action of the capil- 
lary vessels. Along with this, opium and calomel in small 
doses were highly beneficial in strengthening and equalizing 
the circulation. We have reason to believe that many 
cases in which patients were thought to have been suddenly 
destroyed here by cholera, should have been attributed to 
insolation, or to drinking cold water. 

Is the cholera a new disease ? we apprehend not, althou^ 
it may possibly be new in its epidemic form. Traces of it 
may be found among the Jews three thousand years ago. 
It is stated in the Old Testament, that the Lord, after prom- 
ising the Jews abundance (Numbers xi. 20), declares that 
they shall be fed upon this food until it comes out of their 
nostrils, and until, as the Septuagint expresses it, they have 
the cholera Ot«AfV«), which in fact afterward appeared. In 
our English version it is translated *' loathsomeness," but 
we are informed by an intelligent Hebrew that the original 
Hebrew word ** zorah" means nausea, which is one of the 

' * At Erzeroom, BpumM ; at Vienna, giddineM; at Smyrna, diwoloration 
of the handa— were the moet prominent, and often the premonitoiy aymp- 
tome. In some placea, the women were moet liable to the dieeaee, and in 
othara they invariably e a c a pod. 



moft eoDftent symptomB of cholenu The Jewi imie at 
that time in the Tery best conditioa for receiving this dia- 
eaie. They had hemi preyiooaly sufiering from fiunine^ 
and they were suddenly furnished with an abun d ance of 
saToory fi>odf of the most nutritious kind. An excess in 
diet is known to be as powerful a predisposing cause as a 
poor quality of food <»r rigid abstinence, and in thb case 
Ifae Jews exposed themselves to the invasicm of the dis- 
ease** Several years since we noticed at St Salvador in 
Brazil a disease which is said to be endemic there. It is 
called cmutipacdo^ which means a odd or constipation, and 
exhil»ts the following symptoms. Without any pfevions 
wamii^ the patient feels chilly, then cold, and in a few 
minutes is unaUe to stand. His features become pinched, 
his pulse indistinct, and his body cold. Purging also takes 
place, and sometimes vomiting. If perspiratioik cannot be 
brought oUt he dies in a few Iu>urs in this state. 

So far this may be considered as the cold stage of a con* 
gestive fever, and we are warranted in believing it to be 
one of the thousand varieties of cholera, which we suppose 
to be a congestive fever, in which, for the most part, the 
patient dies in the cold stage. With this disease, too, we 
should be inclined to associate the spotted lever of the east- 
em states, and still more the cold plague of the Mississippi 
valley. 

Whether cholera be contagious is a question about 
which (whatever may be the fancies or the fears of igno- 
rance) there is but one opinion among the oriental phy« 
sicians. They are unanimous in their belief of cholera 



* In our own eoontrj we EaTe lince had a melancholj example of Uia 
effects prodoeed bj a sodden change of diet, in the Arch- street prison al 
Phihdelphia, and the state prison at Singeing in New* York. In the last 
place, it was amosing to witness a tfeeial medical council piying into the 
origin of this disease, by examining the Tsssels which carried away the stono 
ballast, and questioning the healthy crews* Thty would hairt solved tfa« 
mystery by lookiDf into the kitchen of the establUMm. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 337 

l)eing noncontagious ; although partly to accommodate 
themselves to the vulgar prejudices, and partly to inspire 
confidence, tliey direct fumigations and purification by 
water. 

In fact, its sudden ap{)earancc and disappearance cannot 
be reconciled with any of the known laws of contagion ; 
and although much stress is laid by superficial reasoners 
upon its following the track of human intercourse, we should 
be glad to learn how it could extend itself in any other 
manner. When human beings failed, the disease could 
have no opportunity of manifesting its existence. Dr. 
Macneil, the gentleman to whose letter we have already 
referred, related a circumstance which one would suppose 
decisive. At an encampment in India, where tlie cholera 
raged with great violence, he liad at one time a hundred 
patients. At tlie bed of each {laticnt another soldier was 
stationed, to watch liim closely, and to give the requisite 
medicines every hour. In not a single instance was any 
of tlic attendants aflccted by the disease. 

The {Minic wtiich spread tlirougliout Europe on tlie ap- 
pearance of this disease was not altogetlier unfounded ; but 
the idea of contagion adds tenfold to its horrors. The 
rulers of Europe, who in all past times made quaran- 
tines the pretext for shutting out the contagion of liberal 
ideas, eagerly seized upon this disease as a reason for 
doubling their quarantines, and, if possible, increasing tlieir 
rigour. Tiiis has been carried, during the present year, to 
such an extent, tliat all commercial intercourse was at a 
stand, and tlie short-sighted despots discovered at last that 
tliere were bounds and limits even to tlieir arbitrary de- 
crees. To tlie honour of tlie royal race, there was one 
crowned head who refused to establish quarantines, and 
contented himself with laughing at tlie beards of his royal 
brethren. We allude, of course, to Sultan Mahmoud, who 
(X>uld not go tlic whole lengtli of wluit is considered in 
Euro|x} as tlie index of civilization, to wit, custom-houses 

X X 



SaS mmrawaB or tusxbt. 

and quarantines. Some gleamingB of cotnmoo >en« ako 
leem, at lart, to have eolightuwd tba perceptiou of the 
Emperor of Aiwtria, or rather of his keeper PriuBe Matter- 
nich. On the ISth of October of this year be pnblidied a 
decree which we have now befine us. In this he acknow- 
ledge that all efibrU to resist the progress of the dideim 
bad &iled ; that the sanitaiy cordods bad exposed to fi*- 
quent attacks the~ troops* «nployed on that aerrioe ; and 
last, though not least, that gteaUpnbiurasRnents to com- 
merce had ensued. Excited therefore \fy his "paternal 
solicitude,'* be rerokea his former decree, ^riiicii places 
cholera on the same list with plague. He takes this oeca- 
■ion, bowerer, to eitablish a new sanitary cordon aD aloqg 
the borders of his Italian provinces wherever a custom- 
house is established. Those who remember the sanitaiy 
cordtMU, established along the Spanish frontier previous to 
the last French invasion, will readily comprehend how far 
medical considerations have operated in the fcmnatioD of 
these new lines of quarantines. 

It would be, perhaps, a hopelbss task to endeavoor to 
convince the world of the utter futility of attempting to 
restrain the ravages or prevent the accesa^f epidemics by 
quarantines ; although our experience in America should 
convince us that epidemic ycllow-fevcr is better controlled 
by evacuating the iufected district than by creating an 
infective atmosphere, which is always the case when many 
persons, labouring under the same disease, are shut up in 
the same enclosure. 

When Mohammed was ill with tbe plague, he was shut up 
in a cell with eighteen poor wretches who had no disease. 
The consequences were obvious : they all perished, and 
tbe enlightened jailer received public thanks because the 



* The AmeHcin reader will pmbaUy raqnin la b« infcnMd that ■■ 
Enrnpeui qiunuitiilea ua upon k miliiuy fcoting, and in mi 
Uw infraction of a quHanlinc ii poniibed vrilli mrtinl iltnlh 



ftKBTCnES OF TURKEY. 339 

disease extended no farther. " This,** observes the autlior 
of the Mussulman, '' was the first attempt at quarantine ; it 
was a European custom, and as it worked well, it was 
hailed as one of the great reforms to which Turkey was to 
owe her regeneration. The noiSc of it even reached the 
country of the Frangis, and the prime minister of the 
Giaours expressed a hope of soon congratulating Christen- 
dom upon the event." The prime minister of the Giaours 
may, however, reserve his congratulations for a future and, 
it is to be hoped, a far distant period. The Turks content 
themselves with sending tliose attacked with plague to 
breathe the pure air of the country, and purify their dwell- 
ings. In the mean time they permit vessels to arrive from 
all parts of the world, and to depart, undisturbed and unim- 
peded by the delay, the expense, the imprisonment, and the 
official impertinence and extortion of a quarantine estab- 
lisliment. Let the contagionist, who is at a loss to bolster 
up his belief, resort to tlic quarantines of Europe, and he 
will find them in abundance : he will obtain any quantity 
of the most miraculous cases, sworn to by every quarantine 
officer, and the name of the Deity appealed to in support 
not only of improbable but impossible cases : he will be 
fortified with solemn affidavits, sworn to by the 58 officers 
of the quarantine at Odessa, that a man once caught the 
plague there by merely treading on a piece of rag in the 
yard of the hospital, so small that it was not discovered on 
his shoe until ai\er his death. The hundred officials at 
Malta will solemnly certify upon oath that the plague was 
once communicated there by a man who scratched his head, 
and the dandrifT, wafted through the iron grates of the par- 
latorio,fell upon the hat of another at the distance of twenty 
feet : he went home, and when one of his children sickened 
and died of a disease resembling plague, it was discovered 
that the little fellow had been playing with his father's hat. 
This case relieved the autliorities, and a formal proves verbal 
still exists to prove a case of contagion. In short, fron) 



wKMWctan ov tdbsbv. 

mm intaested ia keeping up the ddusioii one may obtain 
certificates to the most revolting absurdities. 

It may safely be asserted that quarantines are jobs de- 
signedly intended to give salaries to physieians» super- 
intendents, and guards, at the expense of the unfortunate 
suflbrers. In the Levant, in addition to these powerful 
pecuniary reasons, others of a pditical nature tend to keep 
up.ihe monstrous faroe. During the thirty or forty daysT 
quarantine, ample time is allowed to procure all the informar 
tion necessary respecting the opinions and views of the 
prisoner. Ho is surrounded by spies ; and the man who 
supplies him with food at twice its value panders to the 
giulty fears of his government, by furnishing them with 
the minutest chit-chat of the stranger, which may throw any 
light upon his political opinions. It is, in fact, not so much 
the contagion of disease as of liberal opinions that is dreaded, 
and in this view quarantines are to be despised as the 
instruments of despotism. 

As an impolitic measure, afiecting the intercourse be- 
tween nations, and discouraging commercial enterprise, 
history affords us many examples. Marseilles has the 
honour of figuring largely in the history of quarantines. A 
vessel entering that port has been known to be subject to a 
long and rigorous detention, although coming from a healthy 
port, simply because she had spoken a vessel at sea, which 
vessel had furnished a rumour that the plague had broken 
out in another port At Marseilles, Protestants, Turks, 
Jews, and gentiles are compelled to pay certain dues to a 
Catholic chapel ; and when some one remonstrated against 
it, the chief of the establishment gave this liberal answer: 
^ Well, then, turn Catholic" The consequence of such ex- 
cessive rigour has been the gradual diminution of trade to 
this port, and the commerce of France generally in the 
Levant. We have known cases ourselves where ship- 
ments from the United States, originally intended for Mar- 
seilles, have been directed elsewhere as soon as her port 



AKBTCnES OF TURKEY. 341 

rcgiil.itions were fully imderstoocl. In 1784 France co- 
grossed more than one-half of all the commerce of the Le- 
vant. At the present day she ranks in this respect after 
England, Austria, Russia, tlie United States, and Holland. 
Much of this falling off has been distinctly traced to her 
absurd quarantines, although other causes have no doubt 
contributed their share. 

We have seen the destructive and suicidal policy of 
these regulations illustrated in the following manner. We 
will suppose that 240 vessels arrive at a certain port in the 
course of a year ; forty days for each vessel would give in 
the course of twelve years 9600 days, or nearly 26 years 
and a half wasted by all the vessels. If the quarantine was 
reduced to eight or ten days, there would still be a dead loss 
in time among all these vessels of more than six years. 
All tliis lost time must be considered as so much money 
wasted ; and when to this we add expenses, wear and tear 
of ship, waste of property, loss of market, interest of 
money, and quarantine fees, we shall fmd that it amounts 
to more than a million of dollars for a single port alone. 

The voyager in the Mediterranean meets with vexatious 
quarantines in every port, and, as a general rule, their 
rigour is in proportion, generally speaking, to the ignorance 
of the people, or the dearth of medical skill. Malta and 
Gibraltar are two exceptions ; but these arc military sta- 
tions, and, of course, tlie details of commerce arc altogether 
beneath the lordly consideration of their commanders. 

It may perhaps amuse our readers to give a bird's eye 
view of a quarantine, such as we have experienced it in 
the Mediterranean : tlic scene occurred at Gibraltar. As 
soon as the ship comes to anchor she is approached by the 
quarantine oflicer, who remains in his boat a short distance 
from the vessel, carefully avoiding all contact even with a 
boat-hook. He then proceeds to put the usual official que- 
ries. *' Was there any contagious disease at the port you 
sailed from ?" This is a pretty broad question, embracing 



itch, lyphiliiy and other maladies. ^'Hoift a yellow flag 
immediately. How many roaot have you T Muster them 
aloDg-the ride so that I can see them." If we had been so 
fortunate as to have sailed from a pcnrt where there was a 
kindred establishmentt we should have been permitted 
under certain absurd restrictions to go ashore at acertain 
sf)ott And talk through a double line of iron gratii^ withi 
our friends. This was not our case, and accordingly all 
communication with the shore, or any other Tessel, was 
strictly forbidden ; and to ensure the observance of this 
r^ulation a guard-boat was stationed near us. Wewidied 
to send a letter on riiore, which after some difficulty they 
consented to take. The letter was taken from us by means 
of a pair of tongs fastened to a long pole; it was then intro- 
duced into a tin box containing vinegar, and carried to the 
shore, where our poor letter went through the following 
additional process. It was cautiously extracted from the 
box by another pair of tongs, and after a fumigation of 
several hours, passed through the hands of the secretary of 
his excellency the governor, by whom it was forwarded to 
its destination. We were informed that if we wished to 
land property or passengers it was entirely out of the ques- 
tion, if we remained here until doomsday. We had merely 
stopped for a supply of water, and we were ordered to quit 
the harbour as soon as we had received it, which they took 
care should be furnished in a few hours. The expenses of 
this ridiculous farce amounted to about 950; and, with 
whatever reluctance the money was paid, we never saw 
specie received with so many precautions. The silver 
dollars which they received were carefully soaked in salt- 
water, before they would incur the hazard of plague or 
cholera by handling them with their dainty fingers. 



OF TURKEY. 343 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Aniaoutkeui-^Oybleni — Opium Eaten — St. Sophia — Otlier MofiMjues and 
the various EHtabiishmenta connected with them — The Kevenues — 
Mohammed — His Kise and Success — Koran — Not implicitly received by 
every Turk. 

During the frequent rambles which ive are in the daily 
habit of making in the environs of StambooU we stopped 
a few days since at AmaoutKeui, one of the prettiest vil- 
lages on the European sliore of tlie Bosphorus. This 
village, as the name miplics, was originally settled by tliose 
respectable cut-tliroats, the Amaout Greeks, to whom we 
have already alluded. At present it enjoys a more peace- 
ful, and we might add, tasteful notoriety. The small 
luscious oysters of the Bosphorus are nowhere to be found 
in greater abundance tlian at Arnaoutkeui. We entered a 
Greek wine-shop, which was pointed out to us as the head- 
quarters for these " bivalve moluscas," and surrounded by 
a motley crew of Jews, Greeks, and Annenians, all simi- 
larly occupied, we did ample justice to the Arnaoutkeui 
Slrithia, We should not hatve deemed tlie above incident 
worthy of being recorded, liad it not been associated witli 
anotlier which illustrates the spread of our domestic manu- 
factures. One of the most conspicuous ornaments on tlie 
dingy walls was a famous handbill containing in large 
type the following notice : ^ The best of cider carefully 
bottled and refined, by Jolm Fenno, Boston." Such an 
appeal at such a distance from home, aroused all our dor- 
mant patriotism, and a bottle of ^ apple-water," as the Turks 
call it, quickly made its appearance. In good truth, Mr. 
John Fenno of Boston had not exaggerated tlie merits of 
his ^ best of cider." 



•M ■■■TCBXB OP TVWMMT. 

It ms here, too, Uiat we saw for the Grsl lime an opiun 
eator. He was a miscmble-tooiq^ Jew, pale and ema- 
cialed, and, although his eyes weite rotUng about every 
part of the room, be appeared to be uocotudous of the 
prefence of any one arouDd him. The idea of a Ttnk and 
an opiom eater is so naturally associated in our aunda, that 
far a 1(M^ period aAer our arrival here we were in daOjr 
expectation of meeting some Turk in the streets, maddened 
widi ofMom, and ready to plunge his yatagfum into the 
bodjr of the first Christian that cfoskmI his path, llwas 
not tmtil after a residence of several months that wa were 
ennbled to put a just value upon the repreaentationeftfaoae 
who deal in exaggeration, in order to make an impranrive 
picture. A* none fell in our way, we determined to fenel 
them out in their secret haunts, and even lo experiment 
ourselves with this pleasing poison. 

Opium is known to be one of the staple products of Tur- 
key ; and hence, it has been l(^cally inierrcd, that every- 
body in the country must use it hobilualty. The Turks, by 
the same ingenious process of icasonii^, coDclude thai the 
Americans arc the most intolerable opium eaters in the 
worid, because they are the greatest purchasers of that com- 
modity. Most of the opium raised in Turkey ccmes from 
Asia, and particularly firom the jJains between Momi 
Olympus and Constantinople, in the region fmneriy k 
as the kingdom of Bithynia. Its culture is v 
and requires no particular care. The green capsoles f>f 
the i^ant arc scarified with a knife, and die jiDoe whid 
exudes is left exposed to the son one day before it b 
■crapod oBl This is the purest kind, and is used hy (he 
inhabitants on their holydays and fcstii'als. Ihwter WaMt, 
who haa Tinted these opium districts, infams la thai 
ahfaough much is consumed c« the spot, the a^alataMs are 
ootwitfattandit^ a remark^y florid, hoaM^ laoe. IV 
Ofdinary ujiium of commerce is an inftnor anide, etmakt- 
iog of the inspissated juice (rf* the poppy heads MM^Mm 



SKETCHES OF TUKKBY. 345 

with the various foreign ingredients. The purer kind is 
termed meslak and aphioon by the Turks, and opon by 
the Greeks. This latter word signifies literally juice, and 
hence our word opium. 

We one day visited the celebrated spot which has 
%urcd so largely in the descriptions of travellers as the 
opium bazar. It is known under the name of the Teerah- 
kee charrsehsheh. It consists of a range of low coffee:shops, 
looking upon an open desolate spot bounded by the walls 
of the mosque of Suleiman. In front of each shop, accord- 
ing to the usual custom in Turkey where there is space 
sufficient, there were small raised platforms upon which the 
true believer may enjoy his pipe al fresco, and relieve the 
monotony of his meditations by noting the passers by* 
After walking through them several times, we could not, 
among all the customers, detect one who appeared to be 
under the influence of opium. We took our seats in one 
which was the best filled and appeared to be the most fash- 
ionable place of resort, and after discussing the usual pipe 
and coffee, requested the coffee-shop keeper to furnish us 
with the customary potion for which the place was cele- 
brated. The man informed us, that although the place had 
once been famous for opium eaters, and some of the shops 
still vended tlie drug, yet the practice had become dis- 
reputable, and was now but rarely followed. He would 
supply us with a dose from the neighbouring shops if we 
insisted upon it, but at the same time, for the reputation of 
his establishment, he should insist upon our quitting his 
shop as soon as we had taken it. One of the old Turks 
inquired who sent us there, and when we mentioned our 
sources of information, laughed at our beards, and wondered 
how we could be imposed upon by the books of lying 
Frank travellers. We afterward repeated our visits fre- 
quently to this plaice with the same result, so that we were 
compelled at last to believe, that although opium is still 
occasionally used, yet that, if in reality the practice ever 

Y V 



•xiitldkitha|ceaBedtobeaoatH)||^ice; Uwttberaoeof 
OfMonT aaten baa disappeared, andVvftii tbem «ie of the 
groatnt marvels c^ Stambod.* t 

We have mentioned the mosque of Suleiman as being in 
AaTidiuty of the opium bftzu. Thiiuoneoftbethirteea 
nyal mosques of ConstaotiQople. It was built in IfiM, 
wad, as its name imports, by Sultan ScJyman the Second. 
AecMditig to tradition, the four superb cdnmiu of red 
gnnite m the interior which support the dome were 
bnqj^t from Epbesns, and the others are said to tutTe been 
***■**■* from Troas, where tbe^ ooce adorned the &moas 
tempk of Diana. They are each 64 feet high, and bnned 
«f « siof^e block. The buildiilg itself is S50 feet sqoare, 
Mtd has B large open court or peristyle surrounded by a 
tort of covered cloister, which is supported by massy 
monolithic columns of Egyptian granite, porphyry, Terd 
antique, and white marble, 30 feet high, and 4 feet in diame- 
ter. In the centre of this paved area is an elaborately 
w^ked fountain, which furnishes a copious supply to the 
fidthful, who always preface their prayers by aUation. 
Behind this mosque is another enclosure containing the 
toorbay or mausoleum of S uleiihan, and his brourite Roxa- 
laoa, whose histOTy partakes more of &ble than history. 
We looked into this mosque, but saw nothing more than a 
matted floor, and the otherwise imposing efiect of the vast 
interior was destroyed by innumerable coloured glass 
lamps and ostrich ^gs, hanging down to within a lew feet of 
the floor. We give the preference to this mosque for 
general efiect over every other mosque that we have as 
yet seen in the Turkish empire ; and, although coostnicted 
after the plan of St. Sophia, it fer excels its modeL 

* It would b« u intcTMitig lobject of inqniij, la Ksecrtun hcnr br thU 
pnetio* U cairiad with na. The' qnulitf eoiuwDed in our eonMij ■ 
mj |lMti and far eXModa tlw unooDl Mqnired far medidnil j«ii|iiw»» 
A ntpaeuble medieal pnctiliODcr in one (tf our inluid Tillafs aMond im 
that bi could mcDiion tnoia tliaii twantj bdiiiduala wlio uaod opiun daiJj. 
Thf J mm aU frmaba. Let aui ttnfrnata w cw tiai iBvailifala lki> 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 347 

St. Sophia rises proudly from an eminence near the 
seraglio, and, although not so lofty as some of the other 
royal mosques, it is nevertheless one of the first objects 
which attract the eye of the traveller as he approaches the 
Ottoman capital. The American hastens to visit a monu- 
ment of human industry and skill, which has bidden defi- 
ance to repeated earthquakes, and to the corroding influ- 
ence of time for thirteen centuries ; he is anxious to behold 
a structure composed in part of the great temple of Diana 
of Ephesus, and wliich is described as one of the most 
splendid monuments of the middle ages. He approaches, 
beholds a shapeless pile of stones, gigantic but barbarous, 
destitute even of simplicity, and violating every principle of 
architectural science. It appears as if the ponderous but- 
tresses were about to crush in the building they were 
mtended to support, and it has no front worthy of its mag- 
nitude. Our own impressions coincided with those of Mr. 
Hobhouse, ^* that the skill of a hundred architects, the 
labour of 10,000 workmen, the wealth of an empire, and 
the guardianship of presiding angels, had raised a stupen- 
dous monument of the heavy mediocrity which distinguishes 
the productions of the sixth century from the perfect speci- 
mens of a happier age." 

If it fails, however, in exciting applause and admiration 
from its proportions or magnitude, it is nevertheless full of 
interest from its historical associations. It was originally 
built by Constantine the Great, and much enlarged and im- 
proved by his son Constantius. This edifice was burnt dur- 
ing the furious religious feuds of his successor, and the party 
who are accused of having set it on fire were headed by 
an individual who has descended to posterity under the 
name of St. Chrysostom. It was again burnt under Hono- 
rius, and rebuilt by Theodosius, and in the early part of the 
reign of Justinian, it was for the last time consumed by the 
destructive element. 

This emperor caused it to be rebuilt in nearly its original 



Ibnn, in wUch state it has existed to tbB poresent day. Itfaat 
freqaflMy been rocked by earthquatilb and riven by light- 
ning» but as often repaired and restored. Justinian is said 
to have been five years in completing it, and to have appio- 
priated towards its constructure the salaries of all the teachr 
ersof learning in every part of his empire. For tiie purpois 
of covering the dome* he employed the leaden pipes wfakh 
conveyed water to various parts of the city. In this phreosj 
for building, Justinian seems to have been equally unnundp 
ful of the wants and the comforts of his people, and the 
mononent which he has left behind merely testifies to faii 
having been a tasteless barbarian, who, by accident, had tha . 
control of the resources of an empire. 

The most remarkable epoch in the history of this buiUiiig 
is when it ceased to be a Christian temple, and became the 
fountain-head, the very throne and seat of the religion of 
Mohammed. When the strange mixture of fanaticism and 
imbecility which appears to have been the unvarying charac- 
ter of the Greek emperors, reduced the empire to the brink of 
ruin, and the last of the Constantines expiated by a soldier's 
death a life of crime; the victorious Mohammed the 
Second entering the city dismounted from his horse, and 
in this temple, which had been alternately burnt and pro> 
faned by the fanaticism of the Greeks, he offered up his 
thanks to the God of hosts who had crowned his armies 
with success. The gilded altars were thrown down, the 
richly-carved crosses were prostrated, the pictures on the 
walls were removed and stripped of their gold and silver, 
and the whole building restored to a state of primitive 
simplicity. 

* Its dome is Mid to be conetracted wiUi bricks so light at to float on Hm 
rarfoce of water. This it no fiible, for briclu of this kind ha^e been aada 
within our own times. Fabroni of Florence, and Faojas of Paris misad 
agaric mineral and claj in certain proportions, and formed an ezceOaDt 
fire-brick which floated in water. An ordinary brick weighs six pomtidt, 
these only 4^ oz. They might be advantageously employed in the 
Uon of powder magasinea in oar ihipa of war. 



SKBTCHES OF TURXBT. 849 

The other thirteen royal mosques are all built after the 
model of St. Sophia, and have attached to each the follow- 
ing institutions : — 

1. Imardys. Places where food and a small sum of 
money are daily furnished to poor students and to a certain 
number of the destitute. It is estimated that from thirty 
to forty thousand persons are thus daily supplied with food 
in Constantinople. 

2. Hospitals. These are capable of holding from 150 to 
300 patients each. In some of them, Christian and Turk 
are indiscriminately admitted. They are in general badly 
organized, and medical aid is rarely to be found there. 

3. Mekteb, or public schools. In these the children of 
the poor are gratuitously instructed in reading, writing, and 
in the elements of their religion. Each school has a certain 
number of scholars, who are fed and clothed at the expense 
of the mosque. The kodjah, or schoolmaster, is permitted 
to receive presents from the parents of poor children, but 
his chief support is from the mosque. 

4. Maydressay^ or college. The mosque of Sulieman 
has five of these colleges attached to it ; one is more par- 
ticularly devoted to medicine. All the others are for the 
study of law and theology. The studies are divided into 
ten classes. Grammar, syntax, logic, morals, the science 
of allegories, rhetoric theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, 
the Koran, and the oral laws of the prophet. These col- 
leges contain from twelve to thirty rooms for the lodgings 
of students. The particular name given to these college 
lads is sojlah, meaning patients or sufferers, a term not 
altogether inapplicable to students nearer home. 

The greatest attention is paid in these colleges to the 
study of Arabic, Persian, and the ancient and modem 
Turkish. Other studies, which appear to be generally 
neglected, are mathematics, geography, and natural philo- 
sophy. 



S. JStobikasMyfOclibnuriei. Of tbeie Ibeie «re tfairtf- 
fireinCSoiiftaiitiiioide. The niaUeftoontains 1500, and tlho 
laigest 6000 ydumes. Th^ are open at aU times enotffit 
on Tiieidajn and Flridays, and any one may enlar and 
extract or copy the whole of any MS. The Ufanrianib 
Hafii Kiitob» are yery civil, and keep a catakgoeof all tfao 
tvoriu in the library. 

0. Musa^ hannca/f or hotels for the poor. To somo cf 
these, piiUic baths are attached, which are open grsr 
tnitoasly. 

To support these establishments most leqnire large 
penditores, and it is stated. that they do injGK^ 
flDe-tUrd of the land revenue. The annual income of St 
Sophts, accordiiig to Toame^rt, exceeds tlOO^OOOi b 
some diBtricts of the empire the entire revenue is appi!> 
priated to the support of particular mosques, and the inhab- 
itants in consequence enjoy certain privileges, such as being 
exempt from having soldiers quartered upon them, from the 
extortions of pachas, &c« There arc said to be two hm^ 
dred ordinary mosques or djammis in Constantinople,besides 
three iiundred chapels, or mesjids, some of which' latter 
belong to private families. This confirms the opinion that 
the Turks are essentially a devotional people, more partic» 
larly when one sees not on one day of the week cmly, but 
every day, the crowds which are continually pressing inte 
these temples to ofier up their silent prayers. 

The religious belief of the Turks is so peculiar and dis- 
tinct from our own, that we hope a brief exposition of its 
leading doctrines, with a sketch of the life of its foundsi^ 
will not be unacceptable to our readers. Indeed, a scheme 
of religion which is embraced by more than 150,000,000 of 
people, and which is even at the present moment extending 
its empire through the centre of Africa,* cannot fail to exojfe 
mneh interest. 

* Luden*. Afika. 



tnercRu ov TinunT. 851 

At the time when Mohammed appeared, his countiymen 
professed chiefly the Sabian religion, which consisted in a 
belief of the Unity of God, in the limited duration of pun- 
ishments, but chiefly in the adoration of the stars as the 
residence of mediating angels. They received the book of 
Psalms, and one in the Chaldee, which they called the book 
of Seth, whom they considered as the founder of their reli- 
gion. They had many superstitious rites and observances, 
groviring out of their worship of the stars, which they 
attempted to typify by monstrous images of stone and 
metal, and it was from this gross idolatry that Mohammed 
attempted to reclaim his countrymen. Not to found a new 
religion, as is commonly imputed to him, but to establish 
the only true and ancient one, professed by Adam, Noah, 
Abraham, and Jesus, -and all the prophets ; to weed out the 
corruptions and superstitions which the Jews and Christians 
had introduced; and to restore it to its orfginal purity, 
which consisted chiefly in the worship of one only God. 
Such at least were his declared sentiments at the commence- 
ment, but, either deluded himself or wishing to delude 
others, as he became more successful, he avowed himself 
to be a messenger from the Deity. His able translator, 
Sales, thinks that the greatest misfortune of Mohammed 
was in not having a competent knowledge of the real and 
pure doctrines of the Christian religion, which in his time 
were so abominably corrupted, that it was not surprising he 
should have resolved to abolish what in his opinion it was 
impossible to reform. He is thus described by the pious 
and learned Spanheim :* — ** Mohammed was richly fur- 
nished with natural endowments, beautiful in his person, of 
a subtle wit, agreeable behaviour, showing liberality to the 
poor, courtesy to every one, fortitude against his enemies, 
and above all, a high reverence for the name of God. He 
was severe against the perjured, adulterers, murderers, 

• Hiat. EeelMiMtica. 



■bmderen, pibdigals, the oovctoos, fiJae mtneMes, dec. s a 
great praacber of pfttieiioe» charityt mercy, beneTdenoe^ 
gntitudetMooariog of parents and auperiors, and a CreqoBnt 
oelebiater of the Divine praiaes.'' 

The fiust of his being an impoator should not blindLoa tOr 
his acknowledged merits, and upon the principle of gini« 
a certain nameless gentleman his due, we are hoond' t» 
accord Mohammed the merit of devating in no jnconsider- 
able d^pne the moral tone of his countrjrmeo. It is known, 
that he was no stranger to the history and l^aracter of OWR 
SaTiour, and vonerated him as a true prophet In imitatisg 
of him he sdected twelve of4iis firiends, who were to bum 
the same authority with the Christian apostles. TheTaAi 
generally acknowledge Christ as a prophet, and call us infr 
deb because we do not believe in Mohammed, who accord- 
ing to their ideas ¥ra8 predicted by Moses, Deuteronomy 
xviiL 15, and the Comforter promised in John xvi« 17. 

As long as he was weak in the number and influence of 
his followers, he preached forbearance and long-suffering; 
and in his own person, when persecuted in one place, be 
fled to another rather than make resistance. But when ha 
had acquired suflicient force to resist his enemies, he gave 
out that Grod had allowed him and his followers to defend 
themselves against infidels. The transition from defence 
to ofience was easy. Using alternately the sword and pen 
he fought in twenty-seven battles, and his writings were 
received as revelations from the Deity throughout Arabia» 
even during his life. He died twenty-two years after he 
had declared his mission, with the proud consolation thil 
he had succeeded in rooting out a senseless idolatry firom 
the greater part of his country. That he was an^jiqposlor 
of no ordinary kind is generally admitted, but aside iirom: 
this he appears to have been guilty of no greater criiMa 
than were countenanced by the customs of the age. Ha 
certainly had many virives and concubines, but this was an 
oriental practice of the greatest antiquity, and too common 



■M 



81LETCUE8 OF TUKKBT. 353 

to be considered as citticr iminoral or improper. Tlie 
Koran expressly states tliat no man shall have more than 
four, whether wives or concubines; but it adds, ** If ye fear 
that ye cannot act equitably towards so many, marry one 
only, or the slaves wliich ye shall acquire," and this we 
understand to be at present the usual practice among the 
better class of Turks. The poorer class must perforce be 
contented witli one, for they can support no more. When 
this passage in the Koran was written, the Arabians com- 
monly had eight or ten wives, and Mohammed restricted 
it witiiin much narrower bounds. Mohammed was origin- 
ally very poor, and tliroughout liis life extremely illiterate. 
This Ids followers acknowledge to be true, and cite as an 
evidence of the divine inspiration of the Koran, for how 
otherwise, say they, could a composition so sublimo liave 
proceeded from an illiterate man. It is said (altliough tlic 
evidence is far from being clear) that he was assisted in its 
composition by a renegade monk ; many \iuris of it however 
prove tliat Mohammed was well acquainted witli tlie Old 
Testament. The phraseology, for instance, is a close imi- 
tation of tlie style of tlie prophets, and tiis night journey to 
heaven is an artful fiction, imitated from the ascent of 
Moses to Mount Sinai, by which he attempted to stamp his 
writings as authentic, and as emanating immediately from 
the Deity. That he claimed the power of i)erforming mira- 
cles is stoutly denied by his disciples, and in fact he himself 
disclaims all such power in several parts of the Koran. 

Of the Koran itself, or book in wliich his precepts are 
recorded, Savary, no moan judge, says, that it is the master- 
piece of the Anibic Linguage, which is lertile in line writ- 
ers, and this judgment has been confirmed by ]H>slerity. 
Mohammed himself ap])eals to its jwrfcct elegance and 
purity as an evidence of its divine origin, and publicly chal- 
lenges the most eloquent writers in Arabia (of which, in 
his time, there were many thousands) to produce a single 
chapter to compare with it. As it was written at different 

Z 'I 




times and under TaruNU circnmitaDces, auoy dacnrpaa- 
OM and cootradictkNU ^pear in it, but the faitUal main- 
taiD thatttBW mint be taken in an aU^orical, and not in a 
literal Mnae. Like tbe Jews, they nerer touch their aacred 
rdmne without firat "WBibing tbemadvea ; bat ao far from 
thinking it profiuied by tnuMhUkm, they have had it tnm- 
lated into PBraian, Torki^ Javai^ Malayan, and other lan- 
guagei. 

Notwithitanding ita prMenROn to a divine origin, it ii 
br fium reoeiTinglfae imididt bdief of S Ike Oananlia. 
There are exain{dea in more recent time% eren among 4fae 
ulemah,of persrau who have <qienly avowed titai di«beiia<| 
and received the hoaours of martyrdom. DtftaMxi notieea 
two cases of this kind which occuired at C(»istantinople m 
1530 and 1602. It waa disbelieved 2UU years afterwwd by 
the Kalif Abdoolah IIL, who compelled moet of the learned 
doctors aad of his subjects to conform to his opinion. 
During his rcigu and that of his successor Mohammed III., 
the most cruel punishmeuls were inflicted upon such of 
the ulemah as refiised to deny the divine ori^ of the 
Koran. Under tbo head of blasphemy, according to the 
Turkish penal code, it is singular to notice that any one 
drying the divine mission of Moses or of Jesus Christ sub- 
jects himself to the penalty of death. We shall continue 
our remarks upon the religious opinions of tlte Turks in the 
succeeding chapter. 



'■KRTrilES OF TURKET. 355 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Etniifi — Dcscemlnnls of the Prophet — Roligtous Belief of the Mohammed- 
iins — Prayer — Alms — Pilgrimage to Mecca — Ahlutions — Abstinence from 
Wine — Kindness to Animals — Gaming — ^Toloration — ^Unfairness exer- 
cised towards the Taiks. 

Among the various costumes of Constantinople, the eyes 
of the trareller arc naturally attracted by persons who 
still retain the ancient Turkish dress, and whose heads are 
still disfigured by immense turbans of various fantastic 
forms, but of one uniform green colour. These are the 
celebrated emirs, or descendants of Fatima the daughter 
of tlic prophet, by Ali his disciple. Hence they are often 
called Alidays, or descendants of Ali. They have all gene- 
alogical ciiarts to certify to the purity of their descent, but 
as tlicre is no regular officer to verify their claims, it is 
believed that many have crept into the order in an improper 
mamicr, although, if detected, they are liable to- fine and 
imprisonment. The law of descent authorizes one to be 
an emir cither by the side of his father or mother, and this 
explains why they are so numerous. It is supposed that 
tlicy form a tliirtieth part of the Ottoman population. An 
emir is entitled to much consideration and respect, and 
their rank gives them personal advantages in every career 
into which tliey may choose to enter. They liavc a chief 
called Nakeeb Eschraf, who exercises almost sovereign 
authority over tliem, and decrees all punishments. The 
existence of this body has no doubt powerfully contributed 
to keep alive the spirit of Islamism among die people. 

According to tlie masterly exposition of Sale, the religion 
of the Moliainmcdans, as inculcated in the Koran, is termed 






856 8KBTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 

by them Islam (resignation to the will of God), and hence 
we have tlie word Islamism. This is divided into two 
parts, — Iman^ theory or faith, and ZWn, religion or practice. 
Under the first head is included a belief in God, in his 
angels, in his Scriptures, in the resurrection and day of 
judgment, and lastly in God's absolute decree and prede- 
termination both of good and evil. Under the second head, 
of religious observances or practices, arc included several 
particulars which, as they seem to have been lightly passed 
over by former travellers, we think may be usefully inserted 
here. The first religious observance, and one to which 
the greatest importance is to be attached, is 

Prayer. This Mohammed calls the pillar of reli^on 
and the key of paradise ; and when a certain tribe during 
his mission sent in their adhesion to him, renouncing their 
idols, but begging a dispensation from prayer, he nobly and 
firmly answered, <«Tlmt there could be no good in that 
religion wherein there was no prayer.** According to the 
creed of the Mussulmans, this is to be performed five tknes 
every twenty-four hours : 1, in the morning, forty minutes^ 
before sunrise ; 2, forty minutes after twelve at noon ; S, 
twenty minutes after four ; 4 and 5, at any time between 
sunset and daybreak. These prayers are always silent, 
except upon great or solemn occasions in the mosques 
when they are repeated aloud. At the appointed time they 
break off all business, and, regardless of place or person, 
kneel and prostrate themselves in silent prayer. One of 
my acquaintances, whose business leads him frequently in 
contact with officers of this government, assures me that 
he has frequently been shown into their ofl[ices» and found 
them engaged in prayer. They would be perhaps sur- 
rounded by numerous persons waiting rcspectfiffly for the 
termination of their devotions. Those who are acqnaialBd 
with the Turks will not accuse them of ostentation in these 
public demonstrations of pietv. In prayer they have 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 357 

adopted tho practice of the early Christians,* who wor- 
8hip])ed with their faces towards tlic east, or the rising 
sun, and make it a point to pray in their ordinary clothes. 
It is probable that antecedent to the Christian era attention to 
the points of the compass was esteemed a pcnnt of religion. 
They are, indeed, called upon to divest themselves of all 
sumptuous dress or decorations, if they happen to have any 
on. This appears to be a proper and reasonable regulation, 
but we are inclined to believe that in our refmed state of 
society such a provision would find but few advocates. 
Our churches on Sunday would not perhaps {Vresent such 
a gay spectacle, but a more devout and bumble frame of 
mind would advantageously supply its place. Upon an- 
other point connected with prayer, the Turks, as we think, 
arc entirely in the wrong, although supported by the 
authority of the early Christian fathers. We allude to the 
exclusion of women from the mosques during the hours 
assigned to prayer. According to the Koran, they are to 
perform their devotions at home, or in the mosques at 
hours when the men are not there. In several mosques 
and tekkays we have remarked that a portion is latticed 
off for the exclusive use of the women ; and, for the 
same reason, tiie Jewish and Greek churches have a 
similar partition. This appears to have been a very 
ancient practice in the Christian church ; for Cyril, writing 
350 years after Christ, says ** that such was the arrange- 
ment in his church at Jerusalem." The Mohammedans 
argue, but as we apprehend very inconclusively, that the 
presence of women during prayer is incompatible with 
rigidly pure and pious worship, as it may inspire a dificrent 
kind of devotion from that which is required in a place 
dedicated to the worship of the Deity. The pious Selden, 
although neither Mohammedan, Jew, nor Greek, is deci- 
dedly of the same opinion.f 

* Moshoiib, Cent. 2, chap. W. 

1 ! Jhicunqup ecngngntu ■hmil viri et foniiui fti mens non mrt inienU et 



f 



358 flKKTCHKS OF TUKKST. 

Alms. The Turkisli proverb, " All that you give you 
will carry witii you," beautifully expresses tlieir belief in 
the importance and efficacy of alms. The giving of alms 
is frec{uently impressed as one of the highest duties of the 
believer ; and we are told that at one time the practice was 
carried to such an extent as to produce a decree from the 
ulemah that not more than a fifth should be given to the 
poor. At present we are informed that it is upon an 
average about two and a half i>er cent. In no country in 
the world are beggars treated witli more kindness and cost- 
sideration than in Turkey, or their wants more speedily 
relieved, roverty, in fact, appears to be a passport under 
which a beggar will not only thrust himself into the 
highest public offices, but even into the council chamber of 
the divan, with the certainty of liavini,^ his wants relieved. 

Fasti n 'J. This is another observance much insisted 
n|X)n, and is not confinrd to simple abstinence from foixl 
alone, but is takon in an alleiroricaj sense, to restrain the 
ears, ('ves, and ton:;ne fn^in sin, to abstract the heart from 
Worldly eares, and to refrain the thouLrhts fi*oni ever\' thing 
but the I )ritv. Tliev have one trreat annual last during the 
Kaiuadan, which lasts from one new m«x>n to the other, 
and is rii/orfuislv oliserved as Ion:; fis the sun is above the 
horizon. It is a moveable fast, and, from tiie nature of the 
MohammcNlan comi)utation, which we have elsewhere ex- 
plained, it passes in sueeession lhrou£rh every season of the 
y«?ar. \Vlu;n it or ours durintr the loni^ days of summer, it 
l>ears with great severity u])on the labouring classes, but 
ihev never tlineh from its strict observance even at the risk 
of life itself. There are. however, cxrejUions made in favour 
of women who nurse their children, aged persons, the sick, 

il«*votn ; nun inter cHebmndum et fsacrifiria frminjr et viri, mutuis aspectibiis 
f:i;riiiK ar nutibus arrrndunt pntvoniMi ai>pe(itum ot dcMilf^niim" tuoiuin 
iirnr« ; ct qiiamlo tior non ferct saltnii humana fn^jiiitan ililrrtatur mutuort 
reriproro :i<.|»rctii ct ita non jwtciit pski* mi-nsi quiet :i, atlcnla ei drvola. 
— Schif-yt i/f Si/riiidnst Vril ihhriror Ai»vtl Sahx. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 359 

and the infirm. To compensate for this, tlie sick upon 
their recovery are bound to fast an equal number of days. 

Pilgrimage to Mecca. Tliis is expressly commanded by 
the Koran, although many excuse tliemselves on the score 
of poverty, and the wealthier classes frequently employ a 
substitute, who j^erforms tlie journey on their behalf. The 
person who has made this pilgrimage ever afterward 
receives the title of Hadji, altliough a visit to Jerusalem 
confers the same sacred title. This observance is only to 
be paralleled with that of the early Christian church, where, 
from a misinterpretation of a passage in the Apocalypse, 
the practice of making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem came 
into vogue, and during the tenth and eleventli centuries 
was almost universal. It is difficult to conceive for 
what especial purpose Moliammed inculcated this practice, 
unless we suppose it to have been imitated from tlie Jewisli 
pilgrimage. The particular object of veneration at Mecca 
is the kabaa, or black stone, which, from tlie various de- 
scriptions given of it by Ali Bey, Burckhardt, and otliers, 
is a fragment of porphyry, altliough its history would lead 
one to 'suspect it to be an aerolite. 

Ablutions, These are to be daily practised before every 
prayer, and likewise upon extraordinary occasions, and 
they are in fact most scxnpulously observed. " Water," 
observes the worthy Agapida,* •'is more necessary to 
these infidels than bread, making use of it in repeated 
daily ablutions enjoined by their damnable religion, em- 
ploying it in baths, and in a thousand other idle and ex- 
travagant modes of which toe Spaniards and Christians 
make little account.** These continual ablutions are not 
taken in a literal sense alone, but are applied to cleansing 
the members of the body from all wickedness and unjust 
actions, and the heart from all secret vicious inclinations. 
In all these senses Mohammed declares the practice of 
religion to be founded on cleanliness, in which he coincides 

* Chrouicles of GreoMla. 



360 SKKTCUBS OF TORKBY. 

with Shaftesbury, who argues that a virtuous man must 
necessarily be a cleanly one ; and even the pious Wesley 
seems to have entertained similar ideas with the great 
Arabian reformer, when he declares cleanliness to be akin 
to godliness, founded, perhaps, on the exhortation of Paul, 
** Let us cleanse ourselves from all filthincss of the flesh 
and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.** 

Independent of these fundamental articles of religious 
practice, there are various others which may be considered 
of minor importance, although they arc, notwithstanding, 
most scrupulously observed. 

One of the most striking of these is abstinence from wine 
and all strong liquors. They carry their notions on this 
subject so far as to hold it unlawful not merely to taste 
wine, but to make it, to buy or to sell it, or even to main- 
tain themselves with tlic moneys arising from the sale of 
that liquor. There arc, of course, among thcni some free- 
thinkers and free livers who indulge in rum, but, as far as 
our observation has extended, the number is quite limited. 
The most scrupulous, indeed, refrain not only from the use 
of wine, but also from coflec and tobacco. It is jM:2rhu|>s 
in reference to tliis that the sultan, as the head of the 
church, is said never to use tobacco. If Mohammed, as is 
commonly believed, copied his restrictions from the Jews, 
he seems to have made an improvement upon tlie Levitical 
law, which merely forbids the use of wine and strong 
drinks to the priests when they are about to enter tlie 
tabernacle of tlic congregation. So general and so strong 
is the dislike to the use of spirituous li(juors among tiio 
Turks, that we know of several Europeans in tlieir service 
who carefully abstain from drinking when they are about to 
transact business with the othcers of government, lest tlieii 
breath should reveal the fact If our praiseworthy asso- 
ciations for promoting temperance should be in want of a 
patron saint, we know of none who comes furnished witli 
stronger recommendations than Mohammed. 



MXWrCBMS OF TURKST. Ml 

Kindness to the brute creation is also frequently recoin« 
mended in the Koran, and the traveller in this country has 
many pleasing proofs of the scrupulousness with which 
these commands are obeyed. The harbour of Constantly 
nople is covered at many seasons with millions of wild 
fowl, which just paddle out of the reach of the oar, seem- 
ingly aware that they will not be injured. The open boats 
into which grain is discharged are literally covered with 
ringdoves, and the devout Mussulman scarcely dreams of 
even driving tliem gently away. This kind feeling extends 
to the whole brute creation, even to dogs (although re- 
garded as unclean), and is not confined to the ox which 
treadeth out the com, or which has fallen into the pit on the 
Sabbath day. 

Placing money out at interest is also declared to bo 
mdawful, hut we were unable to procure any definite infor« 
mat ion as to the extent to which it is carried. They pay 
t3iventy or thirty per cent, per annum for whatever sums 
they borrow of the Armenians, but, as wc learn, have no 
idea of mercantile punctuality as practised among a com- 
mercial people. They also abstain, like the Jews, from the 
flesh of swine, the blood of any animal, or the meat of any 
animal which has died a natural death. Unlike the Jews, 
however, they eat without scruple the flesh of camels. 
Circumcision, although nowhere mentioned in the Koran, is 
frequently practised, but, if we are correctly informed, it is 
fiir from being general, and is, in fact, falling into disuse. 

Gaming is severely reprobated in the Koran, and 
under this head is included, not only that particular species 
of gaming formerly much in vogue among the Arabs, in 
which all the winnings were distributed among the poor^ 
but every other kind of game, whether with dice, cards, or 
otherwise. A Scotch traveller, who has written an amus- 
ing Romance about Turkey, alludes frequently to the prev- 
alent passion for gaming ; but, during our residence here, 
we have witnessed nothing of the kind, unless he alludes 

AAA 



302 8KBTCHB8 OF TUBKST. 

to a game resembling our chess, which is not a game of 
hazard, but of skill, and which is rarely played for moneys 
That veracious traveUer has in all probability mistaken 
Greeks for Turks, and imputed to the latter the notorioiis 
propensities of the Hellenic race; it would not be the 
most serious mistake which he has committed.in the cooiae 
of his work. 

Such is a brief sketch of the religious creed and practioe 
of the Mohammedans, which, however it may vary in diA 
ferent countries, in the main agrees with all the above par- 
ticulars ; and although it cannot be compared in point of 
excellence with the divine precepts of our own religioOy 
yet enough has been said to correct the idle and errdieoiif 
notions generally entertained respecting it. Although il is 
the religion of the state, other creeds are allowed ; and it 
would be difficult to point out the most enlightened countiy 
of Christendom where there exists a more perfect toleration. 
Of the influence of Islamism upon the actions and lives of its 
professors we have already treated, and it only remains to 
add that its direct tendency is to counteract and mitigate 
the severity of despotic governments, which in the East have 
always found a congenial soil. It produces an equalizing 
effect, and is in fact a sort of religious republicanism, only 
extending much further than in our country, wtiere a dif- 
ference of complexion is fatal. It ennobles all who profess 
it, and furnishes an absolute title to any office short of the 
throne itself. .The Christian reader of the Koran will be 
gratified to find how closely its moral precepts coincide 
with those of the New Testament, from which indeed much 
of it is copied. The Koran inculcates that God at various 
times had made known his will to several prophets, such as 
Moses, David, Jesus, and Mohammed. As a consequence, 
the Pentateuch, the Psalms, the Gospels, aqd the Koran 
are inspired writings ; but it is contended that the t^ree 
former have been so much corrupted by Jews and Chria- 
tians, that althcrugh they may contain some part of the word 



iKXTCBBB or Tuunrr* 96S 

of God, little credit can be given to them, from the impos- 
libility of separating the genisine parts from the false 
interpolations. ^ 

It is unnecessary to resort to the odium theologicum to 
account for the unfairness and bitterness with which the 
Mohammedan religion has been treated by Christian 
Europe. When the Turks made their first appearance in 
Europe, it was in the character of a bold, sanguinary, and 
fanatical people, carrying death and devastaticin in their 
progress ; and whatever may have been their real object, 
their avowed intention was to extend the religion of the 
crescent. Animated with this sentiment, they fought with 
a desperation bordering upon phrensy, and their opponents 
had no other resource than to encourage a similar excite- 
ment in favour of the cross. A blind fanatical fury on both 
■ides rendered the struggle long and bloody ; quarter was 
rarely asked or given, and if prisoners were occasionally 
preserved, they were reduced to slavery. The superior 
military skill of the Turks prevailed ; and their adversaries 
slowly and sullenly retiring before them, wasted in impo- 
tent libels that deadly animosity which they could no longer 
exhibit in the field. 

# 

On the other hand, the character of the early Christians 
with whom they came in contact was not calculated to im- 
press upon them a very exalted idea of their religion. It 
was on the occasion of the crusades that their regions were 
suddenly invaded by a horde of infuriated wretches from 
Europe ; ** infamous in crime and brutal in desire, a wicked 
and blood-thirsty multitude, whose absence was a blessing 
to the land they left ;" such at least is the character given 
of the first crusaders by one of their most eloquent apolo- 
gists.* A delusive halo of glory has been thrown around 
tome of the chiefs of the subsequent crusades ; but the 
impartial reader will be inclined to regard them all as so 

• Jamts*! Hiftoiy of Chhaliy and the CruMdM, p; 77. 



many ferocious beasts, from Boemond, who roasted Turks 
alive before a slow fire* and afterward ate them,* to the 
cruel and fanatical St. Louis. Disputatious about Irifleti, 
they utterly neglected the important precepts of oor divine 
religion ; attaching the highest value to mere forms and 
ceremonies^ thf y neglected the essentials ; and while their 
lips professed the most sincere piety, their lives were stained 
with every variety of the foulest crimes. Believing as the 
Turks di(f in a simple system of religion, which was based 
upon the ruins of a splendid idolatry, how could they view 
otherwise than with contempt a religious faith, which at 
|hat period was unaccompanied by practice, and baitheoed 
and disgraced by the most childish and impious mumneriesT 
Had the Europeans of that time resembled our nwMlm i 
enlightened and tolerant Christians, the bigotry of the Tinds 
would eventually have been softened, a mutual f e » pect 
would have grown up, and the world would not have 
witnessed the scandalous continuity of libels which has beca 
for so long a time poured forth against a kind, simpfe* 
hearted, dead virtuous people. 

* Jameses History of Chivalry and the CnuadM, p^ 138. 



WBTCHEB OW TCHKBT. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

■ 

MaJhoute— Condition of the Insane — Grant Improvement — ^Hospitab— 
Aqueduct of Valcns — Still conducts Water, but in a diflervnt manner- 
Separate trading Districts — Pipes — Bnysrsleens — Khennah — Soormay — 
Turkish Indian Summer — Climate — ^Healthfulness of Constantinople. 

In the course of our rambles through the city to-day, we 
accidentally stumbled upon the Timar hannay^ or mad- 
house. Through a low portal we entered an open court, 
around which were arranged a number of cells looking 
into the court through windows secured by strong iron 
gratings. .There were about thirty poor wretches thus ex- 
posed to the gaze of idle curiosity, but the respect univer- 
aally paid in the East to those labouring under this most 
appalling of all maladies, protects them from the unfeeling 
taunts and gibes, which under similar circumstances they 
receive among the more humane and civilized nations of 
the West They were chiefly in a state of furious mad- 
ness, which the continual . presence of so many strangers 
must tend to aggravate. It was enough to excite the deej^ 
est feelings of commiseration to sec the condition of these 
wrecks of humanity, and to feel that under the present 
system there was not the slightest hope of their restoration 
to reason. They had no bedding, and in fact no attention 
whatever appeared to be pa[id to their wants or even their 
necessities. They were chiefly in a state approaching to 
nudity, with a heavy iron chain secured round their waists, 
which passed through the gratings of their windows, and 
was fastened to a stout iron staple on the wall outside. 
Some rattled llicir chains fiercely at us as we passed, otliers 
regarded us with a moody scowl, while some impktfed of 



us a few paras in the name of Allah. . The giatuitiei thug 
distributed, and a trifling fee paid to the porter at the gate, 
are said to be all these niiserable beings have to nbaist 
upon. This we cannot believe, for the honour of our com- 
mon nature, and because it is at utter, variance with the 
general humanity and kindness of the Turkish character. 
Travellers, we are rather inclined to suppose, have mis- 
taken the animal voracity of madmen for the ordinary 
cravings of hunger, and have accordingly borrowed a little 
oriental hyperbole, in order to paint a highly-wrought 
picture of human misery. The actual state of things is 
bad enough without resorting to exaggeration, and i left the 
place with the feeling that I had witnessed a Diadhooie 
resembling those which were the disgrace of Europe during 
the last century.* 

The hospitals of Constantinople are said to be numerous 
as well as the infinnarics and almshouses for the mainte- 
nance of aged and decayed individuals. We had repeat- 
edly inquired of our Frank acquaintances for directions to 
visit them, but were uniformly answered that the Turks bad 
no establishment of the kind ; this was ascertained to b^ 
as usual, incorrect. There arc, however, no civil hospitals 
upon a similar footing with ours, but there are iofirmaiiei 
attached to every mosque, in which are received the sick 
and the poor of the district. 

Besides these, the Greeks, Armenians, Jews, French, 
and English have separate hospitals for their respective 
nations. We walked one morning through the Greek boH 
pital, accompanied by the chief physician. Dr. Giovanni 
It is a substantial stone building, two stories in height, situ- 
ated in one of the filthiest spots of filthy Galata. It con- 
tains thirty wards, ten feet by twelve, and each holdii^ 

* One of the Turkiih ncwipapers reeentlj rtceiTcd, contaiiu Uw jJiii'm 
infbriDituni that Ibis H(abtiihui«Dt hu twen lUppiHcaJ, and ita iiuoatat 
diitiibutad anuag varioua boapitat* in the city, whera ih«7 now Tcetin 
•*M7 MMMio^ mad tba raqniaita madioal and monl tnMBaal. 



SKSTCHES OF TI7RKST« ' 867 

tfiree beds. Five of these wards are appropriated to 
female patients, but they were entirely empty. Two other 
wards are assigned to what are called suspicious cases, that 
is to say, for such as are suspected of being cases of plague. 
Here they are kept until the characteristic symptoms of 
the disease have had sufficient time to show themselves, 
when they are either removed to other wards or sent to the 
plague hospital. 

There were several of these suspicious cases when we 
made our visit, but they seemed to be nothing more than 
ordinary cases of common feveik Dr. G. informed us that 
mtermitte&ts were very rare here, and that all the cases 
are sent into the city from the adjoining villages. The 
most prevalent diseases just now are inflammatory afiec- 
tiona of the chest and bowels, which readily yield to the 
ordinary treatment. Besides these we saw the usual va- 
riety of diseases, such as dropsies, rheumatism, &c., which 
offered nothing peculiar m their treatment, except that 
leeches appeared to be rather indiscriminately applied. 
There were fifty patients, most of whom were convales- 
cent ; this was the more surprising when we remarked the 
general filthy condition of the hospital, with every window 
carefully closed in order to exclude the air. The silly 
and useless practice of fumigating the wards by burning 
aromatic herbs is resorted to, but this, as is well known, 
metely renders foul air less disagreeable to the smell, 
and can h% of little service in changing its nature. It 
was ludicrous to see us following in the wake of our 
medical friend, whose huge bearskin calpak was enveloped 
in smoke, while the attendants preceded us bearing brasiers 
filled with smoking herbs, and carefully fumigated every 
ward before it was supposed to be in a proper condition to 
receive us. With many thanks to the doctor for his polite 
attentions, we left the hospital, highly impressed with 
the important part which nature performs in the cure of 
diseaae. 



S88 fKXTCHSS tUF TUUEST. 

At DO great distance From the Timar hannay» we pasaefl 
under the aqueduct of Yalens ; a conspicuous feature in 
the picture of Constantinople, when viewed from the 
heights of Pera or from the Golden Horn. It is said to 
have been erected in the fourth century by the Emperor 
Yalens ; a part of this is still remaining, and its moulderiiig 
walls and ivied arches attest its antiquity. Another portion 
of this aqueduct, consisting of a double row of forty arcfaei» 
is of later date, having been rebuilt by S(»lyman the I^Iag- 
nificenU From a stfeet which passes under one of ti» 
arches of the most ancicnf^part of the aqueduct, a narroir 
and crooked flight of steps led us to the sunvnit, finom 
whence we enjoyed a magnificent and novel view of the 
city beneath us, with the harbour, the Ayoub suburb, tha 
heights of Pera, and the channel of the Bosphorus* A 
narrow pathway may be followed along the top of this 
aqueduct, nearly a mile in length, and almost choked up by 
laurels, blackberries, and wild figs. It is a venerable ruin, 
and although it no longer transmits water in the usual 
manner, vet bv usincr it for a svstcm of sooteravs, as we 
have before explained, it conveys an abundant supply 
of that important element through various parts of tlie 
citv. 

In the course of our rambles, we passed through mnny 
streets occupied by artisans, and had occasion to notice the 
diflcrent districts allotted to each occupation. In this par- 
ticular the stranjrcr is forciblv rcmiiiilcd of the various fara 
or market-places, for the sale of ditlerent articles in ancient 
Rome. We passed in succession the district where pipes 
are sold, the shoe, confectionary, copper, wood turning, cap, 
and various other districts. The mechanic arts appear to 
be at a low ebb, to judge iVom the specimens around us. 
The blacksmith's work is exccedinirjy coarse and imperfect; 
the cabinet-maker would deem it absurd to attempt to make 
a perfect joint ; the turner works with an ordinary hand 
bow, while his toes aflbrd him no inconsiderable assistance ; 



V ^ 



SKGTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 360 

and the shoemaker supplies, by means of paste, gum, and 
plaster, the deficiencies of his thread. The trades in which 
the greatest proficiency is displayed are the coppersmiths, 
wood-carvers, and pipe-makers. The culinary utensils of 
the Turks, and indeed of all the Eastern nations, are chiefly 
of copper,* and the business of the coppersmiths is conse- 
quently very extensive. Fine castings of brass are well ex- 
ecuted, and their brass cannon, for taste and beauty of finish, 
will compare with those of any nation in Europe. The 
carvers in wood, for whose productions also there is a great 
demand, execute their woil[, which consists chiefly of fruits, 
flowers, and arabesques, with great taste and ingenuity. 

In no article, perhaps, do the Turks display more 
ostentation and extravagance than in their pipes. This 
is carried so far, that for a single amber head wo have 
known the sum of 9300 to be paid, and have heard even a 
larger sum mentioned. The fictitious value assigned to 
amber may perhaps be owing in part to its scarcity, but 
it is also supposed to possess the peculiar property of not 
conveying infection as it passes from one mouth to another. 
The rank and station of an individual are in some degree 
measured by the length of his pipe-stem, which must be of 



* These utensils, when broken, worn out, or otherwise injured, form no 
inconsiderable item in the list of articles exported to the United States. A 
sentimental writer on the affairs of Greece, in one of our popular reriews, 
has unluckily seixed upon this subject to excite the public sympathy. ■* We 
have seen on the wharves of Boston the household utensils of brass and 
copper, gathered up from the desolate hearths of the butchered Sciotes, 
bought as old copper in Smyrna, and as such sent to this country. Does 
not this bring home to our minds a picture of distress to awaken the deepest 
sympathy V* We are for from the wish to underrate the actual sufferinga 
of the Greeks during their bloody struggle for freedom, but we must protest, 
in the name of good taste as well as of truth, against such attempts to 
awaken public sympathy. If the writer is thus affected by the sight of oU 
Turkish pots and kettles, what would be his feelings if ho could see the 
bales of old rags which are daily landed on the wharree of New-Tork, and 
which must have been stripped from the backs of the stnrviiig Italians. 



370 8EBTCHB8 OF TURKEY. 

cherry or jessamine of the natural growth. Thus the 
diplomatic length of a pipe-stem belonging to an officer of 
the court cannot be less than six feet ; a merchant or trader 
may sport a chibook of four feet; while a cdikgee, or 
waterman, solaces himself with a twelve or eighteen inch 
tube. 

In speaking of the bazars, we had occasion to notice the 
baysesteenSf which were originally cloth-markets, but are 
now devoted to other purposes. They are distinguished 
from the ordinary bazar by the superior elegance and 
solidity of their construction. One of these, which is called 
the Egyptian baysesteen, is filled with drugs and die-stuffik 
Here is sdd the celebrated oriental cosmetic khennah. Tliis 
consists of tlie finely powdered leaves of a shrub which is 
extensively cultivated in Egypt and Morocco, the luowsonia 
inermis. To judge by the quantity exposed for sale in this 
place the consumption must be enormous ; for it is not con- 
fined exclusively to the Turkish women, ])ut is also occa- 
sionally used by Armenians, Jews, and Greeks. It is well 
known that tliis plant is employed to give to tlic fingers and 
even toes an artificial colour, which is thought to be highly 
beautiful. From a Greek lady, who acknowledged that she 
had in her younger days made free use of this cosmetic, we 
obtained the following information. The khcnnah is steeped 
in wine for several days, and is tlien applied in its wet state 
around the fingers and toes, where it is secured by a wrapper 
of vine-leaves. The patient, for so she may be called, is then 
put to bed, and on the following morning the dressings are 
removed, and the operation is finished. The fashionable 
reddish-yellow stain has appeared, and lasts several weeks. 
It is absurd to pronounce upon a subject so capricious 
as taste ; but to our unpractised eyes this stain appeared 
very much as if the hands had been employed in the deli- 
cate operation of tarring ropes ; of this resemblance, how- 
ever, the Turkish ladies are unfortunately ignorant. This 
attempt to alter and improve what nature has already 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 371 

made beautiful, like tlie long nails of the Chinese, or the 
gloves of Europeans, is intended, no doubt, to convey the 
idea that the hands thus artificially distinguished have never 
been degraded by manual labour. In Constantinople we 
have noticed the palms of little children thus discoloured, 
in addition to the ordinary finger and toe marks. The 
maximum of beauty is supposed to be attained when the 
nails are about half-grown. At this period the contrast 
between the discoloured portion of the nail and the new 
part forms the peculiar distinctive characteristic of the ori- 
ental fashionable lady. The khennah, used witti a mordant, 
is also extensively used as an excellent die for woollens 
and cottons. Another cosmetic, which is called soormay^ 
a composition of antimony and gall-nuts, is used to enlarge 
and lengthen the eyebrows. Although the eflfect is singular, 
yet it certainly gives additional brilliancy and lustre to the 
eyes, for which it is no doubt intended. 

We arc now in the middle of October, and the weather 
has been thus far delightful. The thermometer for the last 
, three months has never fallen below 67"^, and the greatest 
* -» elevation has been 82° ; but this only occurred twice 
during this period. From a register of the weather which 
was carefully kept in our apartments, the mean tempera- 
ture has been 73°, and we have had but five days of rain. 
Witlyn the last three days we have been visited by a severe 
storm, accompanied by cold and furious blasts from the 
north. There is said to have been a snow-storm on the 
Black Sea, and the wrecks of two vessels have been driven 
ashore near the mouth of the Bosphorus, all hands having 
perished. This is the season when a violent storm usually 
occurs, after which we are promised a continuance of fine 
weather, termed by the Franks here fe petit He de St. 
Mmtirtj which from their description must correspond 
somewhat to our Indian summer. 

Constantinople, it will be recollected, is nearly in the 
same parallel of latitude with New- York, but it enjoys a much 



sn m r mim ov vmunr. 



fiaer climate ; bit oraoge-trees live in the cpm air during 
the whole winter, and the olive is enabled to withstand the 
slig^ fifosts which occasionally occor during that period of 
tho year. The dimate is truly delightfiil, and I know of 
no spot OQ the globe mora healthy : situated between two 
seas, the sultry effects of the south winds are tempered in 
summer by the cool breeaes firom the Euxine; and on the 
other hand, durii^ winter, the odd northern Uasts are neu- 
trslixed I7 the warm breeaes from the Sea of Marmon and 

theEgean. ^ 

In my fiequent visits to the hosjHtals I "k^ unaUe to 
ascertain what diseases vrere peculiar to the places and the 
physicians themselves could not particulaiiae any one dis- 
ease. A recent traveller, apparently an invalid, condemns 
the climate of Constantinople as impure and unhealthy ; but 
unfortunately cites the thick impervious forests of Belgrade, 
with their bendts, as the cause. These are eighteen miles 
distant, and would be about as effident in producing disease 
at Constantinople as the marshes about Elizabethtown or 
Bristol in affecting the health of New- York or Fhiladd- 
phia. Another traveller, Neale, asserts that Constantinople 
is the most unhealthy place under heaven, and attributes it 
to the low shores of the Propontis, which, by the way, are 
not marshy, at least near the capital. To confirm this ran- 
dom assertion, he begs us to contemplate the low grounds 
of Bithynia (sixty miles from Constantinople), the Lake of 
Nicca (only eighty miles distant), and the fertile swampy 
▼alleys at the foot of Mount Olympus, which are about one 
hundred miles from Constantinople. Mac Farlane asserts 
that strapgers are sure to pay a tribute of sickness on their 
arrival or shortly after, and then mentions that a party of 
Englishmen, who had made their journey firom India by 
land, all fell sick after their arrival at Penu The suddra 
change of habits and in their mode of living would be suf* 
ficient. one would imagine, to derange the system, without 



8KBTCHES OF TURKKY. 378 

the necessity of imputing to the capital any particular 
unheal thiness. 

From our own observations and the information derived 
from the physicians resident here, we should be inclined to 
believe that, with the exception of the two great epidemics, 
cholera and plague, few places can he found more exempt 
from disease than this capital. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Proposition to ettabliah a Turkish Newspaper — Speculations — Death of the 
Selictar Agfaa — Coronation of Sultan — Decapitation of a Male&ctor — 
Placard declaring his Crime — Expertness of Turkish Executioners — 
Turkish Bulletin — Revolt and capture of Davoud Pacha — His Paidon — 
Revolt in Albania — Affair of Van. 

Thb diplomatic circles here are quite in a ferment on 
ttie subject of a newspaper which it is said the government 
purposes to establish. To judjge from what we hear, it 
would seem that the sultan is about to attempt a rash and 
hazardous enterprise. One set maintains that it will be 
fdled with falsehoods, another that it will be insufferably 
stupid, and all concur in asserting that there is no occasion 
for it whatever. The true secret of this unanimity of 
opinion is, that it will expose and most effectually coun- 
teract the numerous silly falsehoods and scandalous inven- 
tions which are sent through Europe every post-day from 
Constantinople. The corps diplomatique forms here a nume- 
rous body, that of Russia alone being composed of at least 
ninety members, and the other embassies in like proportion. 
Moat of tliese have nothing to do, and accordingly exercise 
their inventive faculties for the amusement of their friends 
and correspondents at home. The Frank merchants, too, 
are not far behind the diplomatists in their fondness for 



374 nuncHBi op tobkbt. 

retailing petty gossip, which always accompanies tbeir 
circulars and price currents. We were once shown a letter 
firom a merchant at Constantinople to his conesponfleiit» in 
which he had contrived to enliven some dry specnhtimi 
about the price of opium and silk* with a sprightly aoeodole 
of his neighbour's wifi^ and a broad insinuation that Miss 
1 in the next street, was no better than she should be. 

llie newspaper is to be published weekly in Tuildsh and 
French, and the price 96,66 per annum. It is said, but we 
repeat it only as a Frank story, that the government have 
adopted the following mode in order to give it extensive 
circulation. All the officers of government are, of coarse, 
obliged to subscribe, who alone make no inconsider- 
able number. Then, the rayahs are expected to con- 
tribute their share, and this is managed in the following 
manner. The Armenian patriarch, for instance, is notified 
that in order to aid this national object, he must find two 
hundred subscribers among his nation^ and forward the sub- 
scription list as early as possible.- The same notifications 
are sent to the Greeks and Jews, varying the number 
according to the supposed capalnlity of the nation to pay. 
By these various means it is said that they have already 
secured two thousand subscribers. 

A procession of state barges attracted our attention this 
afternoon as we were crossing the Golden Horn, and we 
learn that it is the funeral of the Selictar Agha who died 
yesterday of an attack of apoplexy. This personage is the 
sword-bearer of the sultan, and one of the highest officers 
of state. His ostensible employment is to carry the sword 
of state before the sultan on days of ceremony, but, like 
many other court officers in Europe, he contrives to pick 
up a little here and there, and manages to support himself 
and family. The individual just deceased is reported to 
have been the richest subject in the empire. His property 
is reputed to have amounted to ei^t millions of dollars, 
and one of the evidences of his wealth is stated to be the 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 375 

possession of five hundred Cashinere sliawls, varying in 
value from eight to fifteen hundred dollars. Among other 
reforms of the sultan, that of abolishing useless and burthen- 
some offices is one of the most conspicuous, and he has 
accordingly expressed his determination not to appoint a 
successor to the office. All his vast wealth goes of course 
to the sultan, who will grant out of it annuities to his wives 
and children. The remains of the Selictar Agha are ap- 
propriately deposited near the mosque of Atjoub^ at the head 
of the Golden Horn, where the coronation of the sultan 
takes place upon his accession to the throne. The cere- 
mony is said tor be of a simple but imposing nature. Ac- 
companied by all his officers of state, the sultan proceeds 
to this mosque, when, after an appropriate address to the 
Deity, the Siieik islam, or head of the church and of the 
law, girds on the sultan the consecrated scimetar of his 
ancestors, repeating an ancient formula purporting that 
he must receive this weapon with confidence, for that it 
is a gift from the Deity, put into liis hands to protect the 
empire from the infidels. In this mosque are interred the 
remains of a holy mussulman martyr named Eyovh or 
Job, and this spot is supposed to be the Hebdomon or 
place of coronation of the Greek emperors. 

Although numerous fires have occurred during our resi- 
dence here, and repeated public executions are said to have 
taken place in consequence, yet we have never been able to 
witness any thing of the kind, although we have almost 
daily traversed the city in all directions. To-day, how- 
ever, we saw a decapitated corpse lying in the street with 
its stomach downward and tlie head placed between its 
legs. From the dress and appearance of the head it was 
evidently a. Greek, and a large placard over it in Turkish 
explained the nature of his crime. A Frank passing by 
informed us that it was the body of an incendiary, and we 
should have been satisfied with this explanation, had we 
not afterward succeeded in obtaining the placard wliich is 



now in our poiwioiL The fiiUowiog transkdoo of this 
y€fiahf as it 18 tenned, wiD giro an idea of this orienlal 
io8criptioii» iiriiich leiniiids one of the sDcieDt Tf^^ 
scripCion o¥er the heads of nwlefiMtors. 

<*The traitors Demetri, Stavri, and Yanni, passeqgsts 
on board a Turkish vessd commanded by the Rds Bar- 
tinleh Ibrahim bound to Constantinoide» assassinated in the 
night the said captain and six others of the crew. HaTi^g 
committed this horrid crime, they phmdered the vessel, sunk 
her, and escaped to land. They were speedily arrested by 
themussdim (governor) of the Sandjak, or disbict of Virmm 
Ohekr, and Ibrwarded to this imperial reridenoe. Hem 
they were examined according to legal forms before the 
tribunal of justice, and, after their own confession, were 
declared guilty of the enormous crime which they had 
committed. Sovereign justice has accordingly thought 
proper to inflict the necessary punishment by depriving 
them of a life stained by such atrocious villanies. It is 
therefore for these causes that Stavri (whose body is here 
exposed) has been punished, as well as bis two accomplices, 
in order to serve as an example to malefactors." 

It appears that the crime was perpetrated in the Black Sea 
some fifteen or eighteen months since, but as Turkish justice 
awaits the confession of the criminal, their punishment has 
been delayed until the present time. Upon a close exami- 
nation of the neck, it was ascertained Uiat the head must 
have been separated at a single blow. In the use of the 
handjiar, a short curved sword, with its edge on the concave 
side, the Turkish executioners are said to be extremely 
expert An individual was pointed out to us who had 
attained considerable distinction in this line, and it vras 
asserted of him that he has frequently, at a single Mow, cut 
through the bodies of four sheep suspended in a row. This 
feat appears to surpass that described by Scott in his novel 
of thq Crusaders. 

We were shown thb evenu^ the first printed bulletin 



f 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 877 

ever issued by the Turkish government It relates to the 
revolt of Davoud Pacha, the governor of Bagdad, which has 
at length been suppressed after nearly a year's resistance. 
It appears from this bulletin that Davoud Pacha had loaded 
the people of his pachalik with so many ruinous taxes, that 
strong remonstrances were made by the Sublime Porte, and 
to give them greater effect, one of the ministers, a former 
deftandar or secretary of the treasury, was sent to visit him 
in prison and communicate the ulterior orders of the sultan* 
Whether he had received information of the real objects of 
the visit of Sadik cffcndi from some of his friends at court, 
or, whether he only surmised that the messenger was com- 
missioned to ask of him the trifling loan of his head, is not 
known ; the fact, however, is stated in the bulletin that upon 
the arrival of the ex-secretary, Davoud took off his head on 
the very night of his arrival. When the news of this sum- 
mary procedure arrived at Constantinople, many pipes 
were smoked and numerous cups of coffee were drunk by the 
council before they could come to a conclusion as to what 
step should be taken next. To save expense to the gov- 
ernment, it was determined to employ the neighbouring 
pacha of Aleppo to put down Davoud, and as a reward for 
his services if successful, the governments of Bagdad and 
Diarbekir were to be annexed to that of Aleppo. Stimu- 
lated by these promises, Ali Pacha of Aleppo collected 
together a body of toops, and aided by Cassim Pacha, gov- 
ernor of Mosul, put to flight a numerous body of the troops 
of Davoud, and forced them to retreat upon Bagdad, where 
they were followed up by Cassim, who sent into the city an 
imperial decree proclaiming a general amnesty for all past 
transactions. The populace eagerly embraced the terms, 
and Davoud would, in all probability have soon been given 
up, had he not resorted to an act which is almost unparalleled 
in the annals of treacher>\ One of the chief magistrates of 
the city wrote a letter to Cassim Pacha, that he had, with 

the assistance of the inhabitants, made prisoner of Davoud, 

c c c 



ST8 nCBTCHBS OV TUBKBT. 

f 

and held him at' the disporitioD of the tultan. At the suno 
time he expressed bis desire to give up to him the goven- 
ment of the city. Trusting to this apparently frank oftft 
Cassim entered the city with a suite <^ one hundred attend- 
antft and proceeded to the govemor^s palace. He bid 
scarcely been seated, when the palace was surrounded by 
the troops of Davoud, and Cassim, his chief oflbsers, and 
nearly his whole escort, were put to death. 

Upm receiving this intelligence, Ali Pftcha of Afeppo 
proceeded to Bagdad, which he invested on the 7th of July 
and summoned Davoud to surrender. To this no reply 
was made except by a series of sorties upon the troops of 
the sultan. At length, after a siege of seventy days. All 
stormed and took possession of Bagdad. The rebellious 
Davoud was taken prisoner, and, strange as it may seem, 
instead of being put to death on the spot, was sent under 
an escort to Constantinople. 

The subsequent history of this treacherous miscreant 
either proves the lenity of the Turkish government, or that 
he had amassed sufficient wealth to purchase a pardon fcff 
himself and family. He was exiled to Brusa, delight- 
fully situated on the slope of Mount Olympus, and one 
of the most agreeable abodes in the whole Turkish 
empire. 

The government have now to deal with but two other 
refractory provinces, namely, that of Albania and of Van ; 
but the whole system is so vitiated, that an insurrection is 
no sooner quelled in one place than it breaks out in another, 
as we have already mentioned. The rebellion of Mustapha 
Pacha of Scutari has carried desolation through the pro* 
vince of Albania, and it is conceived to be of so serious a 
nature that the grand vizier himself has been obliged to 
take the field. The latest news purports that a battle has 
taken place near Janina, in which the troops under the son 
of the grand vizier succeeded in defeating the Albanians 
with great loss, and pursued them to Premetia. After a 



SKBTCHX8 OV TUKKKT. 879 

siege of twenty-five days, the Pronyos, as the people of 
this district are called, surrendered; thirty of the most 
considerable personages were sent as hostages to Salonika, 
and eighteen to the public Bagnio of Constantinople. 

The affair of Van is of a different nature. Groaning 
under the tyranny and the exactions of Timour Pacha, the 
inhabitants made a statement of their sufferings to the 
sultan, which upon examination was found to be in accord- 
ance with truth. Timour was dismissed, and ordered to 
Fepair to the place of his exile. He, however, preferred 
resistance to submission, and has accordingly shut himself 
up in the finrtress of Van, where be bids defiance to the 
troops and the orders of his sovereign. 

The present sultan has attempted to curb the rapacity of 
his pachas, but hitherto without effect He wished to sepa^ 
fate the civil and military power, and to allow fixed sala« 
ries, but the manceuvres of his court have hitherto been too 
powerful to allow him to carry these vdse and necessary 
measures into execution. 



CHAPTER XXXDL 

ScaUriwpCTiortoCoPrtantiiioplainiiifwalw^t cto Po p u litinii— M oafft 
of S«lim III.— 8i]k-weaTn»-Proc8M of ninng Silk— Printiiif ofttMiw 
Cottoni — Printing-pTeM — Canvaai of PUgrimi — Cemeteiy — TfoaSiSA 
Honenuuuhip— Vint to a Onek Family— GxedL Soof— Si^ttkiiilj onr 
their Fdlow-coantiymen of the Mont. 

In order to reach Scutari from Constantmople, it is neces- 
sary to ascend the Bosphorus as high as Beschik Tash, and 
then the current sweeps you to the opposite side. On the 
passage we noticed a large building near Scutari, which is 
a public granary : here and in similar buildings is stored all 
the grain required for the metropolis. In imitation of the 
ancients, grain is a government monopoly, and this system is 
one of the most effectual that could possibly be devised to 
keep the people in a state of abject poverty. The govern- 
ment and tlic various oiBcers intrusted with its manage- 
ment all contrive to make money out of it as it passes 
through their hands ; while the poor cultivator is, perhaps^ 
entirely deprived of the fruits of his honest industry. It is 
inconceivable how far rapacity blinds them to the true in- 
terests of the country. If these granaries were burnt to the 
ground — if every man could bring his grain to the city, and 
sell it at the best price — the city would be far better sup- 
plied, and at a cheaper rate. But it is not the price of 
grain alone which is thus improperly attempted to be regu- 
lated by law. Every article of food has a fixed price, 
whether sold by wholesale or retail ; and from the lordly 
dealer in oil, down to the humble vender of roasted chest- 



SKETCHES OF TUKKET. 



381 



.1 

f 



nuts, all are liable to fine, imprisonment, bastinado, or de- 
capitation, for the least infraction of the la^."^ 

The streets of Scutari afibrd a strong contrast with those | 
of the capitals beingwide and airy, and apparently laid out 
with muchinoie regularity. Its ancient name Chrysopolis, 
or city of gold, was given to it when occupied by the Per- 
sians, who used it not only as a place for arms, but also as 
a depot for the gold and silver which they levied upon the 
towns and cities of Asia. Its position on the gentle slope of 
a hill, which descends towards the Bosphorus and over- 
looks the Sea of Marmora, would be considered as emi- 
nently beautiful, and would attract more general admiration, 
were it not for its vicinity to that magnificent city and 
harbour which is without its parallel in the world. Com- 
paring its apparent size with that of Constantinople, we 
should be inclined to assign to Scutari a population of 
80,000. It is almost exclusively inhabited by Turks ; and • 
theneatness and order which prevail in the place strikingly ' 
contrast with the quarters solely occupied by the filthy 
Franks of Galata and Pera. ' 



* The foHowing tariff of prices, which waa published during my residence 
in 1831, may amuse the reader ; but if he ia disposed to consider it as a 
proof of the barbarism of Turkey, he should be reminded that the same thing 
exists to a greater or less extent in the most civilized countries of Europe : 
eren in New-York we only got rid of th^ absurd assize of bread a few yean 
ago. 





Wbolsssle. 


BeCiiL 




Wbotosale. Retsil. 


Oil -perokel2 ets. 


12i 


Flour, 1st. quality 44 cts. 5 


Soap - • 


. - n\- 


12 


Do. 2d. - - 34 — 4 


Meat - • 


. . 


9 


Wheat . 


. - - 4i- 4} 


Cheese • 


. - 12 — 


13i 


Starch • 


. . - 104— lU 


Butter • 


. - 194- 


204 


Onions • 


. - - 1 - u 


Honey 


. - 13}- 


15 


Garlic • 


■ - - 3J— 34 


Vermicell 


i - 7i- 


84 


Candles • 


. . - 20|— 21t 


Pease- • 


. - 2i- 


ai 


Salt - 


■ - ■ 1- J 


Beans 


. . 3 — 


4 


Grapes • 


■ - - 24— 3 


Lentils • 


. - 2t- 


34 


Greens • 


...}«} 


Olives • 


. - 6i- 


6 


Eggeper 


hundr. 55—60 


The oke is S 


tiV lbs. 









Ftadng the mosque of Selim HL, a mipeib edifice in the 
oentie of a spadouf court, we aicended to the upper 
part of the town, whence the eye takes in at a glance 
the whole Sea of Marmora, the snowy tops of Qlympoi^ 
and a great part of the windings of the BosphcNrui. In 
tins quarter we found t^ numerous silk-weavers, whose 
gorgeous and costly productions have never been equalled 
in Europe. They are all separate establishments, and as 
fiur as we could ascertain are managed and controlled by 
private individuals. Most of the alk is derived firom aU 
that region bordering on the eastern and southern shores of 
the Sea of Marmora, of which Brusa may be considered as 
the capital. 

The eggs are brought to Brusa in April, when they are 
sold by weight to the purchasers. They are spread upon 
linen cloths, or kept under the arms, or in the bosom, until 
hatched, which takes place in a few days. The room is 
then strewed with branches of the mulberry ; first feeding 
them with the tenderest leaves, and as they grow older they 
continue to add branches every day until they reach neariy 
to the top of the room. In the course of ten or twelve days 
they become torpid, or fall asleep, and continue in this state 
three or four days ; they then awake, and continue to eat 
and sleep alternately for about six weeks, when they begin 
to climb. Dry oak branches, properly trimmed and pre- 
pared for this purpose, are then set upright on the pile ; 
they ascend these, and commence making their cocoons. 
Those intended for seed are permitted to remain twenty 
days, when they are laid on a cloth ; a butterfly then issues 
forth, lays its eggs, and dies : the eggs are kept in a cool 
place until the following spring, when they are sent to 
market for sale. The cocoons intended for use are merely 
exposed to the sun, although in Syria they are thrown into 
hot water : the object of both operations is to destroy the 
animal within. We have been assured by the respectable 
traveller to whom we are indebted for these details, that 



8KXTCHX8 OF TUIUUIT. 888 

during the season of rearing the silk- worm it is almost im- 
possible to obtain in these districts any shelter or accom- 
modation. Every part of the house, even to the bed-rooms 
and garrets, is filled with these animals and their requisite 
food. The business of unwinding these cocoons is chiefly 
in the hands of Jews and Armenians. Turkish silk is con- 
sidered to be superior in quality to the Italian ; and this is 
attributed to the diflerent mode in which the worms are fed. 
In Italy the leaves are stripped off, while in Turkey the 
worms are supplied with entire branches from the trees. 

In this quarter we observed the largest private establish- 
ment of a manufacturing kind that we have yet seen in 
Turkey ; it is for the purpose of printing coarse cottons : 
various colours were employed, and the work was all done 
with hand-patterns. About t'^o hundred workmen are 
daily engaged here, and we were told that the establish- 
ment was in a flourishing condition. There was formerly 
A large printing-office here, established by Achmet III., and 
revived by that Selim whose fate has already been noticed. 
Many valuable works were published, and among others a 
folio Atlas of the Turkish Empire. This printing-officet 
together with the splendid barracks built by the same 
saltan, was destroyed by the enfuriated Janizaries in 1808. 
It is here also that the pilgrims assemble at a particular 
season of the year to set out upon their annual pilgrimages 
to the shrine of the prophet at Mecca. Here are to be 
seen assembled thousands of all ages and both sexes, im- 
pelled by mixed motives of devotion, curiosity, and trade, 
ready and willing to submit to dangers and privations in 
order to visit the tomb of their great lawgiver, and to be 
honoured with the title of hadji upon their return. This 
pilgrimage is strictly enjoined upon every true Mussulman 
by the Koran, but the wealthy are permitted to perform it 
by proxy. The regular price we could never ascertain ; 
but if one could be proxy for several, it might be rendered 
rather a profitable business. In a political point of view, it 



if a nnnouB practice, not only from the mortality whidi 
necessarily accompanies the march of such a motley mul- 
titude, but the real injury to the state which must result 
firom so many idlers leading a vagabond life through the 
country. The devotees who perform the pilgrimage not 
only visit Mecca, but also Jerusalem in memory of Jesus» 
whom they reverence as a great prophet They visit also 
Medina where Mahomet was buried, and the tomb of 
Abraham, which they conceive to be at Hebron. 

Scutari is recorded in the pages of every traveller for its 
cemetery, which is reputed to be the largest in the wcNrldi 
From one spot we could take in its whole extent with the 
eye, and estimated it to contain about five hundred acie& 
The formal and gloomy cypress defines precisely the 
limits of this marble city of the dead, and the scene recalls 
forcibly to mind the vivid description given by the eloquent 
author of Anastasius. 

" There lie, scarcely one foot beneath the surface of a 
swelling soil, ready to burst at every point with its fester- 
ing contents, more than half the generations whom death 
has continued to mow down for nearly four centuries in the 
vast capital of Islamism. There lie, side by side, <m the 
same level, in cells the size of their bodies, and only distin- 
guished by a marble turban somewhat longer or deeper-^ 
somewhat rounder or squarcr — personages, in life, far as 
heaven and earth asunder, in birth, in station, in gifts of 
nature, and in long-laboured acquirements. There lie, sunk 
alike in their last sleep — alike food for the worm that lives 
on death — the conqueror who filled the universe with his 
name, and the peasant scarcely known in his own hamlet — 
elders bending beneath the weight of years, and infents of 
a single hour — men with intellects of angels, and men with 
understandings inferior to those of brutes — the beauty of 
Georgia, and the black of Senaar — ^viziers, beggars, heroes, 
and women." 

It is generally believed that the preference dis{^yed by 



BxarcBEB ov TURunr. 880 

the Turks for this spot, as a place of interment, is founded 
upon a belief that sooner or later they will be dispossessed 
of their European territory, and upon the natural desire 
that their remains should lie undisturbed on the same soil 
which contains their holy cities of Mecca, Jerusalem, Me- 
dina, and Damascus. How far the religious feeling may 
operate we are not prepared to say, but a more probable 
explanation may be found in the actual condition of the 
cemeteries of the metropolis. These are already sur« 
charged with dead, and the burying-ground of Scutari 
affords a convenient and ample receptacle for succeeding 
generations. 

On our return we saw Turks exhibiting feats of horse* 
manship. The riders were mounted on high saddles, and 
had it not been for their beautiful and spirited horses, we 
should have supposed that we were witnessing the exer« 
cises of Cossacks. Their position was not graceful, nor 
did their seats appear to be firm ; the acme of dexterity 
appeared to consist in wheeling the horse suddenly round, 
or in checking him with a powerful bit at the top of his 
speed. Such exercises may be necessary for light skir- 
mishers, but can be of little value for the ordinary purposes 
of regularly disciplined cavalry ; both horses and riders 
appeared to be soon exhausted by their violent exertions. 

In the afternoon we paid a visit to a Greek gentleman 
who had bestowed upon us many civilities, and had been 
of much service in indicating various objects of curiosity 
about the metropolis. This gentleman's relations are con- 
nected by descent with two princes of the Fanar,* whose 

* Mavrocordato hasUken no tinall part in the ▼arioas actnes of the Greek 
ferohition, and vraa for aeTeral yean the boaom friend and aid of Count Capo 
d*Iitriaa. We are not informed aa to his present condition. Prince Mo- 
Toasi, vrho came originally from Trebisond, is universally spoken of as a 
mm of letters, a great patron of learning, and of the most estlmaUe and un- 
blemished reputation. 0e was put to death in 1821. 

DDD 



tmam^h^ye 6gand ccHujucuomly in the annalf of Ite 
TraBhcmpire. We found the ladies of the fiunily ezcHdr 
iqglywell-bied and educated women. After the costofeBaiy 
offering of sweetmeats and coflfee, which the lady of Ih* 
house makes it a point of good-breeding to present herself 
to the guest, we were treated with music on the pianot and 
were agreeably surprised to hear executed with nmch 
taste, in the heart of the Turkish empire, choice mofoeanx 
from Maaaniello^ La Dame Blanche, uid other recent operas 
fromFrance andltaly. We petitioned, init in Tain, to hear 
that^ieautiful song, Afvri wmih$ rm £AA«Nw, which has besB 
so spiritedly translated by Byron ; but from poUcy, or pep* 
haps a consciousness that it would afford no amusemeot, 
our request was laughingly evaded. Our curiosity was 
afterward gratified on this subject in another &mily at 
Smyrna ; and we are enabled to state for the information 
of the curious, that a more harsh and unpleasant assemblage 
of discords cannot, we believe, be found in any country. 
It is said to be a war song, and of this there can be little 
doubt ; for the music is startling enough of itself to frighten 
and put to flight the boldest enemy. This portion pf the 
Greeks, commonly called the Greeks of the Fanar, or Fanft- 
riots, are an intelligent and well-educated people; and, 
excepting their superstitious bigotry, may be advantage* 
ously contrasted with Europeans. They are inmieasurably 
superior to their fellow-countrymen of the Morea or the 
islands, are fond of display, and have the reputation of being 
not only generous, but profuse : they are assiduously atteiH 
tive, and perform the rites of iiospitality with equal good* 
humour and politeness. There is, moreover, an air of great 
kindness, and even of ceremoniovis attention, in their treat- 
ment of servants and dependants, which ought to rescue 
their politeness to superiors from th^ imputation of servility. 
.The truth of this delineation we have had ample oppor- 
tunities of verifying, and can bear cheerful testimony te 



SKarcBSf OF tubxxt. 987 

their kind and grateful attentions to strangers. If an j; thing 
is capable of redeeming the character of the descendants of 
Themistocles from its deep abyss of degradation, it ^ill be 
the reputation of the Greeks of the Fanar. 



CHAPTER XL. 

Viiit to the Seraiskier Pacha — His Reception — History — Character — Anec- 
dote — Pilgrim Ship — Greek Church — Its Tenets — Anecdote — Patriarch 
of Jerusalem — His Appearance — Curiosity — Clerical Attendants — ^His 
Portrait, Autograph, and Official Seal. 

BusxifEss of a personal nature led us to pay a visit this 
morning to the Seraiskier Pacha. His residence is in a 
palace situated on one of the eminences of Constantinople, 
and in the centre of a spacious court surrounded by high 
and massy walls. Passing through the portals, under which 
were numerous armed attendants, we ascended a flight of 
steps which terminated in a large matted hall. Here, after 
waiting a few moments to allow our names to be sent in, 
we were notified that the pacha was in readiness to receive 
us. We were ushered through an antechamber, in which 
were stationed a number of soldiers, forming a guard of 
h<Hiour» into the presence of the seraiskier. He is a hale, 
hearty-looking man, of about sixty years, with a venerable 
white beard, and a good-humoured, but rather sinister ex- 
pression of countenance. 

His reception of us was extremely courteous, and he 
entertained us with a long account of his having once met, 
when captain pacha, with one of our naval commanders in 
the Mediterranean. It was owing to his representations, 
and in consequence of what he witnessed of the discipline 




!l ordrr of our squadron, that his government had 
kiced to signify llioir wishes for a treaty with oun. 
J to our cntrancd he had apparently be«n amusing 
himself with a comrivancc forciercising artillery and in- 
finery. Taking up the board, he invited my companion, 
tvhowaaanavaj officer, to enter the square and commence 
a trial of skill. My friend, however, declined, on the plea 
that he was unacquainied with such mailers, but that if 
bis highness would manceuvre fleets with him on the same 
board, he would willingly accept the challenge. Tlie serais- 
kier is the second officer of the empire, being only inferior 
to the grand vizier. His title is equivalent to that of lieu- 
lenanl-general ; he commands all the troops of the metro 
polls, and also superintends its police. Originally a Geor- 
gian slave, he has by dint ot cleverness and political saga- 
city elevated himself to the highest military station in 
(he MQpire, tod posseaaea much of the personal ngaM ot 
Iha lultan, to whose plana of rofimn he baa procnp^T *ob^ 
Iribuled hia aid. 

Uaref. or Khoare^jpr Koecew Facha, haa takta a. ood* 
qnououa thaie in the grand drama of tbe Tuikiah rerohi* 
tion. He waa at one period PadM of Egrpt, but was 
compsUed to yield to ibe superior cvmaag and boldMei of 
Mehevel Ali, by whom he waa aent beck to the c^taL 
On thic new theatre bis talents were fouod eo useful to the 
•ultan, that be rose rapidly to tl» station of oapodan pacfaAi 
Ib the course of hia career he is accused of bavii^ con^ 
Boitted tbe blackeat crimes in order tp render btmaelf ae> 
«eptal4e to bis manter. TiMtff theae are notioed in most 
booka of travels, and are prdnbly well founded. As the 
•gent of the sultan he strangled a bey in Uw neigbbourfaoed 
of Angorlu and after 'ofiea-repeated attempts sncccedod in 
takiog off tbe head of the Goremor ef Smyrna. Both of 
ibeoe persooages bad rendered themselves obntudous to A* 
Porte, and aocordiag to tbe Eastern system of ethics, an 
aaeny it to be got rid Member b)r fair mnaaaorfcid. it 



8KXTCHE8 OF TURUBV. 

if currently reported here that a deadly hostility stiU exists 
between the Egyptian viceroy and Usref, and that Meheroet 
Ali had frequently demanded his head of the Porte. 
Should any hostile demonstrations be made by the Egyp- 
tian pacha against the sultan, it will doubtless be found that 
one of his most powerful secret reasons will be to destroy 
the seraiskier. 

After serving in several important offices, he was elevated 
to the office of capudan pacha or lord high admiral, and in 
that capacity commanded the Turkish fleet on several of 
its cruises. We are not aware that he distinguished him- 
self while in this station by any brilliant action, but he in- 
troduced several important reforms into the navy, and what 
was still more extraordinary, if we were rightly informed, 
he always managed to bring back his fleet in safety. Those 
who are conversant with the general management of Turk- 
ish fleets, will acknowledge this to be no small praise. He 
is said to be a man of much boldness and determination, 
and inflicts punishment with a merciless hand. Civilians, 
however, are rarely inclined to make due allowances for 
the severity of martial law, and it should be recollected 
that this government is peculiarly military. By singular 
good luck, Usref was not with the fleet when Canaris burned 
the Turkish flag-ship near Scio, and as he was too cunning 
to accompany the fleet to Alexandria, he escaped the sub« 
sequent " untoward event" of Navarino. 

An anecdote is related of this seraiskier, which exhibits 
his promptness and fearlessness in repressing the slightest 
symptom of disorder. It may be necessary to remind the 
reader, that all pachas have the power of life and death 
without appeal or responsibility. A few months since, an 
officer of rank (a been-bashi, or colonel), upon some slight 
provocation, ran his sword through the body of an inferior 
officer. The seraiskier, upon being informed of the fact, 
sent for the colonel, inquired if the charge was true, and 
receiving a reply in the affirmative, ordered his bead to be 



4 



taken off upon the spot Hii reputation for 
■uchy that his presence alone is capable of. repreansg the 
mM iorious tumulty although his personal appearance and 
afiabia vanners would scaroelj countenance the stories 
related of his savage ferocity. If a tithe of these stocies 
be taoe^ he may be set do wn as ^ the miklest niannered Bian 
tiiat ever cut a throat'' 

Inthe afternoon we were honoured with an mtrodnetion 
to a lion of another descripticm. We had occasion to pay 
a visit to a Greek fiunily in the Fanar, and accordingly eo- 
gaged a caik to take us up the Gkdden Horn. On our pas- 
sage we remarked in the harbour a burthensome hng, 
decorated with various colours, all of which dilpbyad 
crossesof various shapes and hues. At the mainmast head 
was a large ensign with a huge cross in its centre, sur- 
rounded by four smaller ones. Not a single national flag ap- 
peared. Our curiosity was so much aroused by this osten- 
tatious display of so many crosses in the Capital of the 
Crescent, that we went alongside, and were invited to come 
on board. It was one of the pilgrim ships which carry a 
promiscuous assortment of Greeks^ Armenians, and Jews 
to the holy city of Jerusalem. The scene presented on 
board would be difficult to describe, but any one who has 
seen a ship loading with passengers for America on the 
coast of Ireland, can readily form an idea of the noise, the 
filth, and the confusion which reigned on board of this pil- 
grim ship. 

Upon our arrival at the Fanar, some of the members of 
die iaaiily for whom our visit was intended were just set- 
ting out to pay a visit to the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and 
invited us to accompany them. As we are about to visit 
one of the heads of a church to which seventy millions 
bow with reverence, it may not be amiss to give a rapid 
sketch of the composition and nature of this elder sister 
of the church of R(»ne. The Greek church has four pa- 
triarchs, namely, <^ Constantinople, of Antioch, of Jem- 



SKETCHES OF TUBKET. SOI 

saleoDy and of Rome. The first-named patriarch is elected 
by the votes of the bishops in his vicinity, and must be con- 
firmed by the sultan, for which he pays the trifling sum of 
20 or 830,000. He nominates the other three patriarchs, 
and they also pay a bakshish to the Commander of the 
Faithful for the confirmation of their appointments. These 
oflices are no doubt highly desirable, and between the 
scramble for them on the part of the clergy, and the 
desire of the sultan to obtain a frequent bakshish^ the 
republican doctrine of rotation in office is not unfre« 
quently exercised. The various duties of the church are 
performed by a series of functionaries, from archbishops 
down to subdcacons. The following are the principal dis- 
tinctive characteristics of the followers of the Greek church. 
They reject the supremacy of the pope, and of course his in- 
fallibility is prostrated along with it. They have no images 
in their churches, although they have many pictures ; but 
we have never yet seen one which could by any possibility 
be supposed to infringe upon the second commandment. 
They believe in transubstantiation, and cheerfiiUy assist in 
propagating the ^riptures. They scrupulously dip three 
times in baptism, use no instrumental music in their 
churches, and their priests may marry before receiving 
ordination. Their two strongholds of faith and practice 
are contained in the belief that the Holy Ghost proceeds 
from the Father, and not, as the Roman Catholics believe, 
from the Son as well as from the Father ; and in the due 
observance of feasting and fasting.* Their fasts occupy 

* However unimportant some of these observances and opinions may 
appear to us, jet to the importance attached to them by the Greeks we may 
fairly attribute the destruction of the Greek empire in the EasL In the 
year* 1438, or fifteen years before the capture of Constantinople bj the 
Turks, an attempt was made to unite the Latin and Greek churches, which 
would have furnished them with the requisite aid. Rather however than 
adopt any conciliatory ^course with their Christian brethren, by giving up 
doubtful subjects of faith and practice, they preferred, after an beftectual 



SM dayi in tbs yewr^ and most of them are icrapnlpadjr 
obaerved, although loine are much more rigid than odieii» 
Generally they abftain from meat, milk, egga, cheeae, and 
batter, but on the more severe &st days they eat nothing 
but oysters, clams, muscles, and caviar, although it is rather 
remarkable that wine may be used in any quantity. The 
obsenrance of their fasts no doubt gives them a greater aest 
for theirfeastdays, which are agreeably sprinkled through the 
remainder of the jrear to the number of fifty-eight We 
ean havli no idea at home of the importance which the 
Greeks attach to the observance of these fasts and feasts^ 
but an anecdote which we derived from an eyewitness will 
serve as "an illustration. A European vessel had been cafh 
tared by some Greek pirates, which they robbed after mor^ 
dering the crew. Two of them were seized, carried into 
Malta, and hung. On the trial, the ringleader was asked 
why, after robbing the ship of every thing portable, he had 
not carried off also a fine piece of beef which hung up <m 
the deck. ^ Would you have me eat meat on fast days T 
was the shuddering itply of the miscreant. Indeed, it was 
owing to the beef being untouched th|tt they were first 
suspected of the piracy. The priest who attended them 
to the gallows assured the friend from whom I have this 
anecdote that the criminals were very religious men I 

It was doubtless from similar circumstances, and possi- 
bly a more extensive acquaintance with the Greek char> 
acter, that an English traveller of some celebrity (Gkdt) 
was induced to assert, that ^ One-half of the Greek church 
h|Lve no religion at all, and those who have are worse than 
the others.''* 

straggle, to tobmit to the dominion of lin lAfidel power. Like tonM nairovr 
■aetariee, who appear to have more charity for the open nnbelierer than ftr 
a hrodher Christian not of their commanion. 

* We had alwaya aoppoeed the excommunication quoted hj Sterne to be 
merely an extravagant jest, until we met with the following, which is gbaa 
by Rycant as the formula used by the Greek church against thisvss wl» 
have Dol bscn detected. 



■KR0HX8 or TUBXMT. S9S 

The patriarch of Jerusalem always resides at CoDstan- 
tinople, and exercises sovereign sway over Palestine. 
There is an institution called the Bank of Jerusalem, over 
which he presides. We are not informed as to the precise 
iiature of this precious concern, but presume that its stock is 
raised from the contributions of those who hope to secure 
salvation hereafter by the purchase of its shares. It must 
be a bank of faith, for it exploded some years ago, and has 
never paid its stockholders a single dcilar. 

But it is time to introduce our reader to the subject of 
these remarks in person. 

Proceeding through a series of lofty but plainly furnished 
apartments, we at length reached the room where the 
patriarch was in waiting to receive us. It was fitted up 
with a divan in the Turkish manner, and the patriarch 
was seated cross-legged on the floor in one of its angles. 

Let them be separated from the Lord, Creator and be accursed, and unpaid 
'doned and indissoluble after death in this world and the world to come Let 
wood, stones, and iron be dissolved, and not thcj. May they inherit the 
leprosy of Gehasi and the confusion of fodas; may the earth be 
dhrided and devour them like Dathan and Abinm; may they sigh and 
tramble on earth like Cain, and the wrath of God be upon their heads and 
countenances ; may they see nothing of that for which they labour, and beg 
their bread all the days of their lives ; may their works, possessions, labours, 
and services be accursed, always without effect or success, and blown away 
like dust ; may they have the curses of the holy and righteous patriarchs 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; of the three hundred and eighteen saints who 
were the divine fathers of the synod of Nice, and all other holy synods ; and 
being without the church of Christ, let no man administer to them the 
things of the church, or bless them, or offer sacrifices for them, or give them 
the blessed bread to eat, or drink, or work with them, or converse with them ; 
and after death let no man bury them under pain of being under the same 
fltate of excommunication, dec. dec 

The dread of this anathema is excessive among the Greeks, and crime* 
even of greater magnitude have been committed in order to avoid it. A 
traveller in Greece relates that two Greeks having robbed a priest, expressed 
to each other their fears, that as they were known by him, they woukl be 
«zeommunicated. They retuzned, and actnaily mordazed him in order U 
oaripn his inith^"**- 



9M fBOfWCBMB OF TUJUIBl* 

He If a remarkably fine-looking old inaiH with a inoet 
▼enerable and apostolical beard, of a darling lilvary 
whitenesst and of remarkable size. We were admitted to 
the honour of kissing his hands, and in compliment no doubt 
to our American origin, he deigned to make many inquiiiet 
Inspecting our country. Among other questions, he nat- 
urally was curious about our religion. This delicate quer 
tion we endeavoured to blink, as they say in Piurliamentv by 
assuring his holiness that we were Protestants, but, as tibe 
term did not seem particularly clear and definite to him, 
we stated in a conciliatory spirit that we re)ected the an- 
tfiority of the pope, that we had no statues, and little music 
in our churches, and that we had also fasts and feasts, bat 
we took care not to inform him that the latter were better 
observed than the fornier. The old gentleman was de* 
lighted with these replies, and proceeded to question me 
upon some of the doctrinal points, when apprehensive of 
getting out of my depth, I managed (uncivilly enough it 
must be allowed) to avoid them by inquiring of his holiness 
about the present condition and future prospects of the See 
of Jerusalem. All the attendants about the palace were 
officers, and some of them dignitaries of the church, but 
when they addressed the patriarch it was always on their 
knees, and with all the flourishes which accompany oriental 
homage. It was here that for the first time in my life I 
was served by clerical attendants. A papas offered me 
sweetmeats and a cup of water, a proto papas presented 
me a cup of coflee, while a c^eocon had the honour of serving 
mc with a lighted pipe. 

Our replies had been so satisfactory, that, upon taking 
leave, his discreetness was so kind as to offer us a copy of 
his apostolical seal, and a specimen of his handwriting, 
which had been requested for a friend. We received them 
in fact a few days afterward, accompanied with several 
sacred cakes of soap, and four rosaries made at Jerusalem, 



ov Tinuanr* 8M 

m 

To this he had the kindness to add an engraved likeness of 
himself, decorated with all his pontificals. A copy of the 
autograph v/e have deemed sufficiently curious to insert 
below.* It is in ancient Greek, and, for the benefit of the 
ladies we subjoin a translation. The original is accom- 
pamed with^the pontifical, or rather patriarchal seal, and is 
a fair specimen of Greek calligraphy. 

* f A B|[ •Xf*''^:^** t A^r opt Kvp/w , avSpi KaXd coXodtS, wtfunyrfvaidvut fura r^ 

lit BaaiX(y»o<rai l^i^iv ra TLarpiafx^Ka ro9 'Ayiwnirou ^p6v«^ ^ii^Vt km yim^fiiim r^ 
hf^Qv Mcrpitfniri dc^oroi iiviiiun aXiiw rvcfi^ov cc2i "R^x^i ^Y napdiSv to wapSv 

Kv lrs¥ AwXa icatra MSfv OvrtiSpiov, 

To hit excellency Doctor , ■ distinguished personage, who, upon hif 

arrhral at this royal residence, has been introduced to th^ patriarch seat of 
•or moeC bdy throne, and become known to our moderaiumf (a) tbeae 
presents are given in token of our ererlasting remembrance and of our eofdial 
good-will, from the heait of 

Athanasius in Christ, patriarch of Jerusalem. 

The title fi^^;^«Ttf T«f, or most excellent, is the usual epithet in the East 
to physicians, possibly on the ground assigned ly^Homer, x. 614. ** That v 
BMdical man h more excellent than a multitude of others.** Count Capa 
D'Istrias gave much dissatisfaction when president of Greece by assnmin|f 
this title. 

(«) Or dlsereotness. This is s more modest title Ihsn tkst of the patriareli of CoMiaiitk 
■oirle, who Is tlwiys addressed as sttv Haicaptav rw, or his Slessedmss^ 



% . 



CHAPTER XLL 

JbrhralVf ftRoMitti 8teamboit^lfiflnttiageiii6ntn-TliefqMto--Tpd^^ 
— Ancient Altiir— School at Therapen— No attempto owdo hmm^ thr 
Tuilw— EdoeatioD of Toriddi Woomii— Toikidi Newi pa p w a - Bl ai pln 
Bious Titka among the Greeka— M. Blaeqne the Fiench UHav^-ffii 
ggjieringa in tha caoia of Tinth— Rcflictiona on tha inftuneaof Maw 
papaia— Eztandad aiacnlation of the Tukiah Newapapaza. 

Ths arrival of a Russian steamboat from Odessa is the 
•rdinary topicof tho d^y. Sho wasbuilt at Cronstadt two 
years since, and has made several trips between Constan* 

tinople and Odessa. She is a clump-built vessel, of about 
200 tons burthen, with an engine of 80 horse power*. 
A person who caoi0 in her from Odessa stated to us 
that her utmost spaed did not exceed four miles the hour* 
The weather was calm, and the distance is 450 miles, 
and yet it required five days to make the passage. We 
saw her indeed, afterward, attempt to tow a vessel up the 
Bosphorus. The wind was light and favourable, but, with 
the united aid of wind and steam, she was compelled to 
relinquish the undertaking, and indeed, her passage up the 
Bosphorus alone was performed with difficulty. The usual 
expenses of a trip to Constantinople and back again are 
stated to be 85000. It was formerly a government cotk" 
cern, but, like every government attempt of a similar kindr 
it failed, and is now managed by a private company. It was 
originally intended to ply as a regular packet, and, had 
there been any regularity in its days of departure, would 
no doubt have repaid its expenses. Frequently, however* 
the packet would be detained days, and even weeks, to 
enable the Russian ambassador to furnish the latest gossip 
of his drogoman, or to allow his secretaries time to finish 
their love-letters. Under the present anrai^ment, it ia> 



OUTCHEi OV TUIUUBT. 807 

expressly agreed, that there shall be no delay whatever 
on account of govemmeiity and it is supposed that it will 
now be better managed, although the only engines on 
board is a drunken English fireman. She was afterward 
seen to make three attempts to enter the Black Sea, but 
put back each time on account of the wind, and was finally 
compelled, with forty others, to wait for a favourable 
change. 

In the afternoon we visited Therapeia. This spot, 
according to novel-writers and travellers, which by the way 
are too often convertible terms, is the terrestrial paradise of 
the modem Greek. It is prettily situated, partly on the slope 
of a steep hill, and partly around the shores of one of the 
numerous picturesque bays which indent the Bosphorus, 
The special object of our visit was to examine the beau- 
tiful garden and grounds belonging to the palace of the 
French ambassador. These, as w6 have elsewhere re- 
marked, owe much of their decoration and arrangement to 
the brave but unfortunate Prince Ypsilanti. The grounds 
occupy about ten acres, and it is hardly possible to imagine 
a more lovely spot. From a terrace almost hanging over 
the palace, the eye takes in the picturesque shores of Asia 
opposite, the Bosphorus winding its way to the metropolis 
between palace-crowned banks, while on the left we see 
the marine village of Buy ukder}% and the entrance from the 
Black Sea crowded with sails of almost every possible 
variety of shape and hue. In one part of the garden, we 
noticed a marble tablet, a facsimile of that which crowns 
the black Cyanean rock at the entrance of the Bosphorus. 
It is of white Parian marble, four feet high and two feet in 
diameter. A sculptured garland of flowers, suspended in 
festoons over heads of Apis, gracefully winds around the 
eircular tablet near the summit. A hole in the top is 
probably a more recent addition, designed to sustain a 
statue or cross. This, and its twin brother of the Sjrm- 
pi^^ades^ have afforded delightful fields of conjecture to the 



antiqiuury. Our readers shall be spared an qi i tpme of 
the thoasand and one good things which these senfptured 
marWes have called forth. They must be contented to 
adopt with us the most probable opinion^ which iS| that thej 
were votive tablets, or altars upon which the **BncieA 
mariner^ offered sacrifices either to propitiate the fiivow 
of the ruler of winds, or to return thanks upon his safe retam 
from a hazardous voyage. The inscription on the pcdostil 
which remains on the Cyanean rock (now defaced and ob- 
literated) as given by Sandys; only proves that the column 
which was placed upon it was dedicated to AugusUn. 
This column no longer exists. In the absence of any in- 
scription, their position alone would seem to indicate the 
purposes ibr which they were erected. The altar in the 
garden was taken, as we have been informed, from the 
Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus near the Black Sea, but its 
precise locality is not4mown. 

Therapeia, previous to the Greek revolution, was cele- 
brated for the wealth and the sumptuous style of living 
exhibited by the merchant princes of the Fanar. These 
have all disappeared. A few wealthy Greek merchants, 
and several foreign ambassadors now occupy their place ; 
and the lower classes, who still keep possession of the vil" 
lage, are said to exhibit more profligacy in their conduct 
than Ad be found in any other Greek village in the Turkish 
empire. This peculiar pre-eminence the Greeks themselves 
do not hesitate to acknowledge, and ascribe it to the great 
concourse of strangers in that place. 

This spot has been selecte«d by Mr. Groodell as a suitable 
place for one of the many schools which he has already 
scattered about Constantinople and its suburbs. It is to be 
in future supported by a benevolent Greek, who has inter- 
ested himself very much in the cause of education. We 
entered and found it to contain about fifly scholars. The 
little dogs were swinging their heads over their Afyluu and 
Vetas with great diligence, and the arrangement of the 



•KETCHES OF TURKEY. 899 

school afforded us unmingled satisfaction. The only pun- 
bhment appeared to consist in attaching to the culprit a 
paper denoting the delinquency. One little fellow carried 
a printed card labelled «r«icr«4, or disorderly, and when he 
was pointed out to us, he coloured up to the forehead, and 
drops of tears coursed over his ruddy cheeks. All the 
•chools hitherto established by foreigners in Turkey have 
been confined to our favourite Greeks and to Armenians. 
The Jews and Turks have as yet received no attention. 
The Jews we may suppose have declined all attempts of 
the kind, and posssibly the Turks might be apt to consider 
any overtures on our part as an impertinent interference, as 
they have in the metropolis* 1200 pr^ary schools called 
tnektebs, besides colleges or medressays. We believe this 
to be a larger number than belongs to New- York or Phila- 
-delphia, and they may reasonably suppose that more would 
be useless, although from the anecdote related in a preced- 
ing chapter, it appears that the Turkish schools are suscep- 
tible of much improvement. I have been in several of 
them, but from the noise it was almost impossible to 
ask a question or hear an answer. The universal prao- 
tice seems to be for all the scholars to say their lessons 
at the same moment, — an excellent contrivance for saving 
time, and entertaining. the neighbourhood with a vocal con- 
cert In these primitive schools nothing is taught beyond 
reading, writing, and reciting paiMiges from the Koran, 
which, like our Bible, is made a school-book. The in- 
structers are, in most instances, paid in part from the 
funds of the nearest mosque, and the remainder is furnished 
by the parents. I did not see a single girl in any of the 
schools, from whence I conclude that reading and writing 
are not accomplishments in which the Turkish women 
usually shine ; but, I am nevertheless assured, that all the 

.* In 18120 there were, according to Van Hanmer, 1668 primaij aohoola for 
tiM edocation of Torka in Constantinople. ^ 




^B of families above the very lowest nnki an laught t* 
remd at least the Koran. Writing is not so general an ao- 
qaisitioD. In reflecting upon the state of society in the 
East, the first thing which attracts the attention of a stra» 
ger is the total iniignificance of the female sex. He^i 
told that it always has been so from the earliest time, and 
Ifaifl is conceived to be a sufficient reason why it riioiild ba 
perpetuated. It is not, however, owing to the jealoasy 
of the men, as travellers have idly repeated after ead 
other, for, as we have aheady seen, women in ToAoy 
have as much liberty as in any port of the world. Hw 
true reason is, that the women are ignorant, and faeoo^ 
are unwilling to expose thi in^lmi in society. Several 
. Greek and Armenian ladies who vrere intimate wilk 
Turkish women, have assured me that they were as well 
bred and as intelligent companions as any of their acquaint 
ances. The beneficial influence of women in society where 
they hold dieir due place io the social scale is universally 
acknowledged, and to hold this station education alone is 
Decessary. If the Turkish females were better educate*^ 
their influence would be more felt, and it is impossible to 
predict the extent of the benefits which might, by this 
means alone, be spread over the empire. There are, how- 
ever, it cannot be disguised, serious obstacles in the way of 
commencing this impaztant work. The Turkish womea 
conceive their yashmaks, or partial veils to be evidences 
not merely of modesty, but of decency, and, as a necessary 
consequence, those who do not wear them are scarcely 
decent in their eyes. With these views, it will be difficult 
to persuade them to receive instruction from any Europeaa 
or American source. So strong is this prejudice, that Lady 
Montagu was obliged to conform to it, and even at the 
present day Greeks and Armenians, who live in Turkish 
quarters or districts, feel themselves obliged to adopt the 
yashmak, to avoid the reputation of being indeceot or ink- 



8KXTCHX8 OF TUBKBT. 401 

pudent among their veiled neighbours. This, however, in 
rapidly passing away. 

It was at Therapeia that we had the pleasure of witness^ 
ing one of those classical entertainments which would have 
drawn expressions of rapture from the thorough-paced 
scholar. It is now the season for gathering grapes, and the 
Greek peasants who cultivate the vineyards, celebrate this 
event by a festival which has for more than twenty centu- 
ries been known as the rpvyf^ or vintage. 

On this occasion, the scene of festivity was on the summit 
of one of those high hills which overlook Yenikeui, and 
command a noble view of the Black Sea ; a plain kiosk, or 
summer-chouse, was filled n^th Greeks of both sexes, dan- 
cing and singing with all the gayety and light-heartedness 
which characterize that people. In the vicinity were 
groupes of Armenian and Turkish women sitting on the 
grass, who, although unable to throw off their constitutional 
reserve and timidity to join the festive dance, yet seemed 
to take much pleasure in being within hearing of the music* 
Making our way with some difficulty up the rickety steps, 
or rather ladder, we entered the dancing-room. The dance, 
although lively, was certainly not in the style which Celeste 
would have selected to exhibit her sylph-like form, and it 
was in fact an exhibition of sufficient clumsiness to petrify 
a modem professeur de danse with horror. It would not 
be difficult to find its parallel in some of our own country 
villages in the dancing which winds up a quilting or husking 
frolic. The faces of the Greek girls were in nowise re- 
markable, and it would not have been easy to find among 
them models for grouping and attitude, comparable to those 
•enchanting forms which have for so many centuries received 
universal homage. 

We have just returned from a visit to the imperial print- 
ing-office. It is near the palace of the Seraskier Pacha, and 
was constructed especially for the purpose for which it is used. 
It is a spacious establishment, and no expense appears to 

FFP 



402 gKSTCRES OF TURKKT^ 

have been spared to render it complete and commodious in 
•every respect. A sentinel on duty at the grand entrance 
permits no one to pass without a written permission, at least 
we obtained such a passport to exhibit at the door. The 
rooms for the French and Turkish types are distinct, 
although Turkish compositors are generally employed* 
The printing press was at work when we entered ; it was 
of the Stanhope kind, but a steam press is daily expected. 
The workmen were engaged in striking off the first number 
of the Moniteur Ottoman when we entered, and we were 
probably the earliest to receive a copy of the first news- 
paper ever issued by the Turkish government This paper 
is published in two forms, entity distinct and separate, so 
that one may have either a Flench or a Turkish copy, as 
he may prefer. There are, of course, two chief editors ; 
one is Mehemet Esad Effendi, a learned Turk, who is like- 
wise historiographer of the empire. The Turkish news- 
paper differs from its French twin brother, not only in its 
title, which is Takvimmie Vaykahee, or Chronick ofEveniSf. 
but in the contents of its columns. Thus, for instance, the 
French article relating to the late fire, which repels thechai^ 
of apathy and indifference on tlie part of the public authori*- 
ties, is entirely omitted in the Turkish version. But not- 
withstanding the suppression of this and other articles, the 
Turkish paper occupies six pages, while its French name- 
sake contains but four, and is about the ordinary size of a 
French newspaper ; the style of the Turkish newspaper is 
said by competent judges to be perspicuous, and free from 
the foppery of Arabic and Persian words. The difference 
in size is owing to the fact that in the Turkish version the 
articles are much amplified, and the titles alone of the dif- 
ferent public characters named, which are given at full length, 
would almost fill a newspaper of themselves. This fond- 
ness for grandiloquent and ambitious titles, often charged 
upon the Turks as an evidence of a barbarous state, is 
neither peculiar to them nor is it of oriental origin. The 



BKJBTCHES OF TURKEY. 403 

Turks have borrowed it, with the crescent, and many other 
things, from their Grecian predecessors. In reading the 
blood-stained annals of the lower empire, under the Greeks* 
it is not uncommon to meet with epithets like the following 
applied by a Christian emperor to himself. 

** The very sublime Isaac (Isaac IL), most holy, most ex- 
cellent, and most powerful, created by God emperor and 
master of the Romans ; the angel of the whole earth, sove- 
reign over all sovereigns, &lc" 

The subscriptions to this paper already exceed 5000, and 
the number is said to be rapidly increasing ; the two chief 
editors receive $8,000 per annum for their services. We 
were received with much ctvility by the French editor, Mr. 
Blacque, who politely took us round the establishment 
Mr. B. is a native of France, who has resided in tliis coun- 
try fifteen years, and is perfectly conversant with the Turk- 
ish language and manners. He was at one period of his 
life in New- York, where he spent several months, and 
speaks like a liberal man of our country and its institutions. 
He conducted for several years a newspaper at Smyrna^ 
with great ability, and with so much freedom that he gave 
mortal offence to several of tlie European powers. At one 
time he spoke so boldly of the atrocities committed by that 
knavish hireling of Russia, Capo d'Istrias, that the Russian 
minister, Ribeaupierre, made a formal complaint to the 
Porte, and requested that he should be silenced about Greece. 
The government, at that period, were either unwilling or 
afiraid to offend their recent enemy, and accordingly re- 
quested Mr. Blacque to be silent in future on that subject ; 
at the same time tliey stated at whose solicitation they had 
been induced to make the request To display in glaring 
colours this interference, Mr. B. stated in his next paper 
that he should in future speak with more reserve of Capo 
d'Istrias, as his owners in Russia, through Ribeaupierre, 
had made a formal complaint to the Porte on that subject 
The paper of Mr. Blacque was the only one in the eastern 



.• 



40S iXSfORBI OV T0BXBT* 

have been spared to render it complete and commodiootni 
•every respect A sentinel on duty at the grand entianoo 
permits no one to pass without a written permission* at least 
we obtained such a passport to exhibit at the door. The 
rooms for the French and Turkish types are distinctt 
although Turkish compositors are generally emfdoyed* 
Hie printing press was at work when we entered ; it wa» 
of the Stanhope kind, but ir steam press is daily expected. 
The workmen were engaged in striking off the first numbex 
of the Moniteur Ottoman when we entered, and wa were 
probably the earliest to receive a copy of the first news^ 
paper ever issued by the Turkish government This paper 
is published in two forms, cnflMly distfaict and separate^ la 
that one may have either a n&lich or a Turkish copy, aa 
he may prefer. There are, of course, two chief editors ; 
one is Mehemet Esad Effendi, a learned Turk, who is like- 
wise historiographer of the empire. The Turkish news- 
paper differs from its French twin brother, not only in its 
title, which is Takvimmie Vaykahee, or Chronick of EveniSr 
but in the contents of its columns. Thus, for instance, the 
French article relating to the late fire, which repels thechaige 
of apathy and inditference on the part of the public authori* 
ties, is entirely omitted in the Turkish version. But not- 
withstanding the suppression of this and other articles, the 
Turkish paper occupies six pages, while its French name- 
sake contains but four, and is about the ordinary size of a 
French newspaper ; the style of the Turkish newspaper is 
said by competent judges to be perspicuous, and free firom 
the foppery of Arabic and Persian words. The difference 
in size is owing to the fact that in the Turkish version the 
articles are much amplified, and the titles alone of the dif- 
ferent public characters named, which are given at full length, 
would almost fill a newspaper of themselves. This fond- 
ness for grandiloquent and ambitious titles, often charged 
upon the Turks as an evidence of a barbarous state, is 
neither peculiar to them nor is it of oriental origin. The 



BXBTCHB8 OP TURKET. 403 

Turks have borrowed it, witli the crescent, and many other 
things, from their Grecian predecessors. In reading the 
blood-stained annals of the lower empire, under the Greeks, 
it is not uncommon to meet with epithets Uke the following 
applied by a Christian emperor to himself. 

** The very sublime Isaac (Isaac IL), most holy, most ex- 
cellent, and most powerful, created by God emperor and 
master of the Romans ; the angel of the whole earth, sove- 
reign over all sovereigns, &lcJ* 

The subscriptions to this paper already exceed 5000, and 
the number is said to be rapidly increasing ; the two chief 
editors receive $8,000 per annum for their services. We 
were received with much civility by the French editor, Mr. 
Blacque, who politely took us round the establishment 
Mr. B. is a native of France, who has resided in tliis cx>un- 
try fifteen years, and is perfectly conversant with the Turk- 
ish language and manners. He was at one period of his 
life in New- York, where he spent several months, and 
speaks Uke a liberal man of our country and its institutions. 
He conducted for several years a newspaper at Smyrna^ 
with great ability, and with so much freedom that he gave 
mortal offence to several of tlie European powers. At one 
time he spoke so boldly of the atrocities committed by that 
knavish hireling of Russia, Capo d'Istrias, that the Russian 
minister, Ribeaupi6rre, made a formal complaint to the 
Porte, and requested that he should be silenced about Greece. 
The government^ at that period, were either unwilling or 
afiraid to offend their recent enemy, and accordingly re- 
quested Mr. Blacque to be silent in future on that subject ; 
at the same time they stated at whose solicitation they had 
been induced to make the request To display in glaring 
colours this interference, Mr. B. stated in his next paper 
that he should in future speak with more reserve of Capo 
d'Istrias, as his owners in Russia, through Ribeaupierre, 
had made a formal complaint to the Porte on that subject 
The paper of Mr. Blacque was the only one in the eastern 



406 ■Karcnxf of tdbxbt. 



CcHistantinople under a totally different aspect, this 
week, from what it was before the appearance of this news- 
paper. How many Peribt fables have we listened to within 
the last six months, which are destroyed at one Uow by the 
appearance of this gazette. We will give only one 
instance. 

The recent fSte of Ibrahim Aga was, we were assured 
by at least twenty Franks, given for the express purpose of 
circumcising the heir presumptive to the throne, and all the 
lads of the same age throughout the empire were to undergo 
this interesting operation on the same day. The news- 
paper appears ; it contains a minute account of the ffile^ 
but not a word is said of this ceremony, althougfi all the 
priesthood of Constantinople and its environs were present 
to perform it if necessary. 

Since writing the above, we are pleased to be enabled to 
add the following information. The Turks have received 
tliis newspaper with great pleasure, and the subscription 
list has nearly doubled among them ; the government, on 
the other hand, have been so much pleased with the suc- 
cess of this experiment, that they have made arrangements 
to publish it in Arabic, Persian, Greek, and Armenian. The 
Greek patriarch of Constantinople has issued a circular, in 
which he warmly recommends this paper to his countrymen. 



8SBTCHES or TURKET. 407 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Walls of Constantinople — ^Their utter Uselessness — Turkish Fleet outsido 
— Dying and Printing Establishment — Greek Church of the Repose of 
the Virgin Mary — Separation of the Sexes — Anecdote — Palace of Jus- 
tinian — Ballata — Jews— Preference for their Turkish Masters — Hatred 
between them and the Greeks — Shisherhannay, or Glassworks — Greek 
School at the Fanar. 

We followed this moraing the course of the wall which 
lines the city of Constantinople along tlie Sea of Marmora. 
One of the most quiet, clean, and agreeable streets in the 
city runs along this wall through its whole extent The 
houses here are usually of three stories, in order to over- 
top the walls, and are quite of a superior character. The 
wall, although apparently of great strength, is in fact the 
reverse, and a half-hour's cannonade would knock the 
whole to pieces. Independent of its gradual decay from 
the lapse of time, it was originally very slight ; for, with a 
height of twenty feet, it is scarcely four feet tliick in many 
places, although it has the appearance of being much more* 
This appearance of strength is kept up by large square 
towers distributed at certain intervals along the whole line 
of wall ; but nothing can be more deceptive, for these 
towers are hollow, and are in the same ruinous state with 
the rest of the structure. If this wall was levelled, and its 
materials employed in the construction of a quay, it would 
form one of the most delightful promenades in the world. 
It would contribute to health, and would besides be more 
easily fortified ; although to a Turk the destruction of this 
useless wall would appear as if Constantinople had lost its 
proud, but unmeaning, title of the well-defended city. At 
certain distances stairs of gradual ascent lead to tlie sum- 



408 MM' i miMt OP Tinaanr 



1 1 



mit, for the convenience of the city flcavengerSy vAio throw 
over the walls the dirt and rubbish of this part of the city. 
From the top we had a delightful view of the Sea of Bfar- 
mora, with the picturesque Prince's Islands mod snowy 
Olympusy and the other lofty mountain chains of Bithynia in 
the distance. A part of the Turkish fleet, just returned 
from assisting in quelling the rebellion of the Pacha of Sco- 
tariy is lying off at the distance of three miles, and consists 
of twelve vessels, of which three are three-deckers, six 
frigates, a brig, and two sloops of war. The appearance 
of this armament, with the numerous small craft which at 
all times cover the Sea of Marmora, gives an air of life and 
animation to the scene. There are a few places along the 
line of the wall which are open to the sea, and small quays 
near them admit the market-boats which belong to various 
ports along the Sea of Marmora. We noticed here a large 
establishment, similar to that already mentioned at Scutari, 
' and, like that, managed by private individuals. The gayly 
printed calicoes, suspended in the air, give the idea of 
some festive celebration, and were among the first objects 
: that attracted our attention when we coasted along these 
walls, upon our first entry into the metropolis. 

In the course of our stroll we came to a small Greek 
church, situated on an eminence back of the Fanar, which 
had frequently been noticed from the harbour, and had 
given rise to many conjectures from its singnlar antique 
appearance. It was a circular tower, with numerous sub- 
sequent additions, and is said to be one of the oldest Greek 
churches in the capital. Its Greek name is not recollected, 
but it is dedicated " to the repose of the Virgin Mary.** 
We were permitted to enter it, and found it to be nearly 
covered with the picturesof saints,angels,and martyrs. The 
Greeks abhor statues as an abomination ; but their pictures 
are not very far removed from what we should conceive to 
be graven images. The drapery, hands, and indeed almost 
every part of the picture, except the face, is covered with 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 409 

plates of silver, carved out to represent the parts which they 
hide ; and these pictures, half-paint and half-silver, present 
an odd and grotesque appearance, equally at war with good 
taste and true devotion. In this church, as in all others of 
the same persuasion, the women are not only separated by 
a partition of lattico-work from the body of the church, but 
they have even a separate and distinct place of entrance. 
I recollect, upon one occasion, visiting a Greek church with 
an American lady, and although the church was dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary, and her picture in every variety of 
costume and complexion was multiplied on tlie walls, yet 
the disguise would not permit my female companion to 
enter a particular part, although its most conspicuous orna- 
ment was a brimstone-looking picture of the Virgin. When 
asked the reason, this polite descendant of Themistocles 
replied, that it was not permitted, for women would defile 
it. So much for that reasoning animal — man. 

From this church we proceeded to what is called the palace 
of Justinian, near the land walls of the city. From the top of 
the wall we could distinctly perceive the triple line of wall 
alluded to by travellers. It is not, however, triple along 
its- whole length, but only in particular points ; at least, 
such was the impression made upon us. These walls, 
although much more formidable in fact than those along the 
Sea of Maimora, would be crumbled to the dust by modern 
artillery in twenty-four hours. We have heard many 
foreigners converse on the probable consequences of an 
attack upon Constantinople by the Russians : they unani- 
mously agreed that the true policy of the enemy would 
be to stop the aqueduct; which supply tlie city with water, 
and it would be compelled to surrender without a blow. 
Nothing remains of this huge structure but the ruinous 
walls, built of stone and brick. Within the walls temporary 
sheds arc erected, which are inhabited by the wretched 
descendants of the children of Israel. There are said to be 
inscriptions within ; but such is the superstitious fear which 

o o o 



410 sBBVcms ov 

m 

flia Greeks entertain of the Jews, that oar guide refiued to 
trust himself within the walls, and persuaded our party to 
relinquish the attempt 

We are now in the Jewish quarter, called B gB flte, bom 
baring been fonnerly a paric in iripch the Gren emperon 
were accustomed to take the fvmioii of hunting. It is 
pre-eminently distinguished by its dirt and filth over e^ery 
other quarter of the metropolis, and is not less loathsome 
than in the days of Christian Constantinople, yihen thfrian- 
ners emptied the disgusting contents of their pans before 
the doors of this degraded and persecuted race.* The wise 
tderance of the Turks has contributed to increase very 
much this part of the population : two hundred years ^go^ 
A mild and tolerant traveller says that there were more 
than 20,000 of that accursed and contemptible people in Con- 
stantinople, and, as we have before mentioned, their num- 
bers now equal 00,000. They pay the same taxes with 
other rayahs, and arc allowed to collect the haratch by their 
own officers. They appear to be an inoffensive race, 
whose degradation seems to be owing chiefly to their gross 
ignorance, and their unwillingness to undertake any thii^ 
which requires hard manual labour. They are, of course, 
despised by the Turks for tlicir personal nastiness ; but at 
the same time arc protected as useful citiaens. They are 
very naturally attached to their tolerant nuuilprs, and if the 
Russians were to menace the capital, the Jews would, we 
apprehend, be found fighting under the banner of the ores* 
cent* To tliis they would be urged by various considera- 
tions, arising out of coincidences between the Jewish and 
Turkish habits and feelings : they are both of oriental ori- 
gin, both worship the one indivisible Deity, and both (although 
in various degrees) attribute to the Old Testament a divine 
origin. The Jews are, besides, well aware that the severities 
of their Turkish masters would be far preferable to the ten* 
der mercies of the Greek church. Between them and the 
Greeks there exists a deep feeling of hatred, which shows 



SKETCHES OF TUBKET* 411 

itself on all occasions, and which, we would charitably hope, 
does not entirely arise from the dilFcrencc in their respective 
religious creeds. During the Greek revolution, when every 
Greek in the city was suspected of being a spy, and many 
were discovered to be such, the Jews lent their willing aid 
to detect them ; and when the Greek patriarch was hung 
up before his own door,* his body was taken down and 
dragged through the streets by a mob of infuriated Jewish 
wretches, until every vestige of humanity had disappeared. 
For this act, which must be stigmatized as a stain upon human 
nature, the Greeks have vowed an ample revenge ; and had 
the Jews possessed a thousandth part of that heroic courage 
which their ancestors display in the pages of Josephus, 
these mutual hatreds would long ere this have broken out 
in a bloody conflict. 

In this Jewish quarter wc visited a shisherhannay^ or 
establishment for blowing glass, several of which are in the 
neighbourhood. The works are of the simplest construc- 
tion, and the annealing oven is directly above, and heated 
by the melting furnace. Labour, of course, is cheap; 
although we could not asccrtayi how much is paid, as the 
price of the work is regulated by the nature of the articles 
manufactured. All the materials are close at hand, and the 
wood consumed is of the commonest kind. It costs, de- 
livered on the spot, eight piastres for the chequi of 180 
okes, or about 50 cents for nearly 500 lbs. weight of wood. 
250 lbs. weight of common firewood we may remark, sells 
at this season for 87 J cents. The glass which they were 
employed in blowing was of llic most inferior quality ; and 
of this they were making tumblers, decanters, and apothe- 
caries' vials. One of our party happened to have a glass 
inkstand about him, and asked them if they could make a 
similar article. The foreman undertook the task, and after 
a variety of attempts, at last produced an article which he 

■ 

'April 22(3,1821. 



4I» 



0F TVBXBT* 



pronounoed to be an excellent imitation ; bat which to a 
person unacquainted with its hbtory would be a complete 
enigma. 

On our return home, we stopped for a few moments at a 
Greek school in the Fknar, estaUidied by our missionary 
Mr. Goodell. It contains at prefsnt.sixty scholars, of all 
ages, from three to fifteen years, and under Ae present 
management is rapidly increasing. The lower apartments 
were devoted Uf the younger portion, who were earnestly 
engaged in scratching similitudes of the Greek letters in the 
sand before them. The upper rooms were occupied by 
the older boys, who were engaged in reading Hellenic 
Greek out of the Cyropeedia of Xenophon. We were 
informed that the wealthy Greeks of the Fanar have come 
forward very handsomely to aid this apparently excellent 
and certainly well-conducted seminary. 



SKETCHES OF TVBKET. 413 



CHAPTER XLIII. 



Origin of Turks — Ulemah — Course of Studies— Ranks — PriTileges — Priest- 
hood — Rank and Pay — Five Orders of Magistracy — Courts of Justice — 
Tenure of Property — Vakoofl 

About six hundred years ago a Turkish tribe of a few 
hundred families, driven from Persia by Genghis Khan, en- 
tered Asia Minor, and were permitted by the Sultan of 
Koniah to establish themselves near Angonu Their leader 
Ertogrool attacked the Christians of Bithynia, and left to 
his son Osman large possessions. From this time, for nearly 
four hundred years, they waged perpetual war against the 
Christians ; who, on the other hand, stimulated by the popes, 
and forgetting their mutual quarrels, leagued together 
against the common foe. In all this period, peace was 
never for an instant thought of by either party, and when 
unavoidable circumstances compelled both to lay aside their 
arms, it was only under the form of a truce for a definite 
period. Up to the peace of Carlowitz, 1693, the Turkish 
power had been constantly on the increase; but from this 
time it has been gradually declining, and the general opin- 
ion appears to be at the present day, that the existence of 
the Turkish empire, in Europe at least, hangs upon the will 
of the Russian czar. 

It 18 not a little remarkable, that a nation whose power 
has so long and so often shaken Europe to its centre should 
be so little understood by its neighbours ; and even in our 
own times its political institutions are either distorted by 
superficial or ignorant travellers, or buried under the most 
extravagant conjectures. 

Where so many have erred before me, it would be j»e- 




4M tKBTCons ov Tvwjpnm 

flumptioa to suppose that I can furnish a fiiithful picture of 
the political institutions of Turkey. The most that can be 
done is to give a view of some of the machinery of the 
govemmeiHy leaving to my readers to form their own ood- 
clusions. 

■ 

It is supposed by some that the miltan exercises despotic 
sway, uneontroUed by any one, and that his will upon all 
occasions is supreme law. Others believe that an authority 
paramount to the sultan is exercised by the ulemah or 
ministers of the Mohammedan law. It is necessary to 
premise, that all the public functionaries in Turkey are 
divided into three classes : — ulemah, or men of the law ; el 
aayif^ or men of the sword ; and el kalem, or men ct the 
pen. The first Are under the mufti, the two others subor- 
dinate to the vizier. 

The ulemah are divided into three great classes : — 

1. Iman^ or ministers of religion. 

2. Muftif or doctors of civil and ecclesiastical law. 
8. Cadif or ministers of justice. 

We will suppose that it is determined to educate a young 
man for the ulemaL He is first required to pass through 
one of the medressays, or colleges, and then is subjected to 
a severe examination before the mufti. If found qualified, 
he enters a particular college, where his stay is shortened 
or prolonged according to circumstances. Only four leave 
this college annually, and this is determined by seniority 
and the degree of progress they have made in learning. 
Our student having passed through this college becomes a 
moolahzim. 

Having reached this point, three different cariaii are 
open to him. He may become a ncub^ or magistrate of the 
lowest class, a cadU or magistrate of the fourth class, or a 
mudayris^ which is a professor in the colleges. The first 
is easy to obtain, and the greater part of the students, who 
have no incidental influence to aid them, or are too impa- 
tient to wait for higher honours, are satisfied with this 



SKETCHES OV TURKEY. 415 

•tatioiL To be a cadi requires certain additional studies 
and a longer period of probation. The of&ce of muyday- 
risy or professor, is the hardest to attain, and is the most 
honourable of all, as it opens the path to the highest offices 
in the government. Our student, who is supposed to have 
entered on this career, is required to study seven years 
longer, and then undergoes an examination upoo the prin- 
ciples of Turkish legislation. He becomes at length a 
mudayris of the lowest class. There are ten of these 
classes, which must all be passed in succession, to the high- 
est, known under the name of Suleyman iyay. The time 
consumed in these several grades varies from twenty to 
forty years. All have various salaries and perquisites 
attached to them, in proportion to the elevation of the grade. 
There were formerly three sets of mudayris in various 
parts of the empire, but at present we understand that 
there are but two. One educated at Constantinople, and 
the other from the colleges of Adrianople and Broussa. 
All these professors form a body of about four hundred 
individuals. From this our student passes by age and ac- 
quirements to become a moUah. The mollahs are divided 
into six classes. Through each of the magistracies attached 
to every class he passes successively, until he reaches the 
highest, which is called sheik ul islam, or grand mufti. 

The whole body of the ulemah enjoy certain preroga- 
tives. They pay no taxes whatever, nor is their property 
liable to arbitrary confiscation. When they can be made 
to unite, their power is very great, extending to the de- 
thronement, imprisonment, or exile of the reigning monarch. 
But, OV the other hand, the sultans possess an authority 
over them, which is more or less exercised according to 
the temper and genius of the person who happens to occupy 
the throne. Selim I., Murad, and Mohammed IV. only 
attacked their prejudices, but others have gone farther. 
Selim took off the head of the caziaskeer of Anatolia, a 
dignitary second only to the muiU. Murad IV. hung up 



i 



■ ESTCBSa ( 



I 



idi of Nicea in al) his ponlificals, strangled one moAij 
lata beheaded another. There were fcnnerly great di> 
tinctions in dress among the ditfereni orders of (he ufo> 
roah, but these have aJl disappeared, aod a plain white 
turban is now the only iiiaT)( by which they can be 
identified. 

Before aJhiding to tha tribunals of law, properly so called, 
we shall enumerate the different orders of the Mobaiumedao 
priesthood. These are five: — 

1. Sheiks. This title corresponds to venerable, or to 
our reverend. The sheik is examined and hcensed by diB 
grand mufii. They are all subordinate to lire magtstimtS 
of the city, who can remove them at pleasure. One ia 
attached to each mosque, and it is llieir duty to read a 
sermon every Friday after the mi.lJ.jy juT^yei >-. The?*; 
sermons are always written out and read without gestoies. 
Tbey are moral lectures, and never allude to dogmas. The 
sheiks wear no distinctive dress, and are paid 9150 a year 
for their services. 

2. Katibt, or readers. These are appointed by the ' 
sultan. Their basiness Is to read the five daily prayers od 
Fridays alone. '- 

3.' Imant, or curates. These are chosen by the difierent 
congregations. When the women assemble for worship) 
a female iman is selected. They preside at the dii^ 
prayers during the week, and officiate at marriages and 
funerals. 

4. Mnzxeima. These are the persons who c^ the Aitb- 
fiil to their prayers. Their number is proportidh^b Ae 
wealth and standing of the mosque. They are dHni^ty 
the congregation, and selected chiefly with reference to the 
Btrengtb of their lungs. I have seen very young boys thus 
employed. They mount the minarets and walk round ' 
the balcony, and with hands applied to their ears call the 
&itfaful to their prayers. In a city like this, where there 
ore no bells nor carriages, it may readily be imagined that 



8KBTCHES OF TUBKET. 417 

the shouts of the muzzeims will be heard to a great 
distance.* 

There is also a class of officers attached to each mosque 
who superintend the general cleanliness and order of these 
buildings. They are termed cayyims, and correspond to 
our sextons. 

We will now revert to that body by which the laws are 
administered, and which forms, according to our view, the 
Mohammedan hierarchy and judiciary. 

1. The grand mufti, whose station and influence are not 
unlike those of the ancient pontifex maximus of Rome. 
Although at the head of the magistracy, he has no separate 
tribunal. He announces, by order of the sultan, all de- 
crees, decisions, and laws. If he happens to agree with 
the grand vizier, every thing goes on smoothly ; but should 
there be a difference of opinion between them, one is com- 
pelled to retire. He has several officers and bureaus under 
him. He is considered the highest law authority in the 
kingdom, and his opinion is of course frequently required. 
.If a person previous to commencing a lawsuit has doubts, 
he makes a statement of his case in writing, under a fic- 
titious name. This statement is handed to the grand 
mufti, who replies in the shortest possible terms, such as 
yes or no, it is lawful, it is not lawful, &c. This answer i» 
termed a fetwa, and is produced upon the trial. 



* The call to prayer runs as follows : — ** God most high ! Qod moit 
high ! There is no god but the one God. Mohammed is the prophet of 
God ! C4MBe to prayer ! Come to the templ^of life ! There is no god 
but tht one Ood,** ice. In order to ascertain the precise hour for prayer, 
there are almanacs calculated for every latitude. There are also perpetual 
almanacs, the most esteemed of which is that of Darendayvi, which extendi 
from 1T78 through a period of eighty-fire lunar years. There are also 
excellent clocks, chiefly of English manufacture, attached to most of the 
mosques. It is well known that the first clock striking the hour ever seen in 
Europe was presented by Haroon al Raschid to Charlemagne, about the 
commencement of the ninth century.^ 

' Hiin. ; 



418 SKETCHES OF TURKBT* 

2. Cazeskeer of Roumelia. This title means militarjr 

judge. 

3. Cazeskeer of Anatolia. These two, with the Sadreb 
ahzcm, or grand vizier, form a court, which is open every 
Friday. This is a court of final appeal. All petiticms 
addressed to the sultan are decided here. The business of 
this court is very extensive, and there are twelve substi- 
tutes with their respective bureaus attached. 

4. Sadreh Roum. Takes cognizance of the laws of 
inheritance, and of every question relative to the finances^ 
When the grand mufti dies, or is deposed, this oflicer takes 
his place. 

5. Sadreh AnadoK. Has the same powers in the Asiatic 
provinces. 

6. Istamhol cadisy. A sort of mayor, but with more ex- 
tensive powers. He is the judicial and municipal head of 
the metropolis. 

7. MoUahs of Mecca and Medina. Supreme judges in 
those places. 

8. of Adrianoplc, Broussa, Cairo, and Damascus. 

9. of Scutari, Galata, Eyout, Jerusalem, Aleppo, 

Smyrna, I^arissa, and Salonica. 

These form the Moliammedan hierarchy and judiciary, 
and were it not for the existence of an antagonist power in 
the sultan and his council of state, its influence would be 
overwheliniiitr. They are, moreover, appointed annually, 
and none can hold twice, in succcssion,Hhe same office. Nor 
is their dignity wounded by passing from a higher to a 
lower station : for it happens, not unfrequently, that an 
ex-oazeskcer will be found next year to hold the appoint- 
ment of sadreh, and so of the others. The chief physician* 
astronomer,* and royal preceptor are taken from the 

* Astrology still holds its ground here as it did in the principal courts of 
Kuroi>e «0U voarH a^o. Chsoh hnve Ix'ni known where a high officer of Uie 
court has n^qucbtcd thcsultuii to delay his appointment until he eould satisfy 
himsf'lf that the »«ar^ were propitious. As late as 1791, a person was 



SKETCUE8 OF TURKEY. 410 

order of mollahs, and they arc of course in the line of 
promotion : at tlie present time the chief physician 
Behjet mollah is also one of the cazcskcers, and thus im- 
bodies in his single person the various attributes of law, 
physic, and theology. The facetious Quotem with his 
multifarious functions sinks into nothingness when com« 
pared with this living personification of " three single gentle- 
men rolled into one." 

We come now to the magistrates of the second order. 
These are also mollahs, and amount to seventy in number ; 
they dispense justice in the provinces, and their courts are 
somewhat analogous to our circuit or district courts. Of 
the magistrates of the third order, I know little more than 
that they are called moofetiseh, and that a portion of them 
decide all cases where church property is concerned. The 
fourth order is composed of cadis, or judges, in small 
places which have not reached the dignity of a city. There 
are about 400 of these in various parts of the empire. 
They are divided into three departments, and these again 
are subdivided into 25 classes. They hold tlieir offices 
for eighteen months. 

\ The fifth and lowest order arc composed of naits, or 
justices of the peace. Their jurisdiction is extremely 
limited and local, but they arc not removable except for 
crime. 

Having thus given a sketch of the magistracy, it remains 
to make a few observations upon the laws themselves, 
and the manner in which they are administered. The 
Koran is to the Mohammedans what the Levitical law 
was to the Jews. It is the source and fountain-head of all 
their jurisprudence. In the course of time many new cases 

ndminatcd to the office of reU eflfcndi, who requested a little delay to consult 
his stars. Before he could obtain the information, another person was 
appointed to the office. Three years aHerwanl he was nominated a^in to 
the same office ; but, warned by past exporience, he no longer consulted his 
■tirs, but accepted the ap])oin(mcnt irnmedi;aely. 



420 SiCETCnES OF TURKET. 

have arisen not foreseen by Mohammed, or provided for 
by the Koran, and these have been decided by fetwas of 
the ulemah. The fetwas are somewhat similar to our 
law reports or decisions, but they possess the rare merit of 
not being encumbered with the hair-spUtting opinioBS of 
opposing counsel, and are, in fact, confined to simple enun- 
ciations of the law in any given case. It of course ofien 
happened that these decisions were in direct opposition to 
each other, and thus arose the necessity for comparing, col- 
lating, and harmonizing them with each other. Hence 
originated various codes of different weight and authority, 
depending entirely upon the cleverness and abilities of their 
respective compilers. About 280 years since, the genius 
of codification in the person of Ibrahim Hahdeby, or Ibra- 
him of Aleppo, drew up a code of civil and canon law, 
which is tlie chief hook of jurisprudence now consulted 
throughout the empire. The judges receive no salaries, 
and even pay for their offices ; of course they soon become 
rich. In addition to this, they are paid by the following 
perquisites, — the expenses of the court, which are regu- 
lated by law, and j)aid most inicjuitously by the person who 
gains the cause, the law papers, which are drawn up by 
the judge, a certain proportion of the fines, and all the fees 
which accompany the nomination of priests, &c. In courts 
thus constituted few persons choose to venture, and accord- 
ingly we find tliat in civil suits the parties prefer appealing 
to a hahkim, or arbitrator. Criminal cases must be decided 
by a judge. In ancient times the magistrates gave their 
decisions in the mosques, but now in buildings set apart for 
tliat purpose. The courts are open from daylight to dusk ; 
a single judge presides, a secretary writes down the evi-. 
dence, the parties j)lea(l their own cause, and attorneys 
solicitors, or counsellors are dispensed wuth. In tlie case 
of women, orphan children, or timid persons, they are 
accompanied by men skilled in the law ; but if they become 
prosy, or make a parade with their arguments, the judgq 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 421 

dismisses them from the court. It need scarcely be added, 
that suits are quickly decided, and it is very rarely that 
they exceed two sittings. False testimony is said to be 
common in Turkey ; but this seems to rest entirely upon 
the evidence of foreigners, who can scarcely be competent 
to judge ; at any rate, it would seem to be disproved by 
their strict notions on other points of morality. When a 
witness is suspected, instead of examining others as to his 
character and standing, he is examined himself by the judge 
as to his acquaintance with the precepts and doctrines of 
the Koran. If he displays an ignorance on these subjects, 
his testimony is set aside. It is related of Bajazet I., that 
upon a certain occasion he interested himself warmly in a 
cause in which one of his favourites was concerned, and 
offered to give evidence in his favour : " Your testimony 
cannot be received in a judicial process," was the sturdy 
rejJy of the judge ; " for your majesty is publicly known 
to neglect the most important observances of our religion." 
It is added that this made such a deep impression upon the 
sultan, that he became thenceforward a model of propriety 
to his subjects. This story is reported in the annals of the 
empire, and we may say of it, '*Se non e vero e ben 
trovato." 

Real estate is held in this country either as military 
feofis or in fee. When property is held in fee, it is often 
converted into what is called vakoof^ which is generally 
done in the following manner. The intention is to put the 
property beyond the rapacity of judges or pachas, or the 
profligacy of heirs. The estate is vested in a trustee who 
may be either the proprietor himself or a stranger. He 
designates how it shall be inherited for ever by his descend- 
ants, leaving a part of it to a mosque for pious or benevo- 
lent purposes. There are many forms of vakoofs. Some- 
times an estate is thus placed for three years, when it 
reverts entirely to the original heirs, but it is oftener per- 
petual. The most usual form of vakoof is tlie following. 







The owner of an estate worth •10,000 givea it to a mofquey 
and reoeiyes in lieu of it 91500. He then hdds his estate 
from the mosque, and pays it a certain interest upon the 
money actually advanced. In defiuilt of heirs the entire 
p r operty reverts to the mosque. Foreigners can hold real 
estate in the name of their wives, if these latter are bom in 
Turkey. They may also dispose of their property in 
▼akoof even to a Christian church, and the government wiD 
ody interfere at the request of the lq;al heirs. The Tmfes 
appear to have something analogous to the statute of mort* 
main, fiir no legacy or donation made by a sick person is 
TaBd except to one-tlurd of the amount bequeathed. 

The funds arising from these vakoofr are enormoos, and 
are managed by a particular department In tincies of 
emergency the surplus is loaned to the sultan, who h 
solenmly pledged to repay it 

Notwithstanding the apparent fairness of their courts of 
law, and the thorough training which all the judges must 
receive, it is a striking commentary upon the insecure 
tenure of property when we see so much of it convejred to 
mosques in order to obtain protection. It is supposed that 
more than one-half of all the property, particularly in the 
large cities, is thus held under the power of the ulemah. The 
church, in fSsu^t, is a great mont de piet6, or pawn-brokers 
shop, with this difference, that she holds not only all the 
goods and chattels, but a great part of the real estate, of the 
empire under her control. The reigning sultan is fully 
aware of this rotten part of his institutions, and has laboured 
to correct the evil. Liet us hope that his efforts may prove 
successful. 



■KSrCBES OF TUBMXT 



CHAPTER XLIV. 



Kafe— Ambah~Fore*t of Belgnde— TuikUh Soldiei^Mililu; F 
Conjeclura u to the Number of Turkish Troop*— Tuikuh h 
Biida) Portion — Appeanmce of the Bride — Hebemat Ali of EgTpt — 
Tuikiih Diplom>cy. 

IioTATiifo the example of our Turkish frieuds, we deter- 
mined this morning to make an excursion to Belgrade, and 
spend the day near one of those artificial reservoirs which 
supply the city with water. A large American party was 
assembled at Buyukdery, and all the requisite preparations 
, for a glorious kafe were in readiness at an early hour. An 
aiabah, drawn by two milk-white oxen, was engaged for 
the female part of the company, while the gentlemen were 
mounted on a motley variety of nags, of all ages end con- 
ditions. A sumpter horse, laden with eatables in the shape 
of Westphalia hams, partridges, &c., with a due proportion 
of choice wines, brought up the rear of our cavalcade, 
which drew all the idlers to their windows as we slowly 
passed the streets of Buyukdery. 




AmlHli, «t TofkM CoKh. 



Hm anbah, irfaich we hsve attempted to iketch, itf 
drawn by two xriiite oxen, with their taili foitened to a kpf 
bow pfoceediDg from the necka of the ailimali, and deoo- 
tated vtb a great qnanti^ of validated tasaela. It ii 
tmposafble to tee thow covered wagons witboQt bdng 
reminded of their ancient origin ; for they ondoabtadly 
represent tbe carpentus, or cumu arcuahu, uaed by Ae 
Roman matroni. They form the only vehicles for As 
transportation of families or goods, and during many cen* 
turies it seems never to have entered tbe beads of ibe pei^ 
of these comitries that horses might be attached to tfiase 
wagons with great advantage. 

Our procession moved slowly over the {dain of Btiynk- 
dery, and ascended tbe hilly road which leads onder tfaa 
aqueduct of Batchkiery, occasionally stopping to gather the 
biai^berries, which are plentiful in the hedges along the 
path. After riding some distance through the forest already 
described, we passed the village of Belgrade, which we left 
on our right, and then entered a wood, where scarce^ 
a vestige of road could be discovered. The underwood 
had been removed, and remnants of ornamental fences 
in various places showed that much attention had at 
one time been paid to the decoration of this spot. Our 
course lay over rustling autumnal leaves, which were now 
falling thick and fast. At the distance of half a mile fran 
Belgrade we reached a small bendl over the stream, once 
designated as the Hydraulis. The principal treea here 
• were hornbeam, Carpinus betulus. About a mile and a half 
farther on we reached another bendt, which was our place 
of rendezvous. This bendt fills up the gorge of a narrow 
wooded valley, and the contrast between the glittering 
whiteness of this colossal marble structure and the green 
verdure surrounding it was not the least striking peculiarity 
in the scene. It is 850 feet in length, 35 wide on the top, 
and 80 feet above tbe bottom of the valley. The date, 
1233, upon a marble ufnigfat slab, would seem to indicate 



8XETCHE8 OF TD MRg y * 435 

that it had not been built more than fourteen years ago ; 
but this date may possibly refer merely to some recent 
repairs. 

Upon a sort of marble throne or platform on the top of 
this reservoir our attendants quickly arranged cushions and 
our picnic dinner, and immediately kindled a fire for the 
preparation of coffee. Here we partook of a repast which 
the most fastidious would not have disdained, and which 
certainly lost none of its relish from our previous exercise 
and the novelty of our present situation. Our conversa- 
tion naturally reverted to home, and many a cheerful glass 
was dedicated in this Turkish forest to our friends on the 
other side of the Atlantic. The younger ones of the party 
— the polyglot children of Mrs. G. and the interesting little 
Emilie B. — amused themselves with various sports among 
the woods until tlic declining sun admonished us to hasten 
our departure. 

Upon our return we met with several soldiers rambling 
along the road. They were extremely civil, and returned 
our salutation with expressions of kindness and good-wilL 
They were, as usual when not on duty, without their side- 
arms, in compliance with an order of the sultan, which is 
BOW rigorously enforced. 

It is impossible to estimate with any tolerable precision 
the number of troops actually on foot in the Turkish em- 
pire. Various travellers have given statements which pro- 
fess to be accurate ; but, as they are only conjectures, we 
shall pass them over in silence. We have frequently asked 
the question of Turkish officers of high military rank, and 
their contradictory answers have convinced us that the 
number of troops in service is entirely unknown to the 
Turks themselves. We may, however, form some esti- 
mate of the troops they can call forth, by referring to the 
total population of Turkey in Europe and Asia, which, 
according to Ilassel, amounts to twenty-three millions. It 
is not unreasonable to conjecture that this would furnish a 

I T I 



'496 aunuuL i or Tinaanr. 

nullion of warrion, and upon extraordinary oocanooa 
more. - The following list cmitains the several ranka of tba 
army* which the military reader will perceive is organned 
nearly upon the French model It may be mentioned that 
kaimahan means literally deputy. 

I. Sadr ahzam. Grand Viaer, or Generalissimo. 

3. Seraskiert General-in-chief. 

8. Mirimeeran, Lieotenantpgeneral. 

4. ELaimakan,Lieutenantpgeneral of division. 

6. Meerleevay» Brigadier-generaL 

0. kaimakan,Lieutenant-generalofbrigadfr 

7. Meerallay, Colonel of a regiment 

8. ; kaimakan, LieutansntcoloneL 

0. Been bashee. Chief of battalion. 

10. Kol aghassee. Major. 

11. Yoose bashecy Captain. 

12. kaimakan. 

13. Bash chawsh, Serjeant-major. 

14. Chawsh, Serjeant. 

15. Own bashee, Corporal. 

16. Fay tee, Private. 

, The brigade consists usually of three regiments, the 
regiment of four and sometimes five battalions, the battalion 
of ten companies, and each company of 100 meat so that 
a Turlush brigade may be said to contain, when complete, 
12,000 men. 

The diiferent arms are infantry, cavalry, artillery, and 
bombardiers : the latter seems to comprise the duties of the 
engineer and ordnance department. I have seen in the 
paper published here a notice of the 12th brigade of infantry 
and of tlie 0th regiment of cavalry, and if these are the 
highest, and the regiments are only half-full, which we pre- 
sume is the case, we shall have a total of 72,000 infantry 
and 27,000 cavalry. The topegees, or foot artillery, are 
said to amount to 7,000, and the mounted artUlery to about 
2,000 men ; the bombardiers have about the same number. 



SKBTCHE8 OF TVRKET. 427 

Altogether, then, we may estimate the number of regular 
troops of all kinds at between 100,000 and 110,000 men, of 
which 40,000 are now stationed in and about Constan- 
tinople. There is, perhaps, nearly as large a number of 
irregular troops ; but, as tliey do more harm than good, it 
is scarcely worth our while to mention them. The Turkish 
soldier receives his clothes, two meals a day, and 91 10 
per month for his pay. His uniform is very plain and neat ; 
but he always looks shabby about the feet, in consequence 
of the slipshod manner in which he wears his shoes. The 
different grades are distinguished by various insignia on the 
breast. Epaulets are entirely unknown. In the almost 
total absence of almost all correct information, this sketch 
is presented as the nearest approximation to the actual 
stale and organization of the military force of the empire, 
Monday. An unusual scampering backwards and for- 
wards before the door of the American palace at Buyuk- 
dery, and a bustle in the lower part of the village, 
announce that some important event is about to transpire. 
The cavassy or diplomatic harlequin attached to the em- 
bassy, informs us that a Turkish marriage is about to be 
celebrated, and that one of the parties is no less a person- 
age than the eldest son of Hadji Mustafa the chief muni- 
cipal officer of the village. During my residence here, a 
sort of acquaintance had been formed between honest Mus- 
tafa and myself, and his good-nature and politeness had 
indeed rendered him a general favourite. We accordingly 
proceeded to his house, which, on this occasion, was open to 
all comers. We were shown into the upper part of the 
house, but the attendants would not allow us to take off our 
shoes, as we wished to do, in order to comply with their 
customs. We were then introduced into the chief apart- 
ment where the old gentleman was in readiness to receive 
company, and who presented us to the bridegroom, a young 
man about eighteen years of age. He was dressed of course 
in his best, and a turban of spotless white shaded features 



428 fKKTCHKS OF TVBXBY. 

which were remarkably regular and agreeable. The 
hercelf could hardly have displayed more diffidence thao 
this young man ; and we may in general observe, that 
young Turks are more quiet and orderly in their deport- 
ment, and more respectful to their parents, and to their elders 
in years, than the youth of any country we have everieeo. 
The room was filled with articles of dress, piled upon shelves^ 
and their quantity and variety gave it the appearance 
of a well*stocked shop in the bazar. These were firom the 
young lady and her friends, all of whom contribute some- 
thing towards housekeeping upon such occasions. These 
articles all belong to the wife in case of the death of her 
husband, or of being divorced from him. The Franks here in 
their marriage contracts, which are always drawn up in 
writing with great formality, have a practice somewhat 
similar, but which is carried to an extent the most ridicu- 
lous and absurd imaginable.* In the outer hall our atten- 
tion was called to a formidable collection of pot% kettles, 
stewpans, and all the numerous et ceteras of a complete 
kitchen. Alter partakmg of sweetmeats, pipes, and coflfee, 
we were permitted to depart, but Mustafa requested us to 

• I have before me now a form of the marriage contract, in which one of 
the parties was no less a personage than a drogoman of one of Um £uropemo 
powen. 

By the first article the parents agree, upon the signing of the contract, to 
pay down 10,000 piasters as a dowry, and also clothes, jewels, 6lc, valued 
at 17,000, making a total of 27,000 piasters. After their death they engage 
that the bride shall be put in possession of half their property. By the 
■econd article the young man engages (par une marque de sincere affee> 
tion) to assure to his wife in case of his death the sum of 6000 piasters ; and 
the wife on her part promises in case of a similar event (dont Dieu veuille lee 
pn^server tous les deux), to dispose of three- fourths of her dowry and 
trousseau. 

By the last article, the future husband agrees to give (par marque olt^euf* 
d*attention envers son Spouse) the sum of seventy-five cents per month •• 
(geib ha^lik) pocket-money. Then follows the trousseau, or inventory of 
the young' woman*s wardrobe, jewels, dec, with the price attached [to each, 
comprising chemises, towels, stockings, slippers, mattresses, fans, gloves, and 
petticoats, amounting to the sum of 17,000 piasters. 



8XBTOBX8 OF TURKEY. 489 

witness the religious ceremony, which would take place io 
the village mosque that evening. 

We found at the door five arabahs drawn by oxen, which 
were decorated with ribands, flowers, &c., and the arabahs 
were filled with the female relatives of the young man, 
about to go in search of the bride who resided in a village 
just above Buy ukdery. We saw them returning in the after* 
noon with the bride, and the procession by this time had 
swelled out into quite respectable dimensions. First came 
a party of musicians, accompanying their vile nasal yells 
upon instruments still more detestable. Then followed the 
men on horseback, and the procession closed with a dozen 
arabahs filled with women. That which carried the bride 
was closed all around, but the others were open. The men 
seemed to be particularly anxious to display their horse- 
manship, and even the old papas of the respective parties 
exhibited a pardonable vanity in showing ofif their activity. 
In one of these attempts *' to witch the world with noble 
horsemanshipt* the worthy old Mustafa was sent frisking 
through the air over his horse's head, but fortunately with- 
out injury, and he jomed in the general laugh occasioned 
by his accident 

Having given them sufiicient time to reach home and 
settle down comfortably, we accompanied the ladies on their 
visit to the bride. On our way we met the bridegroom 
coming from the bath, in state ; that is to say, he was pre* 
ceded by musicians, accompanied by his friends, and fi)l- 
lowed by all the rabble of the village. He looked sheepish 
enough, and appeared to be heartily ashamed of the con- 
spicuous part he was compelled to play. 

While waiting in the street for the ladies, our worthy 
firiend Mustafa came out, and as, from a wish to comply with 
their customs, we resisted his invitation to enter, he ordered 
a coffee-house to be opened in the neighbourhood where 
we might remain until the ladies appeared. According to 
their report they found the bride nearly stifled under the 



480 sxBTCHBS or Timnnr. 

weight of her wedding dresses. She was apparently eigin 
teen years old, as fat as a seal* with a pretty fiuse, as fiur as 
it could be discerned under the various disfigurements with 
which fancy or fashion had contrived to disguise it The 
eyebrows were united into one broad streak of Uack by 
the use of soormay^ and various bits of gold foil, or gik 
pieces of paper, were stuck upon different parts of her &oe. 
The ceremony in the evening was simple ; a prayer was 
recited by the iman, and, upon leaving the mosque, the 
friends of the bridegroom struck him lustily over the shod* 
ders for good luck, as Mustafa took the trouble to explain 
tons. 

Reports of a vague nature have been in circulatioo for 
several weeks respecting the Pacha of Egypt, but, until to- 
day, they have been deemed unworthy of credit It is now, 
however, well understood that Mehemet AH, the present 
viceroy of Egypt, has declared war against the Pacha of 
Acre, and has already commenced hostile operations. 

It is said by some that Mehemet is urged on to his 
present course by the influence of England, who wishes him 
to be involved in an open war with the sultan, and thus free 
Egypt from his presence, where it is surmised that England 
purposes to interpose her own barriers against any future 
attempts upon her eastern possessions. Others assert that 
the present difficulty is a mere preconcerted scheme got up 
between the two pachas, and that Mehcmet's ultimate 
designs aspire even to the throne of Turkey. Both specu- 
lations arc, in all probability, equally absurd, although they 
are maintained with great positivencss. But whatever 
may be the real motive, the government is apparently in 
great trepidation, and an unusual activity prevails in the 
arsenal and other public works. The fleet is ordered to 
be got ready for sea, the men arc employed night and day, 
and any one who was ignorant of the Turkish character 
would suppose that some important step would be taken 
immediately. Not a single thing, I now venture to pre- 



SKETCnES OF TURKEY. 481 

diet, will be done for months to come. However pressing 
the emergency, however urgent the occasion, the eternal 
pipe must be smoked, and a campaign will often be fought 
before they have had time to lay the plans. The ordinary 
business of life is conducted upon the principle that hasty 
decisions are incompatible with the exercise of sound judg- 
ment, and of the value of time the Turks do not appear to 
have the smallest fraction of an idea. Their favourite 
proverb, that *> in a cart drawn by oxen you may overtake 
a hare,** illustrates in a striking degree the dilatory habits 
of the people. 

To a bystander nothing can be more entertaining than 
the manner in which Turks settle, or, I should rather say, 
discuss the most urgent matters. The subject is examined 
and considered in all its bearings with acuteness, but 
nothing definite is determined upon except that both parties 
exclaim M ashallah I or, God is great. At the next inter- 
view the subject is again canvassed, and dismissed with 
Inshallah! if God pleases. The next interview terminates 
with Allah kayrim ! or, God is merciful ; but still nothing is 
decided upon. Another conference, if the business is of a 
very pressing nature, concludes with the important excla- 
mation BakaUum! we shall see; and thus the business 
drags on from week to week, and from month to month, 
until positive necessity compels them to bring it to a rapid 
and often lame conclusion. This tardiness in business 
arises from no want of capacity, nor from indecision of 
character ; but simply because they consider it indecorous to 
decide promptly. It is a part and parcel of the oriental 
character, and seems to be a sort of parody upon the 
feslina lente of the Romans. But whatever may be the 
cause, its effects upon the empire are apparent The 
wheels of government move slowly, and at times appear 
almost stopped. It requires no prophet to inform us that in 
a contest with any European nation, they will be infallibly 
beaten, unless more vigour and promptness are infused into 
their public councils. We feel some interest in the exUt- 




ence of Turfcey u an independent nadoi^ but at tha iiaiit 
tiiDe cMinot conceal oar mii^rfngt, that althon^ nam 
Dj^ield by the conflictiog ioterefti of the Tariooa Euro- 
pean powen, the time u not far diitant when ihe wiD be 
ennhed by the colotial power of Rnnia, and her late w9 
ceilainly be haatened, if not almoit invited, by Maihalla^ 
Inaballah, and Bakallum. 



CHAPTER ILV. 



Amhnriiy— 8piB» E liqnttto— Brtl>— D«ing laiiantloii of lh« A 
MiniMai— Rkia am the Thneiui UiUa— The BaroDCH of OttmM*— 
TiibuU of Thuka— GoHip gf u old Turk— Tioopi of Selin but 
■lira — OeoMiiUii, or Place of Arcowi. 

I leave this half town and half country Tillage with fed- 
ing> of regret ; these naturally arise from my departme 
being the prelude to a atill longer separation from friendi 
whose kindness and atteotiona have supplied, in part, tho 
absence of nearer and dearer friends at home. I should be 
wanting in the ordinary feelings of gratitude not to acknow- 
ledge my grateful sense of obligations to our minister, Com- 
modore Porter) and to the kindness uniformly displayed to- 
wards me by the family of our missionary, Mr. Goodell. To 
the estimable and learned chaplain of the British embassy, 
whose long residence here has rendered him familiar with dia 
manners of the people,' I am under pleasing obligations for 
pointing out various objects of inquiry, and for correcting 
Wme errors into which a traveller new to the country may 
Wtnrally be supposed to fall. I hope it will not be consid- 
Mvd as transgressing die rules of propriety if I add my 
flinfca to his excellent and intelligent daughter, for re* 
taSttMttg me Irequently of my own dear country wmncn. 
'■ inA ttui list my catalogue must close, with the tingle 
lae^idon of the fiiroily of Navoni, where I ODce but the 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 433 

honour of winning a piaster, at ecarte*, from the third drogo- 
man of the English embassy, and of losing as much to the 
second drogoman of the representative of the imperial 
house of Austria. I might possiblybc reminded of the fable of 
sour grapes were I to assert that an acquaintance with 
these mock representatives of majesty was not desired on 
my part. They were apparently too important personages 
in their own eyes, and too insignificant in those of a busy 
traveller, to render their society desirable on the score of 
either entertainment or instruction. A foreign ambassador 
here, is, however, clothed with powers as extraordinary as 
they are disgraceful to the Turkish government. These 
powers extend to the imprisonment and punishment of 
their own subjects, and are precisely such as would be asked 
if a treaty was to be made with a horde of barbarous 
savages who set at defiance all laws, whether human or 
divine. Instead of exercising jurisdiction over foreigners 
in their own territory, and making them amenable to the 
laws of the country, the Turks have weakly given up this 
important point, and the consequences may readily be 
imagined. If a foreigner commits a robbery, he is given up 
to his ambassador, who may pardon or punish him as he 
thinks proper ; nay, further, if a foreigner kills a Turk, his 
own ambassador alone can take cognizance of the offence ; 
and, should a Turk kill a foreigner, the ambassador has as 
much influence in obtaining a decree against him as any 
Turkish court of justice. The consequences of such extra- 
ordinary privileges may be readily conceived in a place 
like Constantinople, which receives, all the miscreants and 

* The Ufual amuscmentB of the diplomatists are ecart^ and ombres* 
chinoises. Ab managed here, the Turkiih Harlequin, Kara Gucz, and hia 
wfNTthy compeer, Hadji Ayeheeirat, or Pantaloon, set all decency at defiance. 
An acquaintance, who remarked upon the grossness of such an exhibition, 
was informed, that it had actually been pruned of ita wiitieat parts on ae- 
connt of the pcesencc of the ladies. 

K K K 



4S4 MMMtdiEB OV TUBUiff* 

ibgitivet from jostioe, of the countries bordering oa fhtf 
Meditemiiean. It hat likewiw a most anfavoanble infln- 
ence upon the lehtioDi between Tmtey and other European 
^owen; for in ha present enlightened state it camiot regard 
with any complacency the exercise of ferogn authutity 
within its own dominiaps. Another unfortunate resuk of 
these unlucky concessions is to be found in the little army 
of spies which, under the present system, is to be fioond 
attached to each embassy. Although the operations of die 
Turkish government are attempted to be concealed under 
a veil of my stery, yet there is no country in the world where 
OTcry act of the government is sooner known, or where 
even its most remote intentions are sooner detected. Aimed 
with such sovereign powers, it is not surprising Aat As 
ambassadors should fancy themselves to be kings and em- 
perors ; and their consequential airs find imitators among 
their train of dependants. 

w Ambassadors, residents, and envoys have the privilege of 
exporting and importing whatever they may please to caQ 
their own, which, according to the testimony of a traveller 
who in general is very severe upon the nation, *^is a civility 
and generosity of the Turks not to be paralleled in Eu- 
rope.** Sir John Chardin relates an anecdote of a French 
minister at Constantinople, which illustrates the power 
assumed by these foreigners. During the Venetian war 
against the Turks, the French were suspected of secretly 
assisting the former. A French officer, named Vertamont, 
in the Venetian service, came to Constantinople, charged 
with private letters and despatches to the French ambassa- 
dor. Upon his arrival, he adopted the turban, and took 
tlie letters to the grand vizier, who became furious at this 
act of perfidy on the part of the French. Many of the 
letters were, however, in cipher, and there was not a man 
in the empire capable of deciphering them. At this junc- 
ture, a poor but clever Frenchman living at Galata, who 
had been treated with great neglect by the ambassador. 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 435 

caused it to be intimated to him that he could get any sum 
of money by deciphering the letters in the hands of the 
vizier. This was his ruin ; he was immediately invited to 
the palace, and was put to death by the French ambassa- 
dor, De la Haye. y 

Not many centuries ago, a Quaker came to Constantinople 
to convert the sultan ; he was imprisoned for several 
months, and was finally given over to the English ambas- 
sador to be questioned as to his sanity. Upon his refusal 
to take off his hat to the ambassador, the poor Quaker was 
bastinadoed on the spot. By a curious perversion of lan- 
guage, this Lord Winchelsea is spoken of as an English 
nohleman. 

In the palace of every foreign ambassador there is a 
reception-room, fitted up with a throne, and decorated with 
a iull-length portrait of the king whom he represents ; and 
in this room a solemn audience is granted to those who may 
have a petition to present to cither of these miniature kings 
of Pera. The puerile and absurd points of etiquette which 
reign here, as they have been detailed to me, would hardly 
be credited in any country where common sense could be 
supposed to have any influence. For instance, bells are 
offensive to the Turks, and are generally prohibited ; of 
course, every embassy is provided with one of ample 
dimensions, and by a system, ingeniously enough contrived, 
all the neighbourhood are notified when his excellency en- 
ters or leaves his palace, when he gets up and takes his 
meals, and likewise of the rank and quality of his visiters. 
I am happy to state that our own minister has introduced 
an innovation which may eventually find imitators, but 
which is now very generally regarded as a most desperate 
and dangerous measure ; he has actually dispensed with a 
bell, and Heaven only knows what disasters are predicted 
in Buyukdery, as likely to ensue finom this undiplomatic 
proceeding. 

Afler crossing the valley of Buyukdery our road lay 



V 



Ihrough a deep ravine, whow precii»toii»aidei exfailMted ibv 
fimtaitical contortioni of afgUlaoeoos slate imderijiiii; 
borizootal strata of limestoney which gives the name of 
Karetch Boomoo to this place. These strata or layen 
were distinct above, but gradually approached until thef 
became a blue compact mass. We now ascended a moon- 
tain of considerable elevation, and found ourselves on Ae 
best carriage-road we have hitherto met with in Torkey. 
This road winds over the summits of lofty hills, and pir^ 
serves its elevation to the heights of Penu The hills 
covered with heaths of various species ; the Erica 
was in full Uoom, and carried me back in memory to by- 
gone times, when I had roamed over the bleak and bea&» 
covered hills of Scotland. Here, too, seemed to flomidi the 
strawberry Arbutus {A. unedo)^ which now seemed to oflfer 
its luscious scarlet fruit to the tired traveller, and now bent 
over the roadside under the weight of its snowy blossoms. 
It would be meritorious to introduce this beautiful shrub on 
our own hill-sides. It appears to thrive on a barren soQ ; 
it might advantageously occupy the place of our formal and 
solitary mullen, and would contrast beautifully with our 
showy kalmios. In Dalmatia large quantities of sugar and 
brandy are obtained from this fruit It is only about five 
years since that this manufacture has been attempted; 
and I am informed that already more than eight thou- 
sand barrels of brandy are annually produced. One thoo^ 
sand pounds of the fruit will give a barrel of spirit ; and 
by the ordinary process 20 lbs. of fruit furnish between 
4 and 5 lbs. of a very pure sugar and a highly aromatic 
syrup. Nor docs the usefulness of this plant end here ; it 
bears most plentifully in those seasons which are unfavour- 
able to the olive and the grape, and thus compensates the 
fiirmer for tlie loss of his ordinary crops. Its leaves are 
extensively used in tanning. 

Half-way between Buyukdery and Pera we stopped at a 
neat little building, erected at the expense of the wife of the 



SKETCnES OF TURKEY. 487 

Austrian ambassador, or, as he is called here, the internun- 
cio. Under the auspices of Madame la Baronne d'Otten- 
fels, a slight fall of water in the aqueduct which supplies 
Pera has been converted into a delightful fountain for the 
use of the wayworn traveller, and an inscription in Italian, 
Turkish, and Greek requests the benevolent passer-by to 
sprinkle a little water over the trees which have been 
tastefully planted around by her own hands. In front of 
the building a white marble slab is surmounted by' a dial, 
with a motto in Turkish and Latin, purporting that ** the 
hours glide away, but that the memory of the benefactor 
may perchance remain.** 

The lodge is kept in order by an elderly Turk, who alsd 
supplies pipes and coffee for a trifling gratuity. As neither 
myself nor my companion were aquarians, we requested 
■omething more stimulating, which in a foreign establish- 
ment like this we naturally expected to obtain. Honest 
Mehemet, however, replied that he kept nothing of the kind ; 
and to our further inquiries replied, that he saw no differ- 
ence in criminality between selling wine and drinking it 
The old man had evidently picked up some information 
from the numerous Europeans with whom he had neces- 
sarily come in contact ; for upon learning that we were 
Americans, he inquired if it was true that we had sent out 
missionaries to make converts of the Turks, in ships laden 
with wine and ardent spirits. Although we were unable 
directly to controvert the fact, yet we succeeded in con- 
vincing him that such reports were grossly exaggerated. 

We left the place with a feeling of respect and gratitude 
towards the benevolent Madame la Baronne d'Ottenfels, 
which we should be churlish not to record. 

We passed, on our left, the ruins of barracks whose his- 
tory is connected with a horrid catastrophe. Here a large 
body of troops belonging to the ill-fated Selim, after an ob- 
stinate resistance against the Janizaries, were finally burnt 
alive. It was one of the many atrocious acts of that law- 



Imi corpt, which was finally and awfiiUjr avenged vpmt 
their own beadj; and every friend oF hiimani^ muat rejoice 
that luch miacreaots were extirpated from the earth. 

Our road. Mill preKrving its elevatioo, now woond along 
the head of a glen wliich gives riw to one of the two clu-' 
■ical streanu which empty into the Golden Horo. Near 
tluB wai a marUe column, about lixteen feet hi^ whic^ 
■erres a« a target for the exercise of the how. The ad- 
joining fields are covered with these targets, and the vicinity 
is ctflled the ocmeidm, or the [dace of arrows, which has 
been frequently confbialded by basty tiavellers witti Om 
atmeidan or hippodrome in the metropoUs. At this plans 
the reigning sultan frequently indulges in this antaait wariiks 
exercise, and has tbe reputation of drawing a longer bow 
than any man in his domininna. 

We entered Pera (now almost entirely rebuilt) near the 
cavalry barracks, and saw the troops on pafade. The 
horses were not showy, but stout, and appeared to be care- 
lessly groomed. The men had discarded tbe high Tuikish 
saddle, and appeared to be good horsemen. 

Two English missionaries have arrived from Syria. 
They appeared in full Asiatic costume, which is certainly 
extremely picturesque and becoming, and at (be same time, 
as they confessed, excessively inconvenient, although they 
had worn it for years. It may serve to convey some idea 
of the change in costume here of late, when it is stated that 
their oriental dress excited almost as much attention here 
as it would have done in any other city of Europe. After 
a few days they were glad to exchange them for RngliA 
clothes, in order to escape observation.^ 



SKBTCHBS OF TUBKBY. 4M 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

Turkish Bath— Its Antiquity— Turkish Naral Officer— Battle of NaYarino— 

Tarkish Caricature— Sketch of the Battle. 

All travellers love to expatiate upon the delights of a 
Turkish bath, as the ne pkis ultra of human enjoyments. 
We have frequently wished, during our residence here, to 
indulge in this agreeable operation ; but, aside from the ne- 
cessary exposure in a public bath, we have been hitherto 
prevented from entering them by the remonstrances of our 
friends, on the score of the plague, which has pirevailed 
more or less since our arrival. The kind offer of a friend, 
6ne of the merchant princes of the Fanar, removed every 
objection on the score of exposure to the plague, by politely 
placing his own private bath at our disposal. We ac- 
cordingly proceeded this morning to his house, which is 
situated in the Fanar. We landed in the rear of a dingy- 
looking building, which, although of large dimensions, had a 
very mean and shabby exterior. This appearance of pov- 
erty, although no longer necessary, as in former times, to 
avoid exciting the envy or cupidity of the Turks, is still 
kept up by many of the Greek subjects. Upon entering 
the gate, which stands on the wretched wooden wharf, we 
were struck with the order and beauty of the small garden 
through which we passed to enter the house. Although 
the season was far advanced, altheas, artemisias, and roses 
were in full bloom, and in the greatest profusion. We 
entered a spacious hall paved with marble, and ornamented 
with a bubbling fountain, and passing through a series of 
neatly-furnished aparbncnts, we entered a saloon, which, 
although fitted up with a divan in the oriental style, was 



440 noRGHM or 

replete with every thing in accordance with our ideas of 
comfort in America. After partaking of iweetmeati^ 
coflbe, and § pipe, we were conducted to that part of the 
hoQse'wliere the bath is sityated. We undressed in an ante- 
room which was furnished with couches and beds, and en* 
tered a small room which at first appeared to be unoomfbrtp i 

ably warm, but after being in it for a few minutes this feeling 
went ofil We then entered the bathing-room itself whidi 
was ten feet square, arched overhead, and lighted firom the 
dome. ■ Upon entering, a pair of wooden dogs are pot od, 
to avoid the marble p%vMpent, which is too hot to be touched 
with the naked feet A plain woocten divan or raised sea^ 
about six inches high, occupies two sides of the room. 
After sitting here a few minutes, the persinration b^gan to 
pour from our bodies, and upon turning a small brass-cock 
in- the wall, hot water issued forth, which filled the room 
with vapour. The bath attendant now entered, naked like 
ourselves, and commenced that operation which in public 
baths has been the subject of special admiration by travel- 
lers. With a sort of glove of camlet, made expressly for 
this purpose, the attendant commences a series of firictions 
from head to foot, which strips off sheets of matter deposited 
by insensible perspiration.. This operation lasts about half 
an hour, and during its continuance no water is used; 
towards the close, however, we were deluged with basins 
of hot water, and this finished the mere bathing part of the 
afiair. We then returned to the second room, which is 
not of so high a temperature as the bath. Here an ample 
supply of towels, and vases filled with cologne and orange- 
flower water, furnished us with the means of being dried 
and perfumed ; and then, enveloped in robes-de-chambre, 
we returned to the first room, where, reposing on the divan 
for some time, we gave way to that exhilaration of spirits 
which a Turkish bath is sure to inspi^. Here we partook 
of a glass of rosoglio, and then resumed our ordinary 
dresses. The construction of these baths is very simple. 



8KSTCHE8 OF TURKEY. 441 

The heated air from a furnace is conducted by flues under 
the bath and middle room, and a large sheet-iron d^m over 
the furnace communicates with the bathing-room by a door 
or valves, which furnishes a convenient mode of raising or 
lowering the temperature. The expense of constructing 
one in a private house need not exceed 8150 ; and, independ- 
ent of the pleasurable sensations to which they give rise, 
their importance in relation to health and cleanliness can 
hardly be overrated. Many persons in our country appear 
to labour under the singular delusion, that when they have 
jumped into a tub of hot water, and hastily dried themselves 
afterward, they have actually taken a bath. Nor must 
those who complacently talk of washing themselves by 
plunging and splashing about in a stream of water, be per- 
mitted to remain in so pitiable an error. A half-hour's 
sojourn inabath such as I have just described will be suflicient 
to correct such miserable infatuation. While I am writing 
I feel a tinge of shame at the idea of having so long min- 
gled in society, and fancying myself in a fit condition to 
associate with my fellow-men. My companion, one of the 
most scrupulously neat men with whom I am acquainted, 
exclaimed upon perceiving the impurities which were peeled 
off in large flakes from his body in the bath, ** This is worse 
than the solar microscope. I shall never persuade myself 
that I can be clean again.'' 

It is usual to speak of these baths as of Turkish origin, 
but in strictness they must be attributed to the Greeks, for 
I have seen in buildings undoubtedly of the first ages of the 
Grecian empire, remains of baths constructed like those of 
the present day. In the works of Cicero and Pliny the 
reader will find descriptions of Roman baths which corres- 
pond in almost every particular with those now in use in 
Constantinople. 

I became acquainted a few days ago with a Turkish 
naval officer, who seemed to be desirous of learning how 
the battle of Navarino was regarded in America. I in- 

L L L 



faH i iiil hiiB,tlMttwa>tiiBexBBptkeflfaiwr Cli iii tAtliim 
Atra «^ bnfcioM c^oumi aboat itrud tkM h wMragHdrf 
w an (ndflp'spni hinnaiiitjr, oidf to be panlMod bf 4» 
pitifid wJi<Sigw mder ^riaA it* «tr«ctty mm «ll rtiii ] <Bi 
to:beT«ifaML . j 

-; .b ^ examteatKHiiriuch m pnpMs to adsBflf di* ^-3 
.^fafkriooB tnamcdkn, we fcgvet beii^ oUiged to «flaM«* 
fine of oar own dtuetv, whoae eOqoinroeiiti ue Ike JHt 
boett of tttavonntryiDeii, Imt who, from dw peediu- dfa«B^ 
ties of fall Aal7itD4)aa,» aearaely impwrtU on tkn ebb- 
JBotorOMNB. In Bir^lliDrlB artide in the Worth Anwr- 
hn Reriewfor IBSS, be refinM to admit tb* >i^ «f Hm 
^tm to teimmate dieie trouUe* in lia « 
huown way. T^iatweinaytiotbB mpeoMdc^K 
bia views we shall quote his own words ^— 

** It ia ao admitted principle of the law of nations, dwt 
any power, or any number of powers, may interfere ia 
the coflcerns of any other power or powers, when required 
by the great paramount law of nature as well as of nation^ 
that of self-preservation. The question, when self-preaei^ 
vationdoes require this interference, is indeed a question of 
fact very delicate, and on which the partis are not like to 
be agreed. But the principle is clear. Now the Tmfa 
do or do not belpng to that great family of nations whoaa 
assent, implied oT express, has been given to the law of 
nations as understood in the modem civilized worid. If 
they do, then we say as a principle the right of the allies to 
interfere is clear, supposing a state of lacts to exist author- 
izing the application of the principle. If the Turks do not 
consider themselves a party bound by the law c^ naticm^ 
^n we do not know how they can complwn of any poli<7 
on the part of the other powers, which those powers think 
it their duty to pursue. The ulterior question, whether the 
Turks arc or are not under the law of nations, admits of a 
question of some nicety. If adhering to practices forbidden 
by the clearest principles of that law ought to azduda 



SKBTCRSS ov tukkbt: 443 

them, they are excluded. They have contiDued to imprison 
ambassadors, on a rupture with the powers they represent, 
till the present year. If having entered into treaty with 
civilized states be sufficient ground to include them under 
the law of nations, they are of course included. Mr. 
Ward, the respectable historian of the law of nations, lays 
down the proposition, Mhat what is commonly called the. 
law of nations is not the law of all nations, but only of 
such sets or classes of them as are united together by simi- 
lar religions and systems of morality,' and most of the 
standard writers on the subject have dropped hints to the 
same import." 

It requires little attention to perceive that the whole drift 
of the reviewer is to throw a doubt upon the fact whether 
the Turks form a part of the great family of nations ; on 
in other words, an attempt is made to outlaw them from all 
civilized society. We need hardly advert to the fact that 
treaties of amity and commerce have been formed by all 
Christian nations with the Turks, and history teaches us 
that Christian and Turk have frequently been found fighting 
aide by side, and under the same banner.* This idle decla- 
mation about the law of nations is best answered by an 
appeal to an author whose authority will not, we presume, 
be questioned. ^ The Ottoman Porte, which at all times 
has given an example of moderation to the more civilized 
nations of Europe, was the first to abandon the ancient 
maxim sanctioned by the treaties before alluded to. In 
1604, the Porte agreed with Henry IV. King of France, 
that the French flag should protect the goods and effects of 
enemies from seizure. The same privilege was granted 
by the Sultan Achmet in 1612 in the treaty with Holland, 

* Allunon if bene made to the open and covert alliances between the 
Greek emperors and the Saracena against the crusaders ; to the alliances 
between the Greeks and Turks against the Latin princes ; and to the nume- 
lous battles in which the Turics were aided by the Hungarians under the 
valiant and patriotic TekeK. 




■nd widi stiU greater eztenaon, rfaoe it oxmnptai Aiii 
O0Dfi«sfttH^|he efiecti of friraids finad on bo«Ml ikaMfB 
of iBT^eiJWMuLiLnmiiit treatiM of a nfoilw napm* «iH 
mado wttfa fbo otber maritiDw powenof Bwo pn. 'An* 
tfiat period, w gknioas, Recording to Ason, &r ■Mioil ' 
vriMxawecsll bifaarop*, the t»g of a ftiwrily iMiaBiMto 

^•U die treatiet of navigalkM md commerM a ilAiiHlt 
aeearit]i fiir the gooda of easauee. Oir own ^Wngai^A 
jiKitf Keirt,iB relatioBto thk Miiwsid9aot,lMni« 

' hinbelf in oqnally atrong terms of ibeh 
h7 ToriMJr oa all intemttioMd quertioaB.* ' 

Bat admitting the Turks to belong to the g 
mtioni, the reviewer otwerrea dnt thpiaUiei faad frf^fbt la 
^iterfere. - Graated. The Turks and Cieefce mn a» 
gaged in a bloody conflict, and in the course of it the Gre^ 
become pirates, thieves, and murderen ; onoe tasting blood 
and spoil, it was a matter of indifference to them whether 
it came from foe or friend. The allies, in such a state of 
things bad clearly a ng^t to interfere, — but howT By 
seizing and stringing up to the yard-ann every Greek 
found in such enterprises 1 Oh, no I for the honour of the 
Homeric hexameter, for the dignity of the dNine philosopby 
of Greece, by the love ye bear for the glorious acatalectie 
iambic trimeter, touch not a hair of the heads of the loi^ 
haired race I Idterfere, but let it commence and end with 
the Turks. Watch your opportunity until they can be 
taken unawares, and then exterminate the wretches, who 
have "a different religion or system of morality." 

The reviewer proceeds to state, that whether the' Turks 
are or are not under the law of nations is a question of 
8c»ne nicety, and the only fact alleged against them is that 
till the present year they have imprisoned ambassadors. If 
the author of this article was as femiliar with Hume as he 
is with Herodotus, if in his fondness for ancient history ha 

* KcDt, CamtneDUriw oo Amnicaa Iav, i. It7. 



SKETCHES OV TURKEY. 445 

was more familiar with the modern, he would never have 
cited this as a charge against the civilization of the Turks. 
Has he never heard that an Emperor of Austria seized as 
a prisoner, not an ambassador merely,* but a sovereign 
king, who foolishly thought he might securely trust to his 
sacred character as a soldier of the cross^ a pilgrim from 
the Holy Land 7 Let him read the history of Richard of « 
the Lion-heart. He will learn, that after a long and severe 
imprisonment, in spite of appeals to knightly honour or to 
the tie of a common faith, Richard was tried for his life 
upon the most contemptible charges, and was only ultimately 
released upon the payment of 100,000 marks of silver. 
Or, if he wishes another case, we can furnish him one from 
the annals of the same empire. To be sure, it was only 
Turkish ambassadors who were imprisoned, and ''how 
can they complain of any policy on the part of the other 
powers, which those powers think it their duty -to pursue V 

We refer now more particularly to the imprisonment by 
Austria of Turkish ambassadors, as related by Ricauti We 
have never seen the English original, but presume that the 
French translation will be received as authenticf 

" II (the Emperor of Austria) fit emprisonner les embas- 
sadeurs Turcs dans le chftteau dc Puttendorf, ou ils furent 
retenus quelques annees ; centre le droit des gens. U est 
vrai que les Turcs avoient souvent fait des grandes .indig« 
nites aux personnes des embassadeurs, mais cela ne s'etoit 
encore pratique parmi les princes Chretiens et surtout par 
ceux de la maison d'Autriche, rcnommec par toute la terre 
pour sa piete, sa justice, et sa cicmence 1 1 1" 

It is scarcely worth while to notice the complacency with 
which the reviewer quotes Mr. Ward, to prove that the 
law of nations only applies to '' those sets or classes who 



* James's History of ChWaliy and the Cnisades. 
t Hist. de. rEmpira Ottoman, par la ChaTalier Ricaut La Haye, 1709. 
VoL iik p. SOO. 




m UimIWI . ty Hniuu vnigioiM Un'^itaHB cf wtttMMjff 
'fiirbeaAanrerd ■drnhfl that Ward oMMden the Torin^i 
huiagmoatiai to ths kwi of nMkn by tho MBMiriilfc 
of tMdieb Bot-tfae •«zMpeet*tde Hn, Wwd^ ^^ )A» 
■ywHy -tupscMbk. nviewerr bave Mkn d^gviMife 
gPBoad in nttiqg op a difimMa in viawi of nNgMM'^iA 
4ilMndtty u.nifficMnt to exdode mti«H tnm itm fld»»4f 
avilned aoeietjr. TTw Tiewi of teBgan anlii liiMdi fcy *! 
myiMi' Umsei^ and of a laiga jwrtM of the ooBW^il^ 
t^lHuch be bdoi«e. differ •■ mndi firaaa thoM bdd b^ 
Cbrieli a a'Oreeoe, aa tim rsli^coi of tba Tmka ^iftn fiwi 
Ant^ tbfl PtHtagtMM. If then a Portqgaena or Baailli , 
tribmialwen to try him hy thia ^Mriard,' bn"w>odi -b* 
^noed bejond the aalutary operatiotiof the Ikw of nii^^ 
and in fact out of the pale of civilized society. 

Frcxn this ingenious but pitiable tissue of aopbisnis, it a 
refreabing to turn to the masterly and manly view taken of 
this very subject of foreign interference by a wiiter in the 
English Quarterly Review. From his statement we ooi» 
dense the following account of the Navarino affair, which is 
attempted to be disguised under the obs^e. and mend»- 
cious periphrasis of " interference." *> 

" A trtahf of pacifcatioiC' between England, Russia, and 
France was signed July 6, 1827, to put a stop to the ^b* 
aton of blood, as was impudently pretended. By this treaty 
it was agreed that if the Ottoman Porte does not make 
peace, the contracting partiea will take immediate meaainea 
for an ^fjprozimation I with the Greeks. Art Sd. declarea 
that they will exert all the means in their power to fverent 
collision between the parties, " without however takii^ any 
part in the hostilities of the two contending parties." 
In purauance of these measures of apprar i watteit,* 

■ Tliii prattj phimw, " mwunna of upfto^mUien," nnindi oa* of • 
dmilu iliplomklic eipnoion OMd tguiul th« Tnrk* mow jean pnrioiio. 
Uodn Ote poBts decIinSoo that " the ■rmiM tod flnti of Ibe lUiei wouU 
nMl«* ■ Dan impalK," a Rai4w borde aranui HoUni*, sad *■ ZofjUk 



8KETC1IB8 OV TUK&ET, 447 

the business was intrusted to the management of the 
three officers commanding the naval forces of England, 
France, and Russia, who were of course peculiarly fitted 
for pacific operations. As their masters had solemnly 
sworn to put a stop to the effusion of blood, and to take no 
part with either side, the admirals published a protocol, in 
which they attempt to conceal their premeditated violence 
under the flimsy veil of humanity. Perhaps their desire 
to further the views of their masters was not entirely un- 
connected with some prospective advantages that might 
accrue 'personally to themselves. This naval protocol 
states, that three plans presented themselves. 1. To block- 
ade the Turkish fleet, which would be troublesome and 
expensive. 2. To go into the harbour, and by remaining 
there peaceably, to keep the Turks quiet. 8. To go in " in 
order to renew to the Turkish commander propositions 
which, entering into the spirit of the treaty, were evidently 
to the advantage of the Porte itself !" This third course 
was adopted on the 18th October. On the very next day 
the French admiral sent in a summons, de par le roi, to all 
the French officers in the Turkish fleet to quit the service 
instantly, or they would be treated as rebels, and with this 
they were compelled to comply. This was the first pacific 
step ; but on the following day measures of a still more 
peaceable character were adopted. While the Turkish com- 
mander-in-chief was twenty miles from his fleet, and half 
the crews were on shore washing themselves and their 
clothes, the combined squadron, composed of a pitiful force 
of only ten ships of the line and a due proportion of frigates, 
&c., amounting in all to twenty>eight sail, peaceably en* 
tercd the harbour ; and in order, no doubt, to pay a friendly 
compliment to the Turks, had their ports up, their guns run 
out, and their men at quarters I There happened to be 
near the entrance of the harbour a few Turkish fireships, 
and fearful perhaps lest they might explode and injure the 
Turks, the allies humanely ordered their cables to be cat 
This was very unreasonably objected toby the Turks, who 




eonld hardly foppoie thatthiB wai oiieof **thd pvopostiaB* 
eridantly to the advantage of the Porta itaeU." Thej 
reabted, fiied upon the boata, and then the &roe ao kupa- 
dently carried on ceaaed, the maak waa thrown off, and die 
bloody tragedy began. In the oourae of Soar houn, mXL bat 
ifteen veaaeb were destroyed, and 5000 Tnrka perished. « 
A few months afterthis, Russia, who had evid^ndy duped 
both France and England, threw off all diiguiae^ and de* 
Glared war against Turkey on her own account To the 
impartiar pages of history we consign this atrocioua timna- 
action, which, for its bad fidth, duplicity, efiBpameryt mmk 
outi|igeous contempt for the laws of nations and of hu- 
manity, is, we believe, without a paif)laL* 

In speaking of this transaction, my Turidsh fiiend re- 
lated the following anecdote. 

Shortly after the slaughter of Navarino, the officer 
charged with despatches from the Turkish admiral waited 
upon the seraiskier, and exhibited a plan of the battle. The 
old seraiskier looked at it for a few moments, and then 
threw it aside with disdain, exclaiming, ** That is no plan 
of the battle !" — ** No plan T replied the officer ; "^ I can 
assure your highness that it is exact in all its details.** — ^^In- 
shallah !" exclaimed the seraiskier ; ^ I can show you a 
better one, although I have not been there myself; do you 
see this," taking up at the same time a scrip of paper con- 
taining a few slight scratches with a pen. The officer 
looked at it more attentively, and discovered a Turk smoking 
placidly on his divan, and a servant, who had apparently 
just entered, announced to his master that three foreign- 
looking gentlemen were at the door and wished to see him. 
The master was represented as saying to the servant, ** Ask 

* It IB amusing to contrast the condact of the chief nxnl oommaiider, 
CodringtoD, on this occasion, with his declaration made fat the English 
Parliament, while these pages were passing through the piew. ** I had 
agreed that the Egyptians should remain in possession of the forts of the 
Morea when their army eracuated that coantrj, knowing that it would b« 
safer for us to leaTe them in the hands of the Torfcs than in those of llit 
OraeksP 



tXXTCHBS OF TURKBT. 



449 



them to come in and get the pipes and coiTee ready to do 
them honour.*' — ** I do not in all this, may it please your 
highness, see any plan of a battle," was the observation 
of the perplexed officer. " That is only the key,** replied 
the seraiskier ; " turn over the paper, and you will see the 
battle." The officer looked on the other side and beheld 
the same Turk lying bleeding on his divan, with a Russian, 
Frenchman, and Englishman standing over him, each 
armed with a dagger. '' Allah Kayrim I but your highness 
is right," exclaimed the officer ; ^ these sketches give a 
more correct idea of Christian faith and honour than all 
our minute and laboured plans of the battle." 

I endeavoured to procure a copy of these sketches, but 
without success ; I was, however, fortunate enough to ob- 
tain afterward, at Constantinople, a plan of Navarino, drawn 
up, as I was informed, by a Turkish naval officer. A re- 
duced sketch is subjoined, from which it would appear 
that the Turko-Egyptian fleet consisted of three sail of the 
line and about thirty frigates, sloops, brigs, and fireships. 




Battle of NKTartoow 
MMM 



480 MLWum ov 

Had an attack been anticipated, it is not likely that the 
Turks would have retained the position which is assigned 
to them in this sketch. The allies had a force of ten ships 
of the line, and about twenty other vessels of various sises ; 
their killed and wounded amounted to 654. The Turkish 
loss was never exactly known, but is supposed to have been 
about 0000. 

Notwithstanding these fiicts, a clergyman* has the ain- 
gular simplicity to make the following declaration; **! 
confesiCthat 1 had pleasurable emotions on first be h olding 
the theatre of an event apparently so necessaiy to the 
cause of humanity and of Greece as the battle of Navar 
rino.'' One is reminded of the worthy Fray Antonio Aga- 
pida, who exclaims, ^It was a pleanng and refi^esUpg 
sight to witness the rich land of the infidel made desolate, 
and to see his children made captive." 



CHAPTER XL VII. 

Chalcedon or Kadikeui — The Seat of the Foarth Genenl Coancil — St. 
Chr^'vostom — Si. Euphemin and iUi Curioaitiei — ^A coloured Virgin — 
Fanar Batchee — Earthquakes — Dislocation of Strata — Gema, the Burial- 
place of Hannibal — Revolt of Viceroy of Egypt — Murder of SeUm Pacha 
— Environs of Constantinople — State of Cultivation — Tatavola — Simpl* 
style of Living of Turkish Dignitaries — Turkish Beggars — ^Attention to 
their Wants. 

The town of Kadikeui' formerly built on the site of a city 
celebrated under the name of Chalcedon, and lying a few 
miles from Constantinople on the Asiatic shore, has been my 
residence for a few days past. In the family of a French 
gentleman, Mr. R., this period has been agreeably spent* 
and amid the refinements of Europe, and the pleasures of 
polished intercourse, the hours have glided quickly away. 

* Aiulerson*s ObMtnUioiM on theP^lopoiiiMNi and Gmk Uanda. 



«- 



, I 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 451 

Chalcedon is chiefly remarkable as the place where, more 
than thirteen centuries ago, 630 bishops met, in order to 
regulate the articles of religious belief. It is known in the 
history of the church under the name of the fourth general 
council of Chalcedon ; and the decisions of that council 
are felt to the present day over all the Christian world. 
They were as.somhlpd to condemn the heresy of Eutyches, 
who was accused of confounding the persons of the Godhead. 
The Christian church was governed at that time by the 
Bishop of Rome and the Bishop of Constantinople, and a 
question of rank arose between them. By this council the 
wfrnrtieif or primacy, was awarded to the Bishop of Rome, 
giving him rank and precedence over his Byzantian brother ; 
and this was the origin of the papal power, and of the sepa- 
ration between the eastern and western churches.* In this 
place, too, the Archbishop of Constantinople, the zealous 
and learned St. Chrysostom, or golden mouth (the author 
of so many sermons that 1000 have reached us), was 
solemnly deposed and banished by a council composed of 
forty-five bishops. Their triumph was, however, of short 
duration. Within two days the mob of the city pursued 
him, brought him back, and restored him to his exalted 
station. 

We were shown the little church of St. Euphemia, as the 
identical place of meeting of the 630 bishops who formed 
tlie fourth general council. It is very small, and unless the 
bishops sat in each other's laps, it is difficult to imagine how 
they could have been accommodated. Two young dirty 
and ignorant Greek priests acted as cicerones, and pointed 
out the curiosities of the church. These, as near as I can 
recollect, were, — 1. The 108 wooden stalls, or arm-chairs, 
occupied by the 030 bishops above alluded to. 2. The real 
iron spit upon which St. Euphemia was basted, a story 
equally difficult to believe or to disprove. 3. The marvellous 
sweating or weeping pillar, which only perspires every 
three months. It is a porous limestone, and of course is 

• Crkf's EpitoiM of the Genaid CooBcib of Hit Chnidk 

# 



452 SKETCHES op. TUBKST. 

susceptible of being made the instrument of a pious fraud*. 
Our guides assured us that vfhen the Turks pillaged Chal- 
cedon, to ornament Constantinople, they took away every 
pillar of this church except the weeping column, which 
resisted all their efforts to remove it from its place. That it 
might have been taken away piecemeal was satisfactorily 
proved by one of our party, who, watching his opportunity, 
knocked off a considerable fragment The last curiosity 
was a portrait of the Virgin and Child, painted by St Luke. 
The Virgin is as black as an African, and I understand that 
this is the complexion frequently given to her in the Asiatic 
churches, in order to conciliate what is so happily termed in 
our country " the coloured interest** 

We made an excursion to the low point below the village 
called Fanar Batchee, anciently known as Hersum, from 
a temple which formerly stood here dedicated to Juno. 
Here the Greek emperors, and particularly Justinian, 
squandered the resources of the empire in the construction 
of palaces, pleasure-grounds, and baths, of which now 
scarcely a fragment remains. On our way to the point, 
the road and fields were strewed with building stones, 
bricks, &c. ; and this is considered by some as the real site 
of ancient Chalcedon. We stopped for a few moments to 
examine a large excavation, 250 feet long, 100 broad, and 
20 feet deep. The sides are built up with thick walls, com- 
posed of alternate courses of stone and brick. We inquired 
of a Greek peasant for what purposes he supposed that it had 
been constructed. He replied, to keep hogs in ; and, upon 
cross-examination, gave what might be considered satis- 
factory evidence in a court of justice — namely, that the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant ran not to the contrary. 
This remarkable work was, however, executed under the 
Emperor Heraclius, for a cistern or reservoir, 1220 years ago. 

A lighthouse in ruins, of the age of the Genoese, still 
upholds its head among the lofly cypresses which adorn 
this beautiful promontory. A small bay above is doubtless 
the ancient harbour known as the port of Eutropiug, and 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 453 

along its banks, and far in the water, one may trace the 
foundation- walls of former palaces and buildings. History 
records this spot as having been formerly convulsed by 
earthquakes, the evidences of which are plentiful around us. 
The rock of this place i^ an argillaceous schist, assum- 
ing a north and south direction, of various degrees of 
hardness, and enveloping occasionally rounded pebbles. 
In one place near the point, the strata dip to the west 
under an angle of 40 degrees, a short distance farther 
on they dip to the east, and at the point of junction, numerous 
distortions occur. As the strata are composed of laminae, 
or sheets, of diflferent degrees of hardness, some are washed 
out by the action of the waves, and the remainder present 
evidences of having been violently disturbed. In other 
places our attention was called to an appearance which was 
no doubt attributable to the same cause. The walls of a 
building had been prostrated, and were almost completely 
covered by the rock of the countr\% which, instead of being 
nearly vertical, as it generally is, was here horizontal. 

From the green promontory of Fanar Batchee the eye 
commands a lovely view. To the north, the capital and 
the mouth of the Bosphorus ; before us, the Sea of Mar- 
mora ; on the south, the Prince's Islands and the Mountains 
of Bithynia ; and looking eastward down the Bay of Ismid, 
the eye rests upon Gevisa, the ancient Libyssa, celebrated 
as the closing scene of the eventful life of Hannibal. 

On this promontory, which was covered with parties of 
Turkish women from Constantinople, making Aq/e, we 
noticed the ruins of a bath, and of a larger building, which 
was probably a chapel. The walls are covered, in true 
cockney style, with the names of idle visiters ; among which 
the officers of the English frigates Salsctte and Blonde are 
most conspicuous. 

Upon our return to town we found the intelligence 
respecting the insubordination of the Pacha of Egypt fully 
confirmed. Two regiments of the disciplined infantry are 
on their way to Acre, and their strength amounts to 7000 



454 SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 

men. The government journal has an article on the sub- 
ject of the disturbances in the south, from which it is easy to 
perceive that much mischief is brewing. Mchemet AH of 
Egypt has sent a fleet and army against Abdoullah Pacha 
of Acre. The journal states that a misunderstanding has 
arisen between the two pachas, that both are wrong, and 
unless the troops are withdrawn, the immutable decree of 
the holy law will be pronounced against them. That the 
Pacha of Egypt is highly culpable there can be no doubt, 
as he has actually commenced offensive operations ; but 
why the other pacha should be included in this decree it is 
difficult to imagine. Some clew to the conduct of the 
Turkish government may be found in the suggestion that 
it is afraid of the power of the Egyptian Pacha, and is 
endeavouring to steer such a course as will prevent an 
open rupture. This timid, vacillating policy will not 
answer ; and the Porte will find, when too late, that the 
Pacha of Egypt means to add Syria to his empire, and will 
then throw off" even the semblance of submission to the 
sultan. It is whispered here that one of the griefs of the 
Viceroy of Egypt is, that the sultan retains in his council 
the old Seraiskier Usref, who is his most bitter enemy, 
and who has for years past endeavoured to get the viceroy 
into his power. 

The troubles at Damascus continue. Selim Pacha, who 
was formally deposed by the Porte a few weeks since, has 
been cut to pieces by the mob of that city. Selim was 
grand vizier when the Catholic Armenians were exiled 
from the metropolis, and his influence was actively em- 
plpyed against them. His sudden and violent death is 
viewed by the Armenians here with much satisfaction, as 
an act of retributive justice. 

The immediate environs of Constantinople are far from 
being under even a tolerable state of cultivation. The exist- 
ence of the Janizaries, of course, prevented the soil in the 
vicinity of the city from being cultivated, as no man could be 



0KETCnES OF TURKXT. 455 

sure of his crop ; but at present the case is altered, and more 
attention is paid to this subject. The soil is excellent, and 
without the least attention to manuring, and to those 
minutia? of husbandry which distinguish the careless from 
the successful cultivator, yields abundant crops. 

Agriculture is, however, in a very languishing condition 
throughout Turkey ; and those lands which are held in 
vakoof, or, in other words, mortgaged to the church, are 
the most highly cultivated. The general system of culti- 
vation is exceedingly slovenly, as may be shown by the 
ordinary plough in use, which is of the rudest kind. 




The vineyards alone appear to be highly cultivated. 
Every vine is carefully weeded and hoed into hills, and 
these operations are repeated until the grape is well filled. 
Lands are frequently worked on shares ; that is to say, the 
landlord furnishes the ground and the seed, and receives 
one-half of the produce. With grafting and forcing, and all 
other operations connected with horticulture, the Turks 
appear to be well acquainted ; although in the most de- 
lightful branch of this art, we mean landscape gardening, 
they have made scarcely more progress than ourselves. 
Their love of inaction, when not stimulated by the fiercer 
passions of our nature, leads them to pass entire hours in 
one spot; and hence winding alleys, and gravel- walks, and 
terraces, inviting to a promenade, not being required, are 
scarcely ever seen in Turkey ; and yet there are scarcely 
any people to whom they yield in their passionate attach- 
ment to flowers. These arc employed as tokens of friend- 



4M Kncmov 



dupandof loTe»Bsaiiiediiiiii of coinplimentarf in teiecHU W 
between patron and dependant, and form the last sad token 
of grief over the grave of a departed friend. The Fadir 
shah distributes both flowers and fruits to his grandees and 
to foreign ministers, with such an unsparing hand that two 
officers of the seraglio are specially charged, one with 
the superintendence of fruits and the other of flowers 
Happy is the mortal for, at least, a short period, to whom 
his majesty has deigned to order a few pots of flowers. 
The official bakshish is paid to the royal messenger with 
the greatest demoostratioiki of pleasure, and the princely gift 
is arranged in such a manner that every one who enters 
may behold and envy the happy man. Strange as it may 
seem, even the mongrel breed of Periots, the representatives 
of all the majesty of Europe, and of more than all its imbe- 
cility, display the most childish desire to obtain these evi- 
dences of imperial consideratioQ. An order, a title, or a 
riband, ridiculous as they appear to those who have learned 
to do without them, are scarcely more coveted than a few 
pots of flowers. I recollect walking upon the quay at 
Buyukdery one day, when a sudden and general exclama- 
tion of wonder among the numerous groupes assembled 
there attracted my attention. All eyes were riveted upon 
a royal barge which approached the spot, and the interest 
excited was scarcely less than if the commander of the 
faithful himself had appeared. The boat was conveying 
presents of flowers to some of the rival nobility. Win- 
dows were thrown open, houses were emptied of their 
inhabitants, and conjecture in every tongue of Europe and 
Asia exhausted itself, as to who would be the highly hon- 
oured recipient of royal favour. I do not recollect who 
it finally proved to be, but there is no doubt that it caused 
a sleepless night to all his brother diplomatists, and fur- 
nished for weeks a fruitful topic of discussion in the cir* 
cles of Buyukdery. The favourite flowers among the 
Turks are the tulip, the rose, and the oleander. This latter 



IKETCHES OF TURXBT. 457 

grows very luxuriantly here, and thrives in the open air 
during the whole year. 

In a little excursion around the suburbs, which I made a 
few days since, in company with a gentleman who has been 
absent a year from Turkey, he expressed his surprise at the 
increased quantity of grourid which had been put under ( 

cultivafion during his absence. An attempt was made 
about two years since to introduce all the modern improve- 
ments of husbandry into Turkey : it was done at the ex- 
pense of government, and failed, for the reasons which 
have been already stated. An English family was im- 
ported, and placed on a farm near the city. Disputes 
soon arose about their accommodations, their expenses, 
&c., and both parti(^s separated in mutual disgust. 

We returned by way of Tatavola, or St. Damctri, a vil- 
kge entirely inhabited by Greeks, and sustaining a very 
doubtful character on the score of morality. Descending a 
flight of steps, down a steep hill, we entered the low and 
dirty suburb of Cassim Pacha, in the rear of the arsenal. 
In several parts of this suburb the centre «>f tlie street is 
a deep open ditch, crossed by high bridges. These bridges 
are purposely constructed with a great elevation^ for in dry 
weather the ditchus are used as a road, and persons on 
h(Nrseback may then puss under the bridges with ease. 

Happening to call upon one of th^j high functionaries of 
the government, we were shown sans ceremonie into his 
office, where he was eating his midday meal in company 
with several officers. They were partaking of a pilaf of 
fkh and beans, and helped themselves out of the same dish 
with large wooden spoons. While we were there, a blind 
beggar was shown into the room ; money was immediately 
handed to him, which he seemed to receive rather as his 
due than as alms, and immediately withdrew. There seems, 
indeed, to be a sort of republican equality between the 
richest and poorest Turk, an equality founded upon, and 
arising from, their rel^ious creed, and kept up by their 

NNN 



. gOTerananli, dufrucluMs do one^ and nndan afl afih* 

•l^liUs to dw Ug^Mt 0AC9Mk 



CHAFTEB XLym. 



Aym a mideiioe of Mrenl montfaa in aay plaea «■• 

naturally leaves it with regret, and ia tlie present instance 
thisTegret is increased by the Btnall probability that I shall 
ever see again those kind friends who have so materially 
contributed to render my residence agreeable. 

Among the refinements of tuvilization, no American would 
ever dream that passports were included, and yet, strange to 
say, this onerous, useless, and absurd practice baa been im- 
ported into Turkey ; end recent European travellers hav* 
bailed it as one of the greatest improvements which ba^ 
been introduced into the country. The system, bow- 
ever, does not seem to be understood ; for although it ia 
necessary to obtain a passport upon leaving the capital, yet 
the traveller may roam througb the whole empire without 
being asked to produce it Indeed, it may be doubted 
whether, in the provinces, they ever heard that such pass- 
ports were required. During my whole residence I have 
travelled about the country alone, and never heard of their 
existence, but now that I am about to leave it. Captain 
John, a Levantine Greek, and of course a knave, who acta 
as interpreter and purveyor for foreign ships, tells me that 
a passport is necessary. As it costs about six cents, I 
tiuKight it would be worth that amount to go through the 



8KBTCHK8 OP TURKEY. 459 

ceremony, in order to have a peep at the officials of a 
Turkish police office. It is a rich treat at any time to see 

• 

the gravity with which a Turkish officer goes through his 
duty. The chief asked me what ship I intended to sail in, 
and his passport, as translated to me, conveyed the very 
correct and precise information, that an English gentleman, 
a particular friend of Captain John, was about to sail in an 
American ship, to London, and perhaps to the New World. 

Having engaged a passage in an American merchant 
vessel, bound to Smyrna, we took leave of our friends, and 
getting on board, were soon carried by the current past Se- 
raglio Point. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon the wind blew 
from the right quarter ; and by sunset, the pointed mina- 
rets and proudly swelling domes gave us the last glimpse 
of fair Stambool. This wind was but of short duration ; for 
a calm of two days' continuance only permitted us to reach 
Hexamila^ on the Hellespont, whero the Thracian penin- 
sula is but six miles across. We could distinctly perceive 
across the peninsula, tlie mountains on the opposite side of 
the Gulf of Saros. The little town of Hcxamila has re- 
tained the name which indicates its position,. while prouder 
and more highly favoured cities have either experienced a 
change of appellation, or exist only on the pages of history. 

If tlie Turks were not the least enterprising people in 
Europe (with the exception perhaps of the Spaniards), the 
extreme narrowness of the Thracian peninsula would long 
since have suggested a canal or railroad from the Gulf 
of Saros to the Hellespont. This would save the tedious 
and inevitable delays to which vessels are exposed when 
attempting to pass the Dardanelles. Such a step would 
enable goods to be transported with great ease and expe- 
dition, from Adrianople by the Maritza, or ancient Hebrus, 
from Kishan, Cavelle, and Salonica ; but here time is not 
money, and whether a passage from these places to Con- 
stantinople is made in one or three months seems scarcely 
to be worth taking into account. 



4GD IKETCHEB OF TUBKXT. 

Not far from this town is one of the largest tumuli I have 
ever seen, and if it be indeed, as some have guessed, 
the tomb of a hero, and his greatness is measured by the 
size of his tomb, the people buried on the plains of Troy, 
the Ajaxes and Achilles and Hectors, must htve been but 
small-fry in comparison with this Thracian demigod or hero. 

In the neighbourhood of Gaiiipoli the hills are of moderate 
elevation, and the most inattentive observer can hardly fail 
to notice a series of natural terraces, similar to those de- 
scribed as the parallel roads of Glentilt in Scotland ; these 
terraces, if we recollect aright, are sometimes six in num- 
ber, and nearly equidistant from each other. Above Sestos, 
they are slightly inclined ; but below, are parallel with the 
level of the Dardanelles, '^rheir formation is doubtless to 
be attributed to the successive sudden lowering of the level 
of the channel by some convulsion of nature, and the vol- 
canic appearance of the hills inland strengthens this opinion. 
The same agency is sufficient to explain why some parts of 
these natural terraces have been deranged from their ori- 
ginal position. 

The winds are extremely irregular and baffling in the 
Dardanelles, as we shortly had an opportunity of witness- 
ing. We were slowly fanning along with all our studding- 
sails set, while a mile below vessels were advancing towards 
us before the wind ; their breeze carried the day, and we 
were compelled to drop anchor abreast of Lampsaki. In 
the evening the solitary minaret of Lampsaki was gayly illu- 
minated in honour of some religious festival which is to 
be celebialed to-morrow. The Turkish Sabbath, as I have 
before remarked, like that of the Jews, and some sects of 
Christians, commences with the setting sun of the pre- 
ceding day. Gaiiipoli also showed her illuminated mina- 
rets, as well as the little village of Cardaki, or Chardak, 
opposite, and the sparkling effect over the glassy surface of 
the Hellespont, combined with the perfect stillness of the 
evening, the profound silence on shore, uninterrupted except 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 461 

by the unearthly voice of the muzzeim, as he called the 
faithful to their devotions, gave rise to feelings which ac- 
corded with the solemnities of the scene. 

Our musings were interrupted by a hoarse salute in our 
owntongue»from asmall boat which had approached usunob- 
. served. It proved to be from the captain of a small English 
schooner, from London, at anchor a short distance below 
us. This bluflf son of Neptune afforded us much amuse- 
ment by his inexhaustible stores of sea jokes, and by the 
praises which he seemed to divide nearly equally between 
the glass of right Monongahela before him, and his own 
darling schooner, the Vestal. **She was built,** said he, 
" after one of your Yankee clippers, but can beat them all ; 
she is a sweet" (giving her an epithet which by no means 
accorded with her nanr>e), " and can sail two feet to one 
with any ship in the royal navy." These schooners have 
been introduced into the English merchant service within 
a few years, and are principally used where despatch 
is required. There are now about thirty of them ; they 
vary from 100 to 150 tons, and draw 12 or 13 feet water; 
they are chiefly employed in the fruit trade between 
Smyrna and London, where it is very important to have 
quick passages. They are built professedly on the Ameri- 
can schooner model, but are more burthensome in propor- 
tion to their dimensions. Their internal distribution, par- 
ticularly of the cabin, is, I think, an improvement upon that 
of our vessels ; but their model or rig presents nothing 
worthy of imitation. 

A light breeze carried us the next morning just below 
Abydos, or Nagara Point, where we came to anchor, and 
as it was likely that the calm would last all day, we deter- 
mined to go on shore. We landed just below the fortress 
at Abydos, or Nagara Point. The soil appears here to be 
very productive, and is under good cultivation. A short 
and pleasant walk led us into the low and miserable-looking 
town of Chanak Kulcssi, or Pottery Landing, better known 
ai the Asiatic Dardanelles. 



462 SKETCHES OF TURKEY* 

Although a place of great manufacturing activity, it has 
a forlorn and wretched appearance ; and from the sallow 
and wasted appearance of the inhabitants, it was easy to 
discover that they were subject to intermittent and other 
fevers. 

The chief article of manufacture is pottery, which has a 
great reputation over all Turkey ; it is cheap and strong, 
gaudily gilded and painted, but scarcely in accordance with 
our ideas of taste or beauty. 

From the number of yellow slippers sported in the 
streets by Jews and other subjects, we were led to suppose 
that consuls must be here in abundance ; and this proved to 
be the fact. Their pay is poor enough ; but their high con- 
sular privileges enable them to earn a miserable pittance, 
by defrauding the customs, for themselves and others. 
Some of them, however, are respectable foreigners, who 
contrive to live by engaging in the collection of valonia, 
great quantities of which are gathered on the hills adjacent 
to the Dardanelles. 

To the politeness of one of the attaches of the English 
consulate (for it must be . stated that every petty consul 
apes the state of his superior at the capital), I was indebted 
fof an opportunity of seeing all the curiosities of the town ; 
these may be briefly enumerated. The great lion is the 
stable of his highness the Pacha of the Dardanelles. It 
contained between twenty and thirty of the largest camels 
I have ever seen. Upon inquiring for what purpose the 
pacha kept so large an establishment, I was informed that 
they were used in transporting tar and turpentine from a 
great distance in the interior ; and it was added, that they 
were a great source of private revenue to the pacha. 
From this we passed through the town, stopping for a few 
moments to examine the tombs of two former pachas. 
Their history was a common one in this part of the world ; 
they had been guilty of some crime or error, and had ex* 
piated the offence by poison. 



SKETCHES OF TURKBT. 463 

In the suburbs of the town, which are very low and 
unhealthy, wc noticed several sooterays, which had been 
partially demolished by Duckworth during his memorable 
passage of the Dardanelles. A little stream, once occupy- 
ing, under the name of the River Rhodius, a considerable 
place in ancient geography, empties itself just below the 
town. It frequently rises to such a height as to overflow 
the suburbs, dnd even the town itself. A solid wall of ma- 
sonry has been constructed to prevent the recurrence of a 
similar accident, and near it a delightful promenade, shaded 
by plane-trees, on the margin of the stream ; a summer- 
house was filled with Turks, enjoying their kafe, at an early 
hour. 

Not far from this I noticed four large stones, surmounted 
by a still larger one, which stood about four feet from the 
ground ; it was explained to me that this slab served as a 
resting-place for coffins, on their passage from the house to 
the cemetery. 

In various parts of the town large blocks of quartz, at the 
corners of streets, attracted our attention ; they were hol- 
lowed out, and used for pounding corn and other grain. By 
this simple implement the whole neighbourhood were en- 
abled to prepare their own food. Its admirable adaptation 
to the wants of a community points out more distinctly than 
any inscription its claims to great antiquity. 

We amused ourselves while stopping for a few minutes 
at the house of our consul, in laughing at the absurd farce 
playing ofiV^upon our ship's passport. This is a huge 
document, with the sultan's signature, or toorah, and 
was introduced into a wooden box and smoked, then 
steeped in vinegar and smoked again, before it was 
deemed sutficiently pure to enter the filthy hand of our 
consul, upon whom it would have been far better to have 
performed this cleansing operation. The Italian physician 
who had acted as interpreter on our passage up met me in 
the street, and offered to show me the interior of the castle. 
As few strangers are ever allowed this privilege, I gladly 



464 tKBTCHKB OF TUUCBT* 

availed myself of his offer, although war and all its accom- 
paniments are little to my taste. My guide informs me 
that 800 men are constantly stationed here ; but as I vis- 
ited every part of the castle, and saw all the troops, I should 
think that half that number was a large estimate. The 
celebrated guns, which are said to be the largest in the 
world, chiefly attracted my attention. They were lying on 
the ground, under stone arches, with several pieces of timber 
behind them, to break the force of the recoil. Thev are of 
brass, or rather composition, and most elaborately sculp- 
tured throughout. The largest, which I measured, was 
fifteen feet long and twenty-six inches caliber ; which, al- 
though very large, is much smaller than the marvellous 
accounts published of their size would lead one to imagine. 
One of these stories very gravely purports that a man rode 
into the largest, on horseback, to avoid a shower of rain; 
a carriage and four followed liim, but it alarmed the horse 
so much, that at one des|)eraie leap he elfecied his escape 
through the touch-hole. None of these guns are as large 
as some of those which I saw at Constantinople. At Top- 
hauna, for example, is one eighteen feet long, and at the 
arsenal I measured one of thirty inches caliber, from Xegro- 
pont, and which had been divided into several pieces, for 
convenience of transportation. JSeveral of the large guns 
at the Dardanelles had been injured in discharging them ; 
and, indeed, if the quantity of powder which is used (180 
pounds) be correctly stated, it is a wonder lliey do not 
burst at every discharge. The stone balls employed weigh 
412 pounds. The effect from such a gun must be tremen- 
dous; but, unfortunately, they are entirely unmanageable, 
and cannot be fired unless the vessel should C(>me within its 
range ; tliey have, however, been sometimes known to hit, 
as in the case of Admiral Duckworth, when a shot stove in 
llie whole bow of one of his vessels, and rendered her unfit 
for service. Many of these guns, and several parts of 
the batteries, stiil bear evidence of Admiral Duckworth's 



•XBTCHBS OF TURXKY. 4S$ 

successful, but useless daring, when he passed all these 
apparently formidable defences. 

On some parts of the works many peasants were em- 
ployed in placing guns in their carriages and repairing the 
batteries, while the soldiers were idly gazing upon their 
operations. I could not learn whether this labour was com- 
pulsory, or paid for, but presume the former, or else the sol- 
diers might have been profitably employed. There are 
said to be 482 guns mounted on the Asiatic, and 332 on tbo 
European shore of the Dardanelles ; all are of brass, but I 
hazard little in saying that many of them are useless. 

The military hospital attached to the castle contained but 
two patients : they were sufiering under intermittent fever^ 
and the Turkish physician treated them judiciously with 
quinine. 

Just outside of the castle we passed near the palace of 
the pacha ; he was seated at one of the windows, and beck- 
oning to the doctor, begged him to introduce the stranger* 
We accordingly made our way through his guards, and 
found him in his room of state, surrounded by his aids, sec- 
retaries, and other functionaries. He received me with 
much civility, and desired me to be seated on the divan 
near him. He was a noble-looking man, and his counte- 
nance denoted much intelligence. Originally a rice mer- 
chant, he attained his present elevation by one of those 
chances which are too common in this country to excite 
surprise or remark. That extremes meet, is strongly veri- 
fied in this absolute government, for the lowest Turk, if 
possessed of capacity, may aspire to the highest rank in the 
empire. You may ask the poorest fisherman or porter, if 
he ever expects to be a pacha, and he replies, Inshallah 
(please Gk>d), as if the idea was neither strange nor wonder- 
ful. The pachalic or region under the control of my new 
acquaintance is very extensive, and is said to be lucrative. 
It comprises all the fortifications on both sides of the Dar- 
danelles, and extends from Brusa, near Mount Olympus, to 

ooo 



\ 




my visit to GowtantitK>[rie, bow 1 sis^ ths pfara^aad-lfa* 

people, had I seen the Padir shah, and then the conversation 
turned upon America, Was it as large as Turkey ; what 
language was spoken there ; what was our religion, the 
iizc of our fleets and armies, and various other questions 
which betokened a rational curiosity. 

My mcdic4il friend, it appears, was intrif^ing for (be 
place of American consul, which, although of liilla value, 
acemcd as much desired as the empty title of aider- 
DMQ at-lKwe. TIm piudM aooonUogiy fell k wi A Urn 
«fnn of fan pfot^^ wd bcggiod sM to wBfa-to oar adlli»- 
' iWi'tiw doU b«]r, and inform him tiM dw poor j0«|^Mho 
iliir held the i^ce could no longer bo reooga im id. .iJnil 
happened to know that this waa an afiair in which the 
padia, with all his powers of life and death, could not 
interfere, I took the liberty of stating respectfully to hu 
highness, that I was surprised to learn that a Jew could not 
hold an office in Turkey ; that in our own country, whidi 
was Christian, we made no distiaction in these matters, and 
that even a Turk, with us, was capable of holding an office^ 
and was almost eligible to be made our Padir shah, or prest- 
dent. I however promised to write to our elchi bey cm 
the subject, and hinted, as if incidentally, that I would ro- 
oommend him to confer with the drogoman of the Porte. 
i thought the pacha flinched a little at this suj^festion, and 
the doctor afterward aeemed rather desirous that I shonld 
Dot trouble the ambassador, as the pacha would arrange it 
in hia own way. 



aKBTcma of tvkket. -407 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

Departure from the Dardanelles — Tenedos — Cape Baba — Mytilene — TuA- 
iah t6te-&-t£te — Lesbian Wine — Old Phocea — Escape Shipwreck — ArriTal 
at Smyrna. 

The calms, alternating with contrary winds, promised 
to detain us so long at the Dardanelles, that Mr. G. and 
myself determined to charter an open boat and coast along 
the shores to Smyrna. The season, it is true, was far 
advanced, the coast was unknown, and our boatmen might 
prove to be inexpert sailors, but the novelty of the attempt 
blinded us to all the inconveniences and possible dangers of 
the voyage. 

We accordingly engaged a small craft, about thirty feet 
in length, known under the local name of Beeardeb, 
and commanded by a grave, gray-bearded Turk, who 
rejoiced in the name of Ali. Six stout followers of the 
prophet formed the crew, and they were to row us, if neces- 
sary, 250 or 300 miles for the enormous sum of •20« It 
was a queer-rigged craft, and albeit no seaman, I felt some 
misgivings when I observed that there were no less than 
five different ways of taking in the mainsail. I could not 
but imagine that in the event of a sudden squall, each of 
the crew might have his own way of taking in the sail, in 
which case we should have the agreeable alternative of 
capsizing, or losing our sail altogether. We were, how- 
ever, fairly engaged for the voyage, and accordingly put 
our baggage on board, expecting to sail immediately. The 
Turkish ahneedeh (immediately), however, means no defi- 
nite period of time, and we thought ourselves lucky, after 
waiting six hours, to get off by four o'clock in the afternoon. 



V 



468 flKBTCHES OF TUXXBT* 

It was a dead calm, but the current and the united effortB 
of our rowers carried us rapidly down the Hellespont. 
At dusk we were between the lower castles, and the shades 
of night soon closed upon the scene. We rigged up an 
old sail, and lighting our lamp, contrived to pass the time 
in discussing some excellent corned beef and the question of 
who wrote the Iliad. My companion argued that one man 
alone could not have written the Iliad, to say nothing of 
the Odyssey, for the plain reason that there were then no 
writing materials, and 30,000 lines would have been rather 
a stretch for the memory ; that general consent of the 
learned proved too much, for there were a great nomber 
of other poems attributed to Homer, which contained direct 
contradictions to the Iliad. I hinted that I was rather dia* 
posed to adopt the opinion of the celebrated English critic 
Barnes, that King Solomon wrote the Iliad ; but when 
called upon for my reasons could only allege his welUknown 
acquaintance with things in general, and the leisure which 
he undoubtedly had for such a large work. We certainly 
did not handle the subject with the gravity which it re* 
quired, and if Coleridge had listened to our discourse he 
would have surely charged us with blasphemy.* We were 
engaged in weighing the probabilities of its being the joint- 
stock affair of the Homeridae or Rhapsodists, like the 
poems of Ossian, and after\vard arranged by Pisistratus, 
the prototype of the Scotch Macpherson, when either from 

* Listen to the nonsense which this distinguished poet snflers hinself to 
pablish to the yoath of England. ^* We should approach it (Iliad) with 
something like the reverence >^hich we ^^ield to the Hebrew Genesis. We 
believe that the Iliad, like the Bible, is collateral with all time, is now, and 
will be for ever." — Introd. to Stttdy of Classic PoetM, 

How critics will differ. Baltius himself, no mean judge, declares thai tks 
Battle of the Frogs and Mice is a more noble and perfect poem than thm 
Iliad or Odyssey. ** Batrachomyomachia mihi videtur nobilior proprior qua 
perfectioni quam Odyssea et Ilias, imo utraraque superat judicio ac inganit 
et prestantia texturs cum sit poema ludicrum excellens P* 

We can only add, Uter horum insanior ? 



8XXTCHE8 OF TURKET. 46§ 

fiitigue or the drowsy nature of the subjecty sleep overtook 
us in the midst of the discussion. 

The cessation of the oarsmen and the splash of the 
anchor in the water, aroused us from our slumbers. We 
found ourselves at midnight snugly within the little harbour 
of Tenedos, surrounded by numerous fishing-boats, and 
under the white walls of the castle, having accomplished 
the distance of thirty miles in eight hours. Long before 
daylight we were all stirring in our little tiark, and we 
sallied forth on a tour of discovery through the town. 
Although it was yet dark, we could discover by the lights 
moving about in every house, that the Turks were already 
stirring ; indeed I know of no nation who are habitually 
such early risers. After groping our way through narrow 
lanes, and stumbling over sleeping dogs at ahnost every 
step, we entered the chief square of the place. Directing 
our steps towards a coffee-house, we entered in order to 
enjoy a few cups of the e:(hilarating beverage. We found 
it filled with Turkish fishermen and boatmen, many of 
whom had apparently passed the night there asleep on the 
floor, for they had not yet stirred from their slumbers. I 
noticed that as they awoke they stepped outside to a neigh- 
bouring fountain, washed themselves, returned to the coflfee- 
house, and went through their silent prayers before they 
ventured to break their fast. After partaking of cofiee 
and a pipe we returned to our boat, set sail, and finished 
our breakfast in a more substantial manner. 

A pleasant breeze wafted us along the shores of the 
Troad, once the resort of petty bucaniers, but now lined 
with peaceful merchant-vessels waiting for cargoes of valo- 
nia. At eleven we passed a pretty village lying some 
distance inland, which Captain Ali designated as Chesider- 
meh. Our crew commenced singing monotonous love 
songs, far less endurable than the noisy chants which I have 
heard on the St Lawrence. 

At two we passed Cape Baba, a well known land-mark 




IndMsAv. ItboompoMdofp 
mtiiig OQ itntm dipfKtig to tfaa eaiL Ths vflhgib yrhkh 
bout! of two Dumrati, ii bgUt cf ■toiM, lod lias od Am 
deelin^ of a hill. TV fort b Tary kigs, moiBitiiig ofip^^ 
Tudy^Mztjr gam; and, being paribodyirintBk it fcweoti > 
pratty appeannee when riewed froBa ifas water. At Aebr 
nobwlaf meal we had an oppottnni^ of witDeatng Ihe 
general temperance of our TtnUrii crew. A few pieea* 
of charcoal were lifted on thf nnd in the bottom at tlw' 
boat; a handful of cofiee waa liMMed in a ladle, pot into K 
■nail handmill, ground, and abeot a pint of boiling wwtK 
poured npon i^ Thii, with a very nnall piece of ooaiw 
bread, fimned a meal for mx atont hard-working men. H 
certainly fbnned a Btrong C(»tr&st with a meal whkA waa 
despatched at the same time by their Christian paBsengers, 
We need hardly descend lo particalare, but it may be 
hinted that divers turkeys, hams, and eggs, with a stock of 
excdient wine, disappeared in a marvellous manner during 
our periplus of the Grecian isles. 

With a fresh and bvourable breeze we entered the oban- 
nel between the main and the island of Mytilene, On a 
low eminence, overshadowed by the lofty peaks of the 
island of Mytilene, we noticed a fortified castle, with a 
little village appended to it called MoluvalL We now 
stood close in to the island, and as vn ^ided along its 
shores with a bright moon over our head, the lights of the 
fishermen appearing at intervals along the beach, and the 
frowning mountains of the island in the back-ground, we 
gave ourselves up to the inspiration of the place and scene. 
Our musings were interrupted by old Ali, wtio summoned 
us to a council of war. He had been advised at Tenedos, 
he said, to keepa bright look-out at a certain cape of Mytilene 
which we were now approaching, as many Greek pirates 
were said to be in that neighbourhood. We aceordu^y 
produced our fowling-pieces, swords,and pistols, and eliaiid 
dap for action. It was a debated pmnt in our C(NI^ 



•KETCHEI OF TUBKST. 471 

whether we should immediately commence firing away in 
the modem Greek and Portuguese fashion, in order to scare 
the enemy before he appeared ; or whether w^ should wait 
quietly for his approach, and let him know when he got 
alongside that he had caught a tartar. Our discreet com- 
mander advised the latter course to be adopted, and we 
accordingly waited with arms in hand, and in the language 
6f modem bulletins, " panting for the combat.*' 

No enemy, however, appeared to test our valour, and 
we certainly were under obligations for their civility and 
forbearance, which even now I deem it proper to put on 
record. We arrived at Mytilene safely at four o'clock in 
the morning. 

Our early arrival, while it was still dark, of course will 
spare the reader a highly finished picture of the beautiM of 
the town and harbour. We rowed into the port between 
two square black looking towers, which a wavering flicker- 
ing light on the summits seemed to indicate were intended 
for light-houses. As we touched the wharf an ofi^cer made 
his appearance, who inquired, where we were from, whither 
bound, and if we had any Turkish passengers. As soon as 
he was satisfied with our replies, apparently not consider- 
ing foreigners as worthy of any notice by his superiors, he 
turned upon his heel, and left us at perfect liberty to carry 
the town by storm if we pleased, or to undertake the less 
arduous task of making an entrance into a coffee-house. 
We preferred the latter, and took possession of one already 
filled with smoke, and some scores of Turks sleeping ia 
every possible variety of attitude. 

The lively coffee-house keeper, a Greek, was, however, 
wide awake, and we were quickly served with his refresh- 
ing beverage ; and tucking our heels under us, we were 
speedily contributing to the clouds of smoke which almost 
obscured the ceiling of the room. Our captain (Ali) and 
his first lieutenant (Buyuk Sadi, or, as we translated it, 
Big Ben), here met some old acquaintances, and we were 




not a liAe dirated by te complete ■tacam wtkfc As 
interview between loog^eTered friendi erhihitwii. "Bm 
mntnil nlolationi bf Saba ky aUakf Kay p k n a n ^■9^ ^c 
were non exchai^^ and pndbund nlenoe eMoed, mit^ 
mpled only by the •tontoroiu nppiiig of oofte end An 
gargling bubUe trf" the water to the crystal nai^sby. 
After a haltboui'a pauae, Onnan wd, inqniriiigly, ** VoB 
are frodi the town of Pottery, AliT* ^^iiort gnad wm d 
tbat Ali dmgned to utter; butit wai^ofoonrse, noderatood 
by the qneiitt A patue of letter duration enaoed, whas 
Alt baean,^-^ Coffee ie very dear ; what ii the raaaoo ike 
Cti«Dt|ii doat brii« of more V " luhallaV (plaaae God). 
"we BbAll have more in good time," reepcmded iut firiead; 
and helel thought the conTcnation waa fidly at an end; 
butaiftflr tome time Ali inquired, — ^" lithe loaf u large and 
as white as ever in your island t" "Muahallah" (Godii 
great), replied Osman, " we don't complain." Tfaii ia poB- 
tively thp entire substance, word for word, of an interview 
vrtiicfa' l^^ted for nearly two hours. Two Frenchmen 
would have out-talked, two Englishmen would have out- 
bragged, or two Yankees outwitted each other in lesa than 
half that tinne. 

With the first glimpse of dawn we lefl the coSee-bouie 
to take a hasty glance of Mytilene, once the scene of some 
of tjie labours of the first and greatest apostle of Christianity. 
The streets partake of the usual narrow character found in 
all the cities of the Levant. They were, however, per- 
fecdy clean ; and the hoases, being built of stone, appeared 
to us, who had been accustomed to the wooden itnictuies 
of Constantinople, to be of a superior order. Our rambles 
were directed towards a hill which overhung the town, and 
which is crowned with a battery, apparently of great ex- 
tent From this eminence we could ascertain that the 
town of My tilene is built on a peninsub. and has in fact two 
harbours, — one on the north, which is comparatively de- 
■erted, and one on de south, which contains nearly aD the 



SKETCHES OF TURKET. 473 

rfiipping. It was by this latter that we enflred. The 
castle, near which we stood, was one of the innumerable 
works which those enterprising fellows, in days of yore, 
the Genoese, contrived to plant in so many places in 
the Mediterranean. In the harbour we noticed a pretty 
little ten-gun brig, just launched, and a fifty-four-gun frigatet 
nearly completed, on the stocks. The arsenal, or navy- 
^ard, appeared to be very extensive. 

The town of Mytilenc contains about a thousand houses; 
and to judge by the people, more than a quarter consists of 
Turks, the renfliinder being Greeks. The island is about 
forty miles by twenty in breadth, and contains fifty villages 
of various sizes. Its popukitioD is estimated at 20,000, of 
which more than 15,000 are Greeks. It contiiins several 
conomodious ports; one of which, Port Oliver, is remark- 
able for its size, and as affording an excellent anchorage for 
vessels of the largest size, from ii\[ wlLds. .- 

At nine o^clock we returtied to our little ^pritft, and while 
our crew were making preparations for dbpurture, my 
attention was called to a scene which, I urtrtof4, is-not un- 
usual in Greece. A fishing-boat had just ^irfivedvtand was 
lying about ten feet from the wharf, which was crowded 
with people. Handkerchiefs, baskets, and 6lhet missiles 
were flying to and fro between tlie wharf aod boat ; and 
upon inquiry, I was informed that this was (he usvial oiao- 
ner in which fi^h or other commodities ar« Gilded aii!iong 
the Greeks. The money was tied up in a handK^|i;hief and 
thrown on board ; the vtilue in fish, was returned ia the 
same way ; and the cautious distance between the boat and 
wharf was preserved in ord^ to prevent them from coming 
on board to steal ; and this, too, in ancient Lesbo^the birth- 
place of AJceus and Terpander, one of . r • 

■ ■ 

« The isles of Greece,' the isles of Greece, ' 
Where burning Smpho loved and sung.** 

Mytilene is, of course, under the special control of the 

p p p 



474 IXSTCHES OF TURKET. 

captain pacha ; and although it does not raise more thaa 
six months' grain, yet its wine and oil are produced in great 
quantities; and furnishing vessels for the imperial navy, 
it is of no small value to the government It may be 
necessary to explain the phrase used above, in reference to 
the quantity of grain produced. An island wjt^ch can only 
raise enough com for the supply of six months in the year 
is s^id to have six months' grain, and so of various other' 
periods. The wine of this island, which we tasted first as 
a matter of duty, in order to make a faithful report, we 
afterward drank with much goQt as a t^timony to its 
merits. It is dark coloured, with a rough sweetish taste, 
not unlike the noble Spanish paxarete. We recommend 
future travellers to repleflish their canteens with Lesbian 
wine from the *' innocentes pocale LesbiL" 
# From the specimens which we picked up in our ran>bles 
in the environs of- the toyvTi, My t'dene standi upon a calca- 
reous rock which is disposed in horizontal layers. 

As we rpwed slowly out of the harbour, we had leisure 
to admire the si^^ular beauty of the town, with the neat 
stone houses, ^which surround it ; .and on the side of 
the mountain a majestic aqueduct, attributed, upon good 
authority, to 4he Genoese. To the south of the town is an 
extensive plain and slope, covered by extensive groves of 
the olivq-tfee, which constitute the great and peculiar 
wealth of the' island. I never could admire the olLve-tree 
when stajdding by itself, with its gnarled^-and knotted trunk 
and sallow sickly-looking leaves ; but in a grove the efiect is 
different, or perhaps it was rendered more striking by the 
general barrenness of the country arouiul. Certain it is 
that I ha^rarely seen a more striking landscape ; and the 
ajipearancaof numerous white neat farm-houses, peerii^out 
from among the dark foliage, lent new charms to the scene. 

Aided by a favourable breeze, we scudded merrily along, 
with Scio.and Ipsara in sight, and by four^in the afternoon 
entered the Gulf of Smyrna ; passed by, oa our left, a little 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 475 



scattering village of square-built stone houses, looking, for 
all the worldy like a group of castles in the Highlands of 
Scotland. Our captain called it Balilzoom^ and described 
it as celebrated for its fine-flavoured long grapes, which 
indeed its name would seem -to indicate. 

The summits of the hills had the appearance, at a dis- 
tance, ^f being crowded with gigantic edifices ; but as we 
drew nearer, we were enabled by the aid of our glasses to 
ascertain that they were scattered masses of basaltic or 
porphyritic columns, cropping out, as the geologists express 
it» above the surface. The cliffs along the shore were low 
and variegated with many colours, and are probably 
composed of calcareous earths. Up rose the yellow moon, 
as we glided past old Phocea, one of the* twelve cities of 
ancient Ionia, whose aflecting story was told by Herodotuik 
2500 years ago. It resembles, in its fate, the modem 
Parga ; but unlike that ill-fated district, 4t iuid not to accuse 
the perfidy of civilized Christians, calling themselves states- 
men, to accelerate its downfall. When holiy pressed by 
Cyrus» they chose, rather than remain slaves) to quit their 
homes ; and embarking all their families, wandered about 
the Mediterranean, and formed various settlements ; many 
of which, as Marseilles, are now flourishing* cities ; while 
the former abode of wealth, industry, and inteffigence is 
now a dreary desolate spot, marked only by ruinous de- 
serted houses and mouldering walls. 

The breeze freafaened, and old Ali wanted to stop for the 
night, but as the weather was clear, and our boat drew but 
Uttle water, we preferred keeping on to our destination, 
A Turk generally will have his way, but as we were 
peremptory, our old captain, rather than be bothered with 
an open quarrel, continued on his course. At eleven at 
night we ran plump upon a sand-spit which stretches far 
out across the bay, and as the wind blew rather fresh we 
stood some chanoe of being swamped. A scene of con- 
fusion ensued, which, in spite of our danger, was truly 



476 BKETCHE8 OF TCRKSY. 

laughable. Poles and oars were put in requisition, but, 
as every one pushed in the direction he pleased, we had a 
pleasing illustration of the doctrine of oppository forces, 
and the boat of course remained in the same spot. Matters , 
were, however, getting too serious to remain long in this 
situation. Wc struck a light, unfolded a chart of the bay, 
and from the bearings of the Brothers, a conspicuous land- 
mark, we were enabled, by a small compass, to ascertain 
our actual position. This we explained to old All, who^ 
ever since we grounded had kept hold of the tiller, and to 
all our questions gave only sulky replies. The truth was, 
he knew no more than the man in the moon where he wa^ 
and endeavoured to conceal his ignorance Tinder a torrent 
of surly Inshallahs and Mashallahs. This was not* to he 
borne, the men were willincj to be directed bv us if we 
would only give the word, and I accordingly stepped for- 
ward, and seizing an oar myself, directed the crew to push 
in the same manner. While we thus got fairly afloat, 
my companion stepped aft, and tumbling old All head over 
heels from the helm, coolly took his place. I expected 
to witness some outrageous exhibition of passion on the 
part of our old commander, but was agreeably disap- 
pointed when I saw him squat down in the bottom of the 
boat, and composedly commence lighting his pipe. He 
was no doubt meditaliiig upon the impudence of his Yankee 
passengers. 

By keeping a bright look-out we were enabled to con- 
tinue our course. At one o'clock we passed the castle, a 
low insignificant work mounting 15 or 20 guns, apparently 
more for show than use ; and at three in the morning 
we made fast to the custom-house wharf of Smyrna, some, 
what fatigued, but, on the whole, much gratified with our 
little voyage. 



aXBTcnsB or tdsxst. 477 



CHAPTER L. 

Oarnival-i-Concert — Modern Greek lianguage — Cassino Balls — ^Walttin|^ 
Private Theatricals — Mr. Arundel's Collection — Mr. Borel the Antiqiw- 
rtan — Counterfeit Coins — Ride to the Khammans — Public Slaughter- 
house — Hot Springs — Explanation of certain Phenomena connected 
with these Springs — Turkish Politeness — Region about the Springs. 

The carnival' at Smyrna is a season of gayety in which 
all sects appear to unite with equal animation. Concerts^ 
balls, and private theatricals, succeed each other with 
titunning rapidity ; and the French hospitality, and warm- 
hearted attentions of the Smyrniots, render it impossible, 
even if one's wishes were adverse, to avoid participating in* 
the festivities and amusements of tl^e season. The »mi rev 
uffHi or happy new-year, is heard from every lip, and the 
gayly-dressed crowds are hurrying through their rounds 
of visits, or hastening to gome scene of amueement, and 
even the taciturn Turk seems to catch a portion of the 
general animation. • 

A concert, partly professional and partly got up by ama- 
teurs, was numerously attended this evening by the fashion 
of Smyrna. The concert was held in a large magazine, 
which has-been neatly fitted up for the exhibition of private 
theatricals during the winter season. It is capable of con- 
taining 300 persons, and over the stage is inscribed in large 
characters the deprecating motto, ^ Si desunt vires, tamen 
est laudanda voluntas.'' The music was well selected, and 
my ears wei^ greeted with strains which had formerly 
delighted them on the banks of the Hudson, the Elbe, the 
Seine, and Tagus. Of the execution it may be said that 
H was respectable, and the. audience particularly indulgent. 
As a local peculiarity I noticed that the front seats were 



47ft SKBTCHES OF TURKXT. 

secured for the gen'i loci, the consuls of the place and their 
respective families, and to them alone were distributed pro- 
grammes of the entertaintment. To judge from this assem* 
bly, I should certainly award the palm of beauty to the 
ladies of Smyrna. There were several English and 
American ladies present, but they had so entirely adopted 
the manner, costume, and even language of the country, 
that it was almost impossible to distinguish them from their 
fair Smymiot neighbours. I recollect holding a long and 
animated conversation with a young lady, who appeared to 
speak several languages with equal fluency with the excep- 
tion of English, of which she candidly avowed herself to 
be ignorant, although she was the daughter of English 
parents. It sounds odd to an American to be fonnaUy 
introduced to a Mrs. Johnson, or Thomson, or Davist or to 
a Miss Smith, or Black, or Wilson, and to find that they 
cannot speak a word of English. Greek is the language 
used in most &milies» and is the first language a child 
learns. It does not fall agreeably upon a foreign ear, owinm 
to the very high pitch of ordinary conversation. When read 
with emphasis and due discretion by an educated lady, or 
as I have heard it spoken by the lovely Heleuitza F.; it is 
full of sweet and musical sounds, and hardly to be sur- 
passed by that softest of all' JBuropean languages the Grer- 
man. ^ It certainly is more euphonous than colloquial 
Italian. The performance closed at the goodly hour of ten, 
and as carriages are unknown here, the company picked 
their way home through the dark and dismal streets, pre* 
ceded by servants bqaring lanterns. 

The cassino balls, to which I was invited during my 
residence here, were well got up and brilliantly attended 
There was much variety in the dancing, but the graceful 
waltz was the Reserved favourite : indeed,, it was amusing 
to notice that when they commenced with an old-fashioned 
English country dance, or a quadrille, in the course of a 
few minutes erery one was waltzing away independently 



flKXTCHES OF TURKXlT. 479 

with their partners. I regretted to observe that the card* 
rooms were crowded with gentlemen, who, if they did not 
actually gamble, played much higher than gentlemen should 
permit themselves to do. Indeed, this vice prevails unfor- 
tunately to too great an extent among the European resi- 
dents at Smyrna. 

We had the honour of an invitation to private theatricals 
at the house of the French consul. The performances were 
Marriage de Raison et Partie Revanche; and the best 
praise I can award them is, that they did it almost as well 
as professional actors. The fair hostess (a daughter of the 
celebrated Didot) attracted merited applause ; and his ex- 
cellency the consul himself enacted the part of a pere noble 
with much talent Sunday evenings are considered in 
Smyrna as most appropriate for these and similar enter- 
tainments. 

The state of the weather and other causes have pre- 
vented me from putting in execution fny intention of visit- 
ing Ephesus and Magnesia. This I the more regret, as I 
was to have been accompanied in the excursion by Mr. 
Brewer and Mr. Arundel* The lattergentleman had already 
made the tour of the seven churches, and was desirous of 
verifying some statements which have been published since 
the appearance of his ** history." He has a small but ex- 
ceedingly valuable collection of antiques, collected by him- 
self in this country, which may almost be considered as the' 
birthplace of Christianity. In his collection, which he 
politely permitted me to examine, I remarked a bronze 
candlestick, of very ancient workmanship, with seven 
branches, which, it will be recollected, is selected by the 
divine as typical of the seven churches of Asia. Another 
scriptural antiquity interested me exceedingly. It Is a plain 
box, neatly turned out of plaster of Paris, or alabaster, and 
about the size^of a shaving-box, with a cover of the same 
materiaL It was dug out of some ruins in Epbesus, if I 
remember aright, and when first in the possession of Mr. 



480 SKETCHES OF TUEKST* 

Arundel, gave out an agreeable perfume. Is not ana 
forcibly reminded of " the alabaster box of precious oint- 
ment" which Mary used to anoint the feet of our Saviour. 
The collection of minerals belonging to Mr. Arundel is also 
extensively interesting, and characteristic of the region in 
wliich they have been collected. 

The stranger in Smyrna will derive much information 
and pleasure from an acquaintance with Mr. Borel, who is 
well known to all the archaeologists of Europe. He has 
the reputation of being profoundly versed in numismatics, 
and his library relating to this subject is perhaps more 
extensive and complete than any similar private collection 
in the world. He has recently disposed of one of his col- 
lections for 830,000, and prosecutes his investigations 
with untiring zeal. I v^as indebted to Mr/ B. for several 
hints on the means of detecting a genuine antique from a 
counterfeit, but the fear of being imposed gpon has 
hitherto prevented n>^ from nwiking any collection- beyond 
Turkish aspers, paras, and piasters. The name of an il^- 
viduaUwas mentioned who had obtained at Constantinople 
large sums of fnoney by selling imitations of the rarest and 
most valuable coins to travellers. He was detected, and 
obliged to quit the country. Mr. B. has invented a 
machine, whh which he is enabled to copy the impression 
of a coin or medal, and transfer it with the greatesi possible 
exactness to paper. 

One of the many pleasant rides about Smyrna led me 
along the shores of the bay towards Vourla. Accompanied 
by Mr. Brewer I passed out of the city by the custom- 
house and the Tunisian consulate, which is distinguished 
by its large red flag with the sword in the centre. This, 
in contra-distinction to the other consulates, is always kept 
unfurled to the breeze. After passing the barracks, the 
road lies near the seaside, and forms a delightipl promenade, 
which might at a small expense be converted into an excel* 



0KBTCHE8 OP TURKEY. 481 

lent carriage-road. Some three or four years since, the 
European merchants attempted to make a good road, and 
the then pacha entered warmly into their views, making a 
part of the road at his own expense. Indeed, had the entire 
matter been left to him, this Turk would have completed it 
in a workmanlike and durable manner ; but collisions ensued 
between the various European projectors as to how it 
should be done, and the road remains unfinished. 

The rocks project out from the mountain, and crossing 
the road to the water's edge, often form excellent sub- 
jects for the pencil of the landscape-painter. At one 
place, in particular, about two miles from the city, the 
mountain projects forward into the sea, and the rocks 
present several bold and picturesque forms. Here, upon 
turning about, we were presented with a novel view in the 
direction of Smyrna. The lower part of the city only was 
visible, the rest being concealed by the shoulder of the hill, 
which is paved with Jewish and Armenian graves. The 
venerable castle of the old Greek empire, and the Turkish 
cemetery with its invariable accompaniment of -dark 
cypresses were full in view, while across the harboiur were 
the towering mountains which extend across the country 
in the direction of Magnesia. The rock near the city is 
porphyritic ; at first of a reddish hue, shortly after becom- 
ing a conglomerate porphyry^ — ^by which I would mean to 
designate, a porphyritic rock containing rounded and irregu- 
lar masses of porphyry, frequently of a different colour, 
and often approaching in lustre to the variety termed 
pitchstone porphyry. We passed several substantial stone 
bridges over mountain-torrents which cross the road, and 
the fields on our left were apparently under excellent 
cultivation. 

Not far from this point on the right is an abattoir, or 
large public building, where all the animals destined for the 
market at Smyrna are slaughtered. This is a useful estab- 
lishment, as it removes at once all the dirt, filth, and 

QQQ 



482 8KXTCHES OF TVBKXY. 

stench connected with these operations, and aids materially 
towards the health and cleanliness of the city. It is on the 
water's edge, and all the offals are carried off by the water 
of the bay. Much of the meat is transported to the city 
in boats, although a considerable quantity is also carried by 
knd. I hardly remember to have seen a more ludicrous 
figure than was presented by one of these slaughter-bouse 
porters. The skinned carcass is borne on the shoulders^ 
while the head of the porter is thrust into the inside of the 
animal, and nothing appears to show that a man's head is 
snugly ensconced within, but the projection of a long pipe, 
and the occasional eruption of tobacco-smoke from the 
very bowels of the animal. 

The former governor, or meridgee, deserves great 
credit for various other public-spirited improvements 
which he was instrumental in introducing. It is to be 
regretted that a measure which has been found bene- 
ficial by the unenlightened Turks should not have more 
advocates in civilized America. Our own favoured city 
wouM find, by adopting a similar plan, the value of property 
much enhanced in certain districts which are now neg- 
kcted, in consequence of their proximity to those disgusting 
nuisances — private slaughter-houses. 

We shortly after entered an extensive plain, covered with 
olive-trees, and the open spaces were covered witli large 
flocks of goats, which furnish all the milk to the city. On 
the road we had occasion to confirm our previous impres- 
sions respecting the almost constitutional politeness of the 
Turks. A single word addressed to them in their own 
language was suflScient to call forth a volume of gratulatory 
phrases in return. This was frequently accompanied by 
the offer of a pipe, and, if near a coffee-house, by a polite 
invitation to partake with them of a cup of coffee. 

At the foot of the hills which form the northern extremity 
of the Tmolus, and which is marked on the ancient charts 
as Mons Corax, we reached the hammam, or hot-bath^ 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 483 

which is the great natural curiosity of this vicinity. It is 
perhaps not generally known that the Turkish word kham- 
mam, or hot-spring« has furnished a name for one of the 
most conspicuous taverns of London. It would not be dif- 
ficult to trace under the name of the Hummum Hotel the 
origin of the first hot-bath h la Turque introduced into 
England. 

These springs rise in the bed of a mountain-stream, and 
their localities are indicated by the vapour which hangs over 
the surface. Their temperature varies from 100° to ISO** 
of Fahrenheit ; and I was surprised to see fishes swimming 
about with perfect unconcern, and molluscous animals 
(Melanopoides), in water so hot that I could barely keep my 
hands in it a few seconds at a time. Upon reaching my 
hand to the bottom, where the fishes had been disporting so 
freely, I discovered that the water there was scarcely above 
the ordinary temperature, owing to its admixture with the 
cool current of the mountain-stream. 

The jet of hot water issues from the side, or near the 
bottom of the little excavation, and immediately rises to the 
surface, in consequence of its elevated temperature ; the 
cool water of the stream falls to the bottom, from its supe- 
rior gravity ; and hence, as I was enabled to prove by 
direct experiment, there were successive layers, or streams, 
of water of various degrees of temperature. In this way 
we may undoubtedly explain many otherwise marvellous 
accounts of travellers, who describe animals inhabiting a 
medium in which, according to the laws regulating organic 
life, it would be utterly impossible for them to exist 

But even with this explanation, it must require consider- 
able experience, and no small degree of adroitness, on the 
part of the fishes, to keep themselves out of hot water ; for 
the least inadvertence would inevitably expose them to the 
hazard of being parboiled. 

This entire region has been from the remotest period the 
seat of earthquakes, and these hot-springs indicate traces 



484 SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 

of the sources of old volcanoes. The rocks, as one v^ovld 
be led to expect, change their character. The distinct por- 
phyritic rock and the porphyritic conglomerate no longer 
appear ; but in their place we have a homogeneous fissile 
rock variously contorted, but more generally assuming 
a vertical direction. In some places we noticed its pas- 
sage into soft clay-slate, with intervening layers of a 
soft argillaceous earth, similar to the lithomarga of the Isle 
of Arran. We penetrated with some difficulty through the 
bushes and in the channel of the stream, but the declining 
sun warned us to hasten our departure. The western side 
of this ravine is formed by bold overhanging limestone 
bluffs ; and in the face of the rock, 150 feet at least above 
our heads, we remarked the entrance to caves, which may 
one day reward the researches of the enterprising geologist. 
These springs are apparently due west firom the castle 
on the bay, and about four miles distant The waters 
are slightly impregnated with sulphur, and crowds resort 
here at all seasons to obtain relief from disease. They have 
been found particularly useful in scrofulous and cutaneous 
affections, and in chronic rheumatism. To the humanity 
of some individual the public are indebted for a large 
substantial stone building, which is erected over the main 
spring ; and we were apprized before we reached the spot, 
by the merry shouts and screams within, that a party of 
women had taken possession. One or two little girls, 
partly naked, ran out to warn us to remove ; but, as we had 
no felonious intentions, we tied our horses under the shed, 
and commenced our dinner. The women and children 
came out shortly afterward, and, upon a very slight invita- 
tion, partook of our frugal repast They behaved very 
well, and took their leave with many thanks for our slight 
civilities. It is said that a temple and some mosaic pave- 
ment have been discovered here, corresponding with the site 
of one dedicated to Esculapius, as described by Pausaniaa. 
We could find no traces of either. The various pieces of 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. 465 

pottery, fragments of buildings, and the remains of an aque- 
duct along the western edge of the ravine, extending some 
distance up the stream, would seem to indicate that this 
place has been once a famous spot ; but of all that once 
may have existed here, nothing remains but the eternal and 
unchanging face of nature. 



CHAPTER LI. 

Newt from Syria — Revolt of Mehemet Ali — ^Hii History — CiTilizatioii— 
Causes of his Revolt — His Sons, Toussoum, Ismael, and Ibrahim — ^Death 
of Ismael — Notice of Mr. English — Character of the principal Officers of 
Ibrahim. 

It is not often, unless by plague, pestilence, or earth- 
quake, that the various nations composing the community 
of Smyrna are aflfected in common ; and yet the news 
which has reached us to-day has created quite a buzz 
among all classes. It is confidently stated that Mehemet 
Ali with his son Ibrahim has taken Gaza and Joppa, and 
has commenced the siege of Acre. 

As the revolt of this daring pacha will in all probability 
have a great effect upon the future destinies of Turkey, it 
may be well to devote a few pages to his history. Mehemet 
Ali is now sixty-three years old; he was bom at Cavale, 
near Salonika, and was originally a trader in tobacco. He 
was sent at an early age into Egypt, where his bravery, 
skill, and prudence soon ensured him distinction and a rapid 
rise in his profession, and in 1805 he was appointed Pacha 
of Egypt. The English cabinet, who were not particulariy 
pleased to see a man of his stamp at the head of affairs, 
solicited and obtained from the sultan an order for his recall. 
He put off obeying this order under various pretexts, until 



486 SKETCHES OF TUBKET. 

the sultan, having occasion for his services in that quarter, 
permitted him to remain, or possibly found it impracticable 
to enforce obedience. Since that period, Mehemet Ali has 
steadily moved on in his career ; quelling domestic insur« 
rections, and extending the boundaries of his empire. Dur- 
ing the war in the Morea, Mehemet afforded valuable aid to 
his nominal master; but when, in 1828, the sultan sent a 
pacha to replace the ports of Alexandria and Damietta 
under the immediate dependence of the Porte, and to bring 
back to Constantinople the Turkish vessels which had 
escaped the iniquitous Navarino affair, together with a cer- 
tain number of Egyptian men of war, the pacha refused to 
obey. One would have thought that conduct like this would 
have opened the eyes of the sultan to the ulterior designs 
of this powerful subject, who is designated as Padir shah ; 
but whether from fear, or the treachery of the divan, or the 
force of circumstances (at this time the Russians were 
threatening the capital), or from that procrastinating policy 
which will sooner or later crumble the Ottoman empire to 
dust, no notice was taken of this rebellious conduct. He 
has been repeatedly warned by the sultan, since he com- 
menced his warlike operations, to desist ; but he paid about 
the same attention to his mandates that the English and 
French formerly did to the proclamations of President 
Jefferson. It is the belief of a gentleman who was brought 
up in this country, that if the sultan had, upon the first 
hostile demonstration, blockaded Alexandria, he would have 
effectually quelled the ambition of his rebellious pacha. 
But no ; firmaun after firmaun was sent to Mehemet, which 
he kissed with affected reverence ; and while uttering the 
most solemn protestations of his fidelity and his willingness 
to be the humble slave of the sultan, he remitted no efforts 
to place himself on a footing of equahty with his nominal 
master. 

Mehemet is, indeed, an extraordinary man. Without a 
single advantage of birth or education (it was in his 45tb 



nCETCRBS or TUBXXT. 487 

]rear that he learned to read and write) he has raised himself 
to be the absolute monarch over millions of people, and 
controls an annual revenue of twenty-five millions of dollars. 
His flatterers compare him to his illustrious countryman, 
Macedonia's madman, but except in his military career the 
comparison is at fault In one respect, however, he far sur- 
passes the character of Alexander, such as it' has descended 
to us through the pages of history. He has strenuously 
laboured to civilize his people, and although he has nearly 
annihilated them, he has not succeeded entirely ; yet he has 
effected enough to prevent them from falling back into their 
former barbarity. He found them a nation of robbers ; of 
these he selected the best for soldiers, and compelled the 
rest to labour. The soil of Egypt repays the slightest atten- 
tion of the husbandman with the most abundant harvests, and 
to ensure their constant labour, he takes from them, in the 
form of taxes, all their surplus revenue. In this way he grinds 
them to the dust, and exercises, through his subordinates, 
the greatest cruelty and oppression ; but, like the modem 
political economist, he considers individual suffering as of no 
account when weighed against his favourite theory, that to 
be happy everybody must be at work. As a consequence of 
his oppression, Egypt is a country of paupers, and the pacha 
is the sole manufacturer, the sole merchant, and the only 
shipper in his dominions. 

To escape from his oppression thousands of his subjects 
have fled into Syria, and it is to cut them off from this 
place of refuge that Ibrahim has determined upon the pres- 
ent expedition. Some suppose that he has views upon 
the throne itself, but the better informed appear to limit his 
ambition to the possession of Syria. 

Mehemct had three sons, — Toussoun, the eldest, who is 
now dead, IsmacI, the invader of Ethiopia, who was killed 
near Sennaar, and Ibrahim, who is now forty years old. 
Ismael had caused, some chiefs at Sennaar, upon some slight 
pretext, to be bastinadoed ; they carefully cherished this 



488 sKBTCHEs OF Tuluunr. 

insult, and watched for an opportunity to be revenged* 
Such an occasion soon presented itself. Having learned 
that Ismacl was at a small village, guarded only by forty 
men, they attacked the place, killed Ismael and all his 
guards, and burned the houses to the ground. This event 
occurred in November, 1821. His father, old Mehemet, 
took a terrible revenge, and under Ahmet Bey, his troops 
destroyed and dispersed a population of 200,000 souls. 
The whole district was rendered a desert.* 

Of all his sons, Ibrahim most resembles old Mehemet 
He terminated, successfully, the war against the Wahabees, 
a sort of Mohammedan Methodists, and in the Morea dis- 
tinguished himself equally by the energy and judgment 
which he displayed against the arms of the Greeks and the 
diplomatic acts of the European cabinets. Like his father, 
too, he is distinguished for his insatiable avarice and his 
indulgence in sensual gratifications. In tracing the history 
of Ibrahim, it is pleasing to find, even upon the most bar- 
barous prince, the benign influence of public opinion. 
In his expeditions against the hordes of Wahabees, Ibrahim 

* The mention of Ismael Pacha recalls to mind the memory of a country- 
man, the late George B. English, who accompanied Tsmacl into Ethiopia as 
general of artillery. He has left behind him a relation of this expedition 
under the title of ** Narrative of an Expedition to Dongola and Sennaar.** 
I had some years ago the pleasure of an acquaintance with this gentleman, 
and still recollect with pleasure the fund of anecdote and information which 
his various wanderings in different parts of the world had furnished him 
with. He had adopted completely the Turkish immobility of feature, and 
would frequently set the table in a roar by some amusing anecdote, while 
not a single muscle of his own face would be discomposed. He was subse- 
quently employed by our government to form a treaty with Turkey, but 
failed through some unworthy jealousies on the part of his collaborators. 
While an applicant for office at Washington he died in great poverty. 

Two other Americans, one a New-Yorker, under the name of Khalil Aga, 
and the other known as Achmet Aga, were in the Egyptian army. Khalil is 
perhaps the only individual who has traversed the whole course of the Nile 
from Sennaar to Rosetta. He is still in Egypt, where, I hear, that he is 
distinguished for his courage and good conduct. Achmet died a few 
yewn ago. 



nuRCHBS or tubuet* 489 

displayed the most cold-blooded atrocity, and yet (notwith- 
standiDg the assertions of mendacious Greeks) his conduct 
in the Morea was distinguished by a minute attention to 
the rules of modern warfare, and even by traits of humanity. 

The principal officers of Mehemet are his sons-in-law 
and other relatives. His grandson, a son of Toussoum 
Pacha, is now in Syria with his uncle Ibrahim. The ad- 
miral of the fleet, Mouharem Bey, a son-in-law of Mehemet, 
is a man of no particular eminence, but he has excellent 
French and Greek officers under him, well appointed vessels^ 
and in all probability will be a match for the Ottoman fleet 

Ahmet Bey, another son-in-law, is theDeftardar of Egypt, 
and has committed atrocities which would disgrace even 
the most cruel of our Indian tribes. It is reported, that 
upon one occasion a poor woman complained that a soldier 
had drunk her milk, and refused to pay her ; he ordered 
the stomach of the soldier to be ripped open upon the spot, 
giving the woman warning, at the same time, that if the 
milk was not found she must submit to the same fate. 
Luckily for the poor woman, the milk was found in the 
stomach of the soldier, and she was dismissed, after having 
been paid for her milk. 

The minister of the interior, Scherif Bey, is also a relative 
of Mehemet. He bears an irreproachable character, and 
is governor of Upper Egypt 

Osman Bey is the major-general of the army. He re- 
sided seven years in England, France, and Italy, and upon 
his return founded Lancaster schools, and a military and 
naval college. He is active in his endeavours to introduce 
all the arts of civilized life, and is the chief favourite with 
the padir shah of Egypt. 

The minister of commerce and of the interior, Youssouf, 
is an Armenian of Smyrna, of great talents, of unwearied 
application, and immense wealth. Mehemet places great 
confidence in him, and indeed, from his position, he may be 
called the prime mimster of Egypt 

R B B 



400 nxTCHEs ov nnuEXT. 

In summing up this brief account of the situation of 
Egypt, and the men by whom it is governed, it is impossible 
to refrain from speculating upon the influence which this 
rebellion will have upon the future destinies of Turkey^ 
That it will cripple the resources of both parties there 
can be little doubt, and much blood and treasure will be 
uselessly wasted. Both will expose themselves to be a 
weakened prey to their now quiet enemies, for it scarcely 
requires a prophetic eye to see that Turkey will be an 
easier morsel to Russia, while Egypt will be overrun with 
the soldiers of England, who is anxiously desirous of 
securing Egypt, as the important key to her Indian pos* 
sessions.* 

* Since writing the abore, the progress of the rebellioas pacha has bent 
a continuous series of victories, and while these pages are passing throagb 
the press, the head-quarters of his arnoy has been established at Konieb, div* 
tent 280 miles from the capital, and the flower of the Moslem army hai 
been totally destroyed. There are two points cleared up by these events, 
upon which there has hitherto been no small difference of opinion. The aoB 
is, that the troops of Mchemet are better disciplined than those of the sultan. 
The practice of the Egyptian chief has been, not only to drill and ezercis* 
Ikis troops in the European feshion, but he has also given foreigners important 
commands in his army. Such a one is Col. Sdve, formerly an aid of Marshal 
Ney, a gallant and distinguished officer, who now serves in the Egyptian 
army under the name of Suleiman Bey. This gentleman has had much to 
contend with in reducing the troops to the perfect state of submission and 
subordination required by modem tactics. His life has not only often been 
threatened, but actually attempted, and he has been frequenUy saved merely 
by his own personal intrepidity. Upon one occasion, Planet(a) relates that » 
volley having been fired, a ball whizzed past his ear. Without the slightest 
emotion he commanded the party to reload their pieces ; ** Tou are very bad 
marksmen," he exclaimed ; " Make ready — fire.*' They fired, but no ball 
was heard ; his self-possession and steadiness not only disarmed their resent-' 
ment, but ever afterward excited their admiration. The Egyptian army 
has many officers equally brave, if not quite as distinguished as Suleiman 
Bey, and, as far as the materials go, their efforts have been steadily directed 
towards disciplining the Egyptian army. 

The Turkish troops, on the other hand, have indeed been drilled by Euro- 
pean officers^ but not one has been permitted to assums a command. Tht 

(a) HIstolis ds la SfliOMfttftoa 4s l*Kc7pt, «SMv«^ IMOi 



inancBEB or turxiy. 491 



CHAPTER LII. 

Buar—Fruit-Buriut— Figs— Ancient Phrygian Tapeitiy— Wine— Mad- 
der — Persian Berriei . 

A WALK through the bazars of Smyrna show them to be 
infinitely inferior to those of Constantinople, either in the ex- 
tent, variety, or magnificence of the articles oflered for sale. 
The fruit-market, however, is a real curiosity, and as such 
merits a particular description. The great fig season is 

conf ammate vanity of the Osmanlia would have been woanded by being 
compelled to obey a foreign officer, and they have been beaten soundly for 
their stupidity. The sultan, it is well known, was in favour of thus em- 
ploying them, but he has been overruled by his divan. The Egyptian chiei^ 
en the other hand, whose will is his law, and who has no one in all his wide 
domains to ofTer the slightest opposition to his mandates, has succeeded in 
compelling his soldiers to obey foreign officers, and thus far his superior 
discipline has rendered his arms victorious. 

Another opinion has been hazarded by recent travellers, that the reforms 
introduced by the sultan have so disgusted, not only the people, but the 
coldiery, that the latter would take the earliest opportunity to revolt, and 
ium their arms against the sultan. The recent bloody conflicts between the 
Turkish and Egyptian troops have clearly demonstrated, that although con- 
etantly beaten with great loss, yet that no instances of desertion ever took 
place among the newly disciplined troops of the sultan. 

The idea has been entertained by some, that Mehemet Ali ii\tends to push 
his armies to the capital, and, after dethroning the present sultan, to place 
bis son Abdool Hamid upon the throne. In this, it is said, he calculates 
largely upon the support of the hierarchy of Constantinople, who have 
regarded all the sultan's measures with great disgust, and having been de- 
prived of their right ann by the destruction of the Janizaries, would hafl 
with delight the approach of a usurper from almost any quarter. It is ne 
doubt true that this party are indifferent as to the progress of the Egyptian 
«hief, but his presence in Constantinople, at the head of a victorious army, 
would be the signal for their utter annihilation. 

Usref^ or Khosref Pacha, the present seraiskier of the sultan, was formeilj 
feveiBor ef Cairo, and m afttempCaiig tocorb the early •mhirint /*f Mthtimrt;, 



492 IKBTCHX8 OP TURKEY. 

now over, but the various operations connected with of de- 
pendent upon the fruit-trade, such as coopers, sorters, pack- 
ers, &c., continue the whole year round. They are now re- 
ceiving and packing raisins, which are daily unloading from 
the camels in the market-place. The raisins are trod into 
barrels by the feet, which information may furnish our tidy 
housekeepers with a hint to wash them previous to use. 
These raisins are generally of the small sorts used in pastry ; 
indeed, I do not recollect to have seen any bunch raisins in 
the market. We noticed enormous quantities of a very 
dark-coloured raisin, which is chiefly exported to the Black 
Sea. Among the many varieties, the sultana raisin was 
pointed out to us, as coming chiefly from the district of 
Karaboumou. This is a very delicate yellowish raisin, 
without seeds, and much in request for superior articles of 
confectionary. The names of Smyrna and of /figs are so 
intimately connected, that I should be inexcusable were I 
to pass over this luscious fruit in silence. Smyrna has 
long been celebrated for its figs, and at the present day 
they form one of its most valuable exports.* 



was discomfitod, and compelled to fly from Cairo. For aerera! yean it 
a doubtful struggle which should obtain the upper hand ; but the auperior 
management of the Egyptian chief preTailed, and since Chat period th«j 
have been avowed and bitter enemies. 

* In spite of the phrase <* not worth a fig,** its histoiy is full of iDterMC« 
and a clever writer could make out of it an entertaining book. Commeneliif 
from that eventful period, when 

" By Adam's fall, 
We sinned all," 

he might show to what purposes even the leaves of this interesting frnit-tre* 
were applied. He would then be able to state that dried figs formed th» 
ehief article of commerce among the earliest of the Athenians, and that thej 
were considered such an article of luxury, that the Romans were accostomeil 
to express a refined epicure by saying, Ficus edit — he eats figs. Another 
chapter would set forth that one of the motives which led to the fiunoos 
expedition of Xerxes was to possess the country which produced such an 
excellent fruit. Our author might then adveit to the third Punic war> wbkli 



SKETCHES OF TURUT. 498 

The season for the packing of figs does not last more 
than three weeks, and of course much expedition is re- 
quired in preparing them for market. It is not uncommon 
during this period to witness the daily arrival of 1500 
camels, each loaded with 5 or 600 weight of figs, and some 
of these come from a distance of 70 and even 100 miles 
from Smyrna. Many of the principal merchants have 
from 500 to 800 hands employed in preparing and packing 
them, and for this purpose men, women, and children are 
indiscriminately employed. Their wages are from two 
and a half to twelve cents per day, and they are allowed 
besides to eat as many as they please, but to carry none 
away. As soon as the fresh figs arrive, they are carefully 
assorted for the diflferent markets, the best being selected 
for the English trade. They are then washed in salt- water, 
rubbed between the hands, and after a final squeeze, which 
produces a concave and convex surface, they are handed 
over to the packer. This person arranges them in such a 
manner that the convex surface of one fig is received into 
the concave surface of another, and when the box or 
drum is filled, a few laurel leaves are spread over them. 

It was stated to me by an intelligent merchant, that the 
quantity of figs and raisins annually exported amounts to 
100,000 tons, costing, upon an average, about 860 per ton. 

alio originated in a desire to possess the African region, then producing th« 
best figs in the world. He might introduce the famous passage from Phi- 
larch, in which figs were used as an aid to the eloquence eren of Cato. It 
would also appear that the famous dclenda Carthago should be translated 
« we must have figs.** A chapter for the benefit of physicians would aliow 
Uiat Dioscorides and Galen have written concerning its medicinal qualities ; 
while another chapter would teach the chjmical world how sympathetic ink 
and caoutchouc, or India rubber, may be obtained from this remarliable firuit- 
tree. A chapter dedicated to the temperance associations would teach them 
how to obtain a delicious liquor from the fig, known to the ancients nndtr 
the name of tyeitet{n) and testimonials might be adduced from variou aathon 
to show that it did not contain the smallest quantity of alcohoL 

(a) Pliny. 



404 •XXTCHB8 OF TUBKXT. 

The whole of this sum, deducting tl^e expenie of trans- 
portation, is clear gain, for the fig-tree requires no atten- 
tion whatever, and flourishes upon a barren soil. The 
preserved fig, as prepared by housekeepers in Smyrna^ 
is a most delicious firuit, and far superior to the ordinary 
fig of commerce. Old residents assure me that the fig has 
much deteriorated of late, which they impute to the trees 
being now worn out by age. As the fig-tree is, however, 
a tree of rapid growth, and can be replaced with great 
ease, I am rather inclined to doubt this assertion, and to 
place it to the old score of laudatores temporis actL 

While upon this subject I may as well assemble here all 
the information which I was able to collect during my stay 
in relation to the trade of Smyrna, and more especially its 
trade with the United States. 

Formerly our trade with Smyrna was carried on under 
the sanction and protection of the English Levant Com- 
pany, and for this privilege we paid from 4000 to $5000 an- 
nually. It is doubted by some whether our trade has expe- 
rienced a proportionate increase with the number of Amer- 
ican vessels trading to this port of late years; for it is 
stated that the cargoes of several vessels would not 
equal in value that of a single ship some fifteen or twenty 
years ago. The duties on American imports are not yet 
determined, although it is said that our minister proposes 
to adopt the French tariff, which by the treaty he is 
allowed to do. By this tariff our products will pay three 
per cent, duty, and ten per cent, additional. 

The chief imports in American vessels to this place are 
cofiee, sugar, spices, die-stuffs, rum, and domestic cottons 
and furniture. It is curious, in looking at this list of imports, 
to perceive that a country which was once the centre of 
civilization, the seat of the arts, and distinguished above all 
others for the perfection to which its luxurious and elegant 
inhabitants carried their refinement, should now receive 
their chief luxuries from a new quarter of the globe, whidi 



•KETCHES OF TtRXBT. 406 

has not been known much more than 250 years* Even 
the far-famed Phrygian tapestry, such as it now appears 
under the name of Turkey carpets,* yield, the palm to 
specimens of American carpeting which I have seen at 
Smyrna. As the trade of coffee and sugar is chiefly in 
the hands of the Americans, we are in some degree asso- 
ciated in the minds of the Turks with those products } and 
if a Turk could be brought to envy the condition of any 
one, he would undoubtedly be disposed, in consideration of 
our having such luxuries in abundance, to prefer changing 
situations with an American above any other nation. As 
a general rule, the inferior qualities both of coffee and 
sugar find the readiest sale. The annual importation of 
coffee from America is 13,000 bags. Just now the supply 
of coffee is very small, and the price has consequently ad- 
vanced nearly threefold. With the usual judgment of 
that intelligent animal, the public, in most countries, this 
dearness of coffee is attributed to the machinations of the 
government. Our domestic cottons of the description 
termed bleached sheetings, one yard wide, command here 
a ready sale at this time of ten cents per yard. Indigo 
was formerly an article which we supplied in great quanti- 
ties, but the English have completely undersold, and driven 
us out of the market. The consumption of this article 
is almost daily increasing, for I was informed that in two 
years it has increased from 700 to 1200 boxes of 400 lbs. 
each ; the best sells here for 81 25 per \h. 

The chief articles of export are wool, opium, drugs, old 
copper, hides, soap, Persian berries, oil of roses, fruit, and 
wine. The wool is coarse in quality, and until recently has 
been rarely cleansed sufficiently to render it marketable. 
Although loaded with a heavy duty in America, it gene- 
rally pays well. It costs from twelve to seventeen cents 

* These are principally manufactured at Oush&h, or Hoahah, about 140 
■kilei weet from Smyrna. 



496 SKETCHES or TURKKT. 

• 

per lb., according to its quality, delivered on board. One 
year with another, the quantity exported to the United 
States amounts to 4000 square bales, containing each from 
3 to 600 lbs. Its present price on board is fifteen cents 
per lb. 

I can furnish no estimate of the quantity of opium ex- 
ported to the United States.* It is well known to be the 
best in the world. By a decision of the government, the 
market for opium has been removed to Constantinople, and 
consequently it will soon cease to be one of the exports of 
Smyrna. It sells here now at 83 25 the checqui, which is 
If lbs. Although the consumption of this article is as 
great with us as in any other country in the world, we 
are unable to find a market for all of it, and a great deal is 
re-exported to India. Much of this, I am informed, is 
smuggled into China, in vessels iitted out from the United 
States especially for this object. 

The wine is chicllv from the Greek islands, and vessels 
frequently go to Samos to complete their cargoes. It is 
generally a sweet, strong-flavoured wine, and I am in- 
formed is used at home in combination with cider and other 
scarce and expensive liquors, to manutacliire those vile 
articles sold in taverns and steamboats under the imposing 
names of Teneriffe, Lisbon, and Madeira. It is at present 
loaded with a duty larger than that upon French wines, 
and for the interests of humanitv it were to be wished that 
it could be altogether prohibited. Old cop^x^r, which now 
sells at sixteen cents per lb., forms another important item 
of export, and this with soap, otto of roses, medicinal gums, 
and Persian berries, nearly completes the list. The last- 
mentioned article is extensivelv used as a die, and its con- 
sumption is annually increasing in the United States. 



* Our intelligent consul at Smyrna furnishes an annual list of exports 
and imports to the department of stale ; but there it lies among other equally 
valuable reports, overlooked and forgotten. 



iXBTCHES OF TURKEY. 407 

These berries are the fruit of a species of lycium, and give 
a beautiful yellow die. There are two kinds, of which tlie 
best is raised in Asia ; the inferior quality comes from 
Roumelia, and more particularly the neighbourhood of 
Adrianople. The prices here are fourteen and twenty-five 
cents per lb., according to the quality. 

The celebrated oil or attar of roses is also extensively 
exported from Smyrna, although much of it is derived from 
Roumelia. When genuine, the real rose odour is not appa- 
rent, and it is so easy to imitate that much caution is neces- 
sary in the purchase. It is adulterated with fine olive 
and other oils, and even with spermaceti. The only test 
which can be at all depended on is, that the genuine oil 
congeals at a temperature of not far from 70^ of Fahren- 
heit. To prevent its evaporation, the bottles containing it 
are always surrounded by salt. It is worth here $1 80 the 
ounce. 

A large article of export from Smyrna is madder, the 
Rubia tinctorum of authors. This valuable die never 
reaches us directly, but is sent to England and Holland^ 
where it is ground, and probably adulterated- To grind 
this article properly requires mills of a peculiar construc- 
tion, which, I learn from a clever merchant here, will soon 
be erected in our own country. As w^e consume at 
lecond-hand a great deal of this article, the direct trade 
will be much increased when these mills are erected. 

Of the fruit we import annually from Smyrna 130,000 
drums of figs, and 200 tons of raisins. 

During the year ending December, 1831, the commerce 
of Smyrna with the United States employed 27 vessels and 
300 men, according to the books of tlie American consu- 
late. 

The total imports to Smyrna during the same year 
amounted to three and a half millions of dollars ; the total 
exports to eight millions. 

8 8H 



496 ncBTCBn or tobkbt. 



' CHAPTER LIU. 

School! — ^Annenian — Greek — English Schools — Taikiih Schoolmaster — 
Missionary Exertions — Marco Bozzaris — Greek Newspaper — Reading 
room — Cassino — Regulations — Salmagundi — Market. 

AccoMPAHiED by two American gentlemen, I visited s 
large school in the Turkish part of the town, where the 
Armenian youth are educated. It is a spacious buildings 
surrounded by an open court, and affords airy, clean, airf 
neat accommodations for two hundred scholars. The ap- 
pearance of such a building spoke loudly in favour of the 
attention paid by the Armenians to this all-important sub- 
ject, \vhile the earnest attention and aptness displayed by 
the puj)ils gave a pleasing promise of their future useful- 
ness. The school had been fitted up, as I was informed, 
under the direction of one of our American friends, and 
presented the hitherto novel sight in Turkey of regular 
seats and writing-desks. I should state, however, that 
these innovations were reserved for the more advanced 
scholars. The juvenile abecedarians we saw in the lower 
rooms still sitting cross-legged on the floor, and see- 
sawing Aeir little bodies after the most approved orthodox 
Turkish fashion. The principal had been educated at the 
Metacharistan convent near Venice, and spoke French, 
Italian, Greek, and Turkish with apparently equal ease. 

Among the assistants were two Turks, who superintended 
instruction in their own language and in Arabic. One of 
these was a venerable old man, with a silvery head, and 
whose most apostolical countenance interested us exceed- 
ingly, lie held a long conversation in Arabic with Mr. 
King, and testified his surprise and pleasure in repeated 
exclamations, that a man from the New World should be 



■KETCHES OF TURKEY. 409 

I 

acquainted with a language which the Turks regard as at 
once sacred and classical. As the substance of the con- 
versation was translated to us, we were struck with his 
frequent solemn allusions to the Omnipresence of the Deity, 
to his unity and goodness. Upon learning that Mr. King 
was a Hadji, that is to say, had made the pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem, which is considered a holy place by the Turks^ 
as well as Mecca and Medina, his respect evidently iii- 
creased. He was asked whether he had ever read the 
gospels? ''Yes, frequently ; but I am a Mussulman by the 
will of God,** was his solemn and concise reply. Some 
one having made an allusion to his age, he stated " that 
he was born and had been brought up in Smyrna ; here,** 
continued he, stroking his head, '' has my beard whitened, 
and here I am daily waiting for a visit from the angel of 
death, Azrael. For,** added he, blowing upon the palm of 
his hand, which was held horizontally before him, '' what are 
we ail but the slightest dust before the great and good God 
of heaven and earth." We were much affected by tlie 
earnest simplicity of the venerable old man, and could not 
suppress the reflection that such fervid piety must find 
favour in the eyes of Omnipotence at the final day. 

It is through the Armenians, who are cssenlially oriental 
in their habits, tastes, and feelings, that the missionaries 
hope to make an impression upon the Turks. Judging 
from my acquaintance with them in Constantinople, I 
should think them not exactly the best instruments for 
effecting this change. They are a people fond of the pomp 
of church worship, and fonder still of subtle disquisitions 
upon tlie most mystical points of divinity. Such of them as 
have embraced Catholicism, or something near it, exhibited 
a narrow, bigoted spirit, far exceeding that of their in- 
structers; and they evidently paid more attention to the 
externals of religion, such as fasts and outward observances, 
than to those important practical parts which should shine 
out in their lives. My opinion is, as I have elsewhere re- 



500 SKETCHES OF TVRXET. 

marked, that the impression must be made directly upon 
the Turks themselves, and as the simple unity of the Deity 
is the basis of llieir religion, the labours of that particular 
sect in our own country, which is distinguished by the emi- 
nent piety and learning of its members, would finfl here a 
congenial field. 

Another pleasing sight was a school established by Mrs. 
Brewer, and under her superintendence, for the education 
of Greek girls. Mrs. B. has another school under her own 
roof, to which she devotes her more immediate care. The 
pupils pay for their instruction, and the money thus derived 
is expended upon the large school above mentioned. In 
addition to this, Mr. Brewer directs an excellent school, 
composed of the sons and daughters of Frank merchants: 
The instruction is in En^Hlsh, and it was curious to see the 
children of even English parents speaking their own lan- 
guage with a foreign accent. As I entered the school, one 
of the bovs was recitin:^ the well-known effusion of Marco 
Bozzaris ; and various associations of a personal nature 
were produced on hearing this spirited lay delivered on 
the spot where the Greek formerly displayed his ancient 
heroism, and where now he was called upon in foreign 
accents to 



Strikp for his altars ami hi« firej\ 
God and \\\s native land. 



Mr. Brewer also conducts a paper in modern Greek, 
entitled o ^<>^« t*;* uan, or the Friend of Youth. It is filled 
with various moral and instructive essays, and has been 
the instrument ot' etlecting much good. I regretted to learn 
that it would soon pass into other hands, for the owner of 
the press entertains the erroneous idea that monev is 
made by it, and proposes to conduct it himself. The good 
already effected will not, however, be lost; a spirit of 
inquiry has been excited, and who can venture to say 



SKETCHES OF TURKEY. Ml 

Vfhere it will end ? Under the auspices of Mr. Brewer,* 
it was ever foremost in pointing out errors in conduct, and 
in stirring up its readers to every benevolent or public- 
spirited undertaking ; and much of this spirit we may hope 
will descend to his successor. 

Among the public institutions which deserve to be 
pointed out for their novelty in Asia, is a public library and 
reading-room, established by several English and American 
gentlemen. It is as yet upon a small scale, but it may be 
the germ of a noble institution. Gratuitous access is 
afforded to any stranger who is introduced by a member. 

The Cassino is an institution of a different nature. It 
contains within its walls a large ball-room, a billiard-room, 
and an apartment neatly fitted up as a reading-room, 
although it contained only a few old files of Galignani, and 
the Paris Journal de Commerce. Any respectable stranger 
may be introduced by a member, and is presented with a 
cup of coffee, but all other refreshments must be paid for. 
It is a well-regulated institution, and requires only a library 
to be attached to it to render it a greater ornament to the 
city, and an honour to those public-spirited individuals who 
first projected it. Upon making this suggestion to one of 
the members, I was informed that the experiment had been 
made, and failed for the following reason. Such is the 
dread entertained in this country of the plague, and so fre- 
quent is its recurrence, that no one could be found hardy 
enough even to touch a book belonging to a public library, 
and if by any chance a member should have the plague 

* The effbrU of the phyiiciani at Smyrna during the fearful aeason of 
cholera were nobly seconded by many of the foreign miiiionariea. Among 
these I heard the labours of Mr. Brewer everywhere spoken of in terms of 
admiration. Furnished with the requisite remedies, he scoured every lane 
and alley, proclaiming his benevolent intentions, and distributing even food 
to the needy. Let history, when it repeats the story of the good Bishop of 
Marseilles, — who, afler all, was merely a soldier at his post, — also recoid 
the benevolence and the proud contempt of danger and of death evinced by 
an American stranger within the pestilential walli of Smyrna. 



502 8KXTCHX8 OP TVmKST. 

after having used one of the books, the whole library would 
be compelled to undergo the destructive process of purifi- 
cation. A library thus neglected, or thus purified, would 
of course soon perish. 

I have already alluded to the kingly authority usurped by 
the foreign consuls in this place, and I was desirous of 
learning what was the distinctive mark of the first class 
of their subjects. There is so much genuine good-feeling 
existing among all the European merchants here, and 
they are all so intimately connected by blood and marriage, 
that I thought such distinctions impossible;